Skip to main content

Full text of "Production and thrift. Agricultural war book"

See other formats


AGRICULTURAL DEPT 



Mai 







PRODUCTION 

AND 

THRIFT 



Agricultural War Book 



.•'•.•• 



• » ^ » :» 






Published by direction of 

Hon. Martin Burrell, Minister of Agriculture, 

Ottawa, Canada, March, 1916 






TO THE PRESS 

The material in this Hand Book has been prepared and collected 
for the use of instructors and for the press of Canada. Papers having 
rural circulation are urged to co-operate with the Departments of 
Agriculture by using this material freely and frequently. Let every 
one help "more than usual." 

The uncredited notes and extracts have been taken from the agri- 
cultural and daily newspapers of Canada and other reliable sources. 

Main Lib. AGRIC. DEPT. 



TO THE FARMERS OF CANADA 

TO the call for men, and more men, Canada has nobly responded, and 
every day sees fresh battalions on their willing way to the Empire's 
battle line. To the unceasing and unselfish work of the women of 
Canada we all pay a heartfelt tribute, and the patriotic activities of 
our people in the cities and towns have made life a finer thing than it 
was before. But those concerned with the production of that which 
is the life-blood of armies in the field have been no whit behind. The 
farmers of Canada realizing as perhaps never before the important 
part that the production of food stuffs plays in such a gigantic struggle, 
looked upon their calling and responsibilities with deeper respect and 
broader view, and made strong efforts to give their assistance by in- 
creasing production along all possible lines. To what extent, small or 
great, the appeal made last year was responsible for this, I cannot tell, 
but in any case I gladly here express my own and the Government's 
deep appreciation of the fine response made. The results have sur- 
passed expectations. Canada from her abundance can help supply 
the Empire's needs, and this must be a comforting thought for those 
upon whom the heavy burden of directing the Empire's affairs has been 
laid. Gain or no gain the course before the farmers of Canada is as 
clear as it was last year — they must produce abundantly in order to 
meet, the demands that may be made, and I believe this to be especially 
true in regard to live stock, the world's supply of which must be par- 
ticularly affected in this vast struggle. Stress and strain may yet be 
in store for us all before this tragic conflict is over, but not one of us 
doubts the issue, and Canadians will do their duty in the highest sense 
of that great word. 

MARTIN BURRELL, 

Minister of Agriculture. 



Qooni K 



THANKSGIVING IN ENGLAND FOR CANADIAN CROPS 

On Thursday last, writes a London correspondent, under date of Oct. 5, a church 
service such as has never before been held in London was celebrated when the Lord 
Mayor of London and the sheriffs paid a state visit to the old London church of 
St. Andrew Undershaft to attend the annual harvest thanksgiving service of the Baltic 
Exchange and the National Food Stuffs association. The service was noteworthy in 
being one of thanksgiving for the bountiful Canadian harvest. The Bishop of Willesden, 
whom you know better under the name of Bishop Perrin, former Bishop of British 
Columbia, gave the address in this, his parish church in the heart of old London, and 
to the assembled wheat kings of Britain, told a simple but eloquent record of the work 
of the Canadian wheat growers on the prairies. He gave a word picture of the great 
grain-raising areas of western Canada, told of the determination of Canadian farmers, 
when the question of food supplies for the motherland became acute, to provide all 
that was required, and their redemption of that promise in the production of a record 
crop. Also he spoke of the prodigal abundance of gifts of all kinds from Canada to 
Great Britain. 

Many Canadians were present, and after the service they were the guests of 
Sir Charles Johnston, the lord mayor, who has extensive interests in western Canada. 
The collection, by the way, was devoted to the work of the churches in Canada as a 
thank-offering — another noteworthy feature. 

The church of St. Andrew Undershaft is neglected by the average visitor to 
London, as are many of the old city churches, yet it has many points of interest, apart 
from having a Canadian bishop as its incumbent. Its name means "under the May- 
pole," as the Maypole which used to be erected there was higher than the church. 
This Maypole was taken down, as a result of one of the earliest riots against German 
encroachment on British traders. One May Day in the sixteenth century the appren- 
tices of London assembled there to celebrate the national fete and combined to attack 
the Germans, with result that many were wounded and some killed. Judgment took 
form of the hanging of two London apprentices and the dismantling of the Maypole. 
The church contains the tomb of Stow, the historian, who was the only beggar to hold 
the royal license to beg, which entitled him to "seek alms of all my loving subjects 
of London and Westminster." 



THE WAR AND FINANCE 



11 The Economic aspects of the War are those on which the outcome 
largely hinges." 



FROM THE BUDGET 

SIR THOMAS WHITE, Minister of Finance. 

Canada's Trade — We have been blessed with a most bountiful harvest, the 
greatest by far in the history of the Dominion, and this, coupled with the demand 
for war material, supplies and munitions, has given such stimulation and impetus to 
trade and industry that, notwithstanding the war, we are experiencing a high degree 
of prosperity. 

Probably the outstanding feature of our national economy during the year has 
been the extraordinary change that has taken place in our international trade balance. 
For the fiscal year 1912-13, it was adverse to the extent of over $300,000,000; in 1913-14 
of $180,000,000; and in 1914-15 of $36,000,000. For the present fiscal year it seems 
certain that we shall have a favourable trade balance in the neighbourhood of $200,- 
000,000. That so great a change should have been effected in one year is a striking 
tribute to the marvellous productivity of the Dominion, and to the capability, industry, 
and thrift of our people. Our total trade for the year will aggregate approximately 
$1,200,000,000, an increase of nearly $200,000,000 in exports, and a slight reduction in 
imports. This is the largest aggregate trade in the history of the Dominion. 



Production — From this viewpoint it is our true policy to augment our financial 
strength by multiplying our productive exertions, and by exercising a rigid economy 
that will reduce to the minimum all expenditures upon luxuries and non-essentials. 
Only in this way shall we be able to make good the loss caused by the withdrawal of so 
many of our workers from industrial activities, repair the wastage of the war, and find 
the funds for its continuance. It cannot be too frequently or too earnestly impressed 
upon our people that the heaviest burdens of the conflict still lie before us, and that 
industry and thrift are, for those who remain at home, supreme patriotic duties. 
Upon their faithful fulfilment our success and consequently our national safety may 
ultimately depend. Apart altogether from these higher grounds, it should be pointed 
out that, in-so-far as our present prosperity is based upon abnormal prices for our 
produce and upon the production of war material, it is precarious and transient, and 
dependent upon the continuance of the war and its conditions. On ordinary business 
grounds alone, the prudent husbanding of resources, and the wise conservation of 
profits, are dictated by the plainest considerations of practical wisdom and good sense. 

5 



Cost of the War — Let us assume that our indebtedness on account of this war 
will reach $500,000,000. At 5 per cent, the annual interest will amount to $25,000,000. 
This sum, with a substantial amount added yearly for a sinking fund could, in my 
opinion, be met, provided strict economy be practised by governments, from the future 
revenues of the Dominion. In national finance, if debts can be funded, the practical 
question is that of payment of annual interest. But while this is so, the fact must not 
be overlooked that debt is debt, a financial obligation and burden upon the body politic, 
whether owed to investors at home or abroad. In making these observations it is my 
earnest desire that neither the House nor the country should gather the impression that 
we underrate the magnitude of the liabilities we are assuming or the gravity of the 
financial considerations involved in our participation in this great struggle. We 
believe, however, that the people of Canada desire the Government to put forward the 
maximum of effort in the cause, and that they will, both for the present and the future, 
be prepared cheerfully to bear whatever burdens may in consequence be placed upon 
them. 

In this connection I think it opportune to state, on behalf of the Government, 
and as enunciating its settled policy, that, in providing our war expenditure, resort 
will not be had to taxation upon the farms, personal effects or incomes of those engaged 
in our great basic industry of agriculture. 



Agricultural Credit — The future of Canada rests with the development of its 
great resources, of which the greatest and most fundamental is agriculture. This 
development is in turn bound up with the question of increase in population of the pro- 
ductive sort and the facilities afforded it for the application of its intelligence and 
industry. It is probable that in the straitened financial conditions that may prevail 
for some years forward the question of capital for the development of agriculture may 
be of paramount importance, and it is our intention to inquire carefully during the 
coming recess into this most important subject, with a view, if desirable in the public 
interest, to supplementing by federal aid existing facilities in this connection. Particu- 
larly will the question of establishment of a system whereby loans at reasonable rates 
repayable on the amortization principle engage the attention of the Government. 



Victory — The conflict has developed and extended upon a scale and to an extent 
far beyond our expectations or imaginings at its inception. Looking backward over its 
tragic course and reflecting upon its varied fortunes, there has grown in the hearts and 
minds of all an ever-deepening sense of its increasing gravity and menace to the Empire's 
safety. But the Empire's courage and the Empire's strength have steadily grown with 
the growing peril. Never has our national spirit been more high, never our resolve 
more unshaken, never have we been more supremely confident of ultimate victory than 
we are to-day. We have taken the measure of our foe, we have estimated the resources 
of our manhood, and the other elements of Imperial power, and we steadfastly abide 
the issue in calm consciousness of inherent strength and the eternal justice of our cause. 
We fight for human progress and for human rights, and we can and shall endure unto 
the end. 



THE NATIONAL INCOME AND EXPENDITURE OF THE 
UNITED KINGDOM 

"The Round Table," December, 1915. 

Neither in peace nor in war does a nation live on money. Its gold and silver coins 
have, it is true, an intrinsic value of their own, but neither they nor its banknotes, nor 
its currency notes, nor its bank deposits are its real wealth. Its real wealth is something 
quite different. It consists of all those existing things which the efforts and sacrifices of 
past generations, and of this generation too, have produced, and are from day to day 
producing. It is from this mass of wealth, which either has been produced in the past 
or is day by day being produced — i.e., from its capital and income — that a nation's 
needs, whether in peace or war, can alone be met. There is only one other source, and 
that a temporary and unstable one — namely, borrowing from other nations, or in other 
words the sale by foreign nations of their goods for the time being on credit. No inflation 
of credit, no increase of currency, no financial manipulation will of itself produce a 
single additional grain of wheat or a single additional cartridge. 

It is interesting to compare the figures usually given by statisticians for the value 
of our capital and income as compared with Germany's, and for the respective expendi- 
ture of the two nations, a comparison that gives some remarkable results. Statistical 
figures of this nature can only be very approximately true, and other difficulties arise, 
in comparing results as between nations, whose standards of life and ways of living are 
very different. Nevertheless they form an adequate ground for broad comparisons. 
Dr. Helfferich, the present German Finance Minister, placed Germany's capital wealth 
in 1913 at something under £16,000,000,000. He estimated the United Kingdom's 
capital wealth at only £12,000,000,000. But British statisticians make a considerably 
higher valuation, and usually give for the United Kingdom the same figure as he gives 
for Germany — namely, £16,000,000,000. Since, then, the populations are respectively 
68,000,000 and 47,000,000 our capital wealth per head is considerably greater, a result 
due no doubt in the main to our much greater holdings of foreign and colonial securities, 
which are usually said to equal about £4,000,000,000, though it is probable that they 
have of recent years largely decreased in value. The comparative figures for income 
yield still more striking results. For Germany we will take Dr. Helfferich's figures; 
for the United Kingdom the figures of the Census of Production of 1907, though since 
that date our wealth must undoubtedly have increased. 

■ ' , . _, _, « England Germany 

Goods and services produced and 

received, about £2,150,000,000 £1,960,000,000 

Goods and services consumed 1,800,000,000 1,560,000,000 

Surplus wealth 350,000,000 400,000,000 

It is vital to grasp how all-important is a nation's annual production of wealth. 
Whether in peace or war what it lives on is what it produces from day to day. The 
figures quoted above show that the wealth — i.e., the materials, goods and services — 
produced each year in this country are not much less than one-sixth of the total capital 
wealth of the country, resulting from the efforts of all past generations. It is true that 
the great bulk of this annual production is immediately consumed, only something 
under one-fifth being added to the capital stock. Yet nothing could show more clearly 
that a nation's true wealth lies in the harmonious employment of the energy, skill, 
productive capacity, and thrift of its citizens. A nation's production of wealth is not 
something fixed. It is capable of being indefinitely expanded by the application of 
increased capital — i.e., by the savings of the nation transformed into additional or 
improved plant, into labour-saving devices, into increased motive horsepower per man, 
and, on the other hand, by the greater efficiency of labour, superior management, and 
the greater co-ordination of the efforts of labour and capital. But, if, owing to extrava- 
gance and failure to save the necessary capital, owing to inefficiency of labour, restriction 

7 



of output, or bad organisation, owing to continued friction between capital and labour, 
a nation's income falls far below what it might be, then all classes will suffer and the 
nation as a whole fall behind its competitors. 

On the side of consumption the growing wealth of a nation and its bad distribution 
tends to great waste. The growth of luxury diverts the nation's productive powers into 
supplying unproductive articles. All classes become wasteful in food, drink, clothing, 
and household economy generally. What this means may be gathered from Sir Robert 
Giffen's estimate, made some years ago, that 34 per cent, of the national expenditure 
is on food and drink, 13 per cent, on dress, and 16 per cent, in "house" expenditure, 
including rent, furniture, light, etc. The rich become wasteful in all their pleasures, 
motoring, dress, servants, etc. They demand that labour shall be uselessly employed 
in providing for all their unnecessary wants, and the less rich follow suit as best they 
can. Take one or two instances of wasteful consumption. Our drink bill in 1913 was 
over £166,000,000. All that money could have been productively employed. As it 
was, it went to employ labour, capital, and ability on the growth of barley and hops, 
the working of breweries and distilleries, and on the management of countless public- 
houses. In the end the product of all this great labour and effort had gone down the 
throats of the people, generally to their great detriment, and nothing remained. Had 
it been diverted for the betterment of our productive industries — suppose, for instance, 
that it had been employed in providing better motive power for our industries or in 
rebuilding our canals or in better clothing, housing, or education of the poorer classes — 
our wealth would have been much greater. Again.when a rich man employs much labour 
and capital in his unproductive pleasures, in keeping, for instance, too large a number 
of men-servants or gardeners for pleasure gardens, or when his wife employs many 
dressmakers, they are diverting the nation's labour and capital from productive to 
unproductive wealth. Nor is it only the rich who err, though in their case the error is 
the more glaring and the less pardonable. The poorer classes in this country are 
perhaps less thrifty than their fellows in any great civilized country except the United 
States. Unfortunately there are too many millions for whom saving is practically 
an impossibility. But, even where it is possible, it is a comparatively rare virtue, as 
the profits of public-houses, cinemas, theatres, and racecourse "bookies" show. Many 
social troubles would be remedied if both rich and poor learnt more of the true art of 
economical living. 

THE CAPITAL AND INCOME OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE 

The discussion hitherto has been confined to the financial and economic position 
of the United Kingdom. But it may be asked : — What about the resources of the British 
Empire as a whole? It is the British Empire, not the United Kingdom only, which is 
at war. There is no part of the British Empire that is not vitally concerned in the 
struggle. Are not the whole resources of the Empire available? And are they not 
much greater than the resources of the United Kingdom only? 
In 1903 Sir Robert Giffen made the following estimate: — 

Capital Income 

Canada £1,350,000,000 £270,000,000 

Australasia 1,150,000,000 210,000,000 

India 3,000,000,000 600,000,000 

South Africa 600,000,000 100,000,000 

Remainder of Empire 1,200,000,000 200,000,000 

Total £7,300,000,000 £1,380,000,000 

Here indeed is a great addition to the wealth of the United Kingdom alone, and 
since 1903 the wealth of the rest of the British Empire has been largely increased. Sir 
Robert Giffen then estimated the income per head of Canada and Australasia at £48, 

8 



as against £42 for the United Kingdom. Since then the latter figure has increased to 
£46 and it is hardly open to doubt that the figure for Canada and Australasia has 
increased in proportion. Let us take it however at £50 per head. If the populations 
of Canada and Australasia are taken at 8,000,000 and 6,000,000 respectively, their 
annual incomes would then be £400,000,000 and £300,000,000 respectively. If Giffen 
is right in assuming that for a new country the income could be estimated at about 
one-fifth of the capital, then the capital of Australasia and Canada would be £2,000,- 
000,000 and £1,500,000,000 respectively. 

In truth, the great wealth of the British Dominions over the seas, while potentially 
of enormous value, is of use in the present war only insofar as it is employed on its 
objects. And it can be so employed only to the extent that the different parts of the 
Empire either meet out of their own resources their own cost of the war, or lend money 
out of those resources to the British Government, or in other words sell them their 
exports on credit, just as the United States by lending £100,000,000 is selling to France 
and England its goods to that extent on credit. 

If the conclusions of this article are right, then the great difficulty of England will 
be to find the means to pay for her purchases of food, raw materials, and munitions from 
oversea. What greater help could the Dominions give than to advance her for the time 
being the money wherewith to buy the food and other materials which she can get from 
them? 

Owing to the great economies in expenditure which she has made, and to 
her fine harvest, it is probable that Canada, instead of the usual heavy balance 
of trade against her, will, if her people continue to be economical, have a favourable 
balance of even up to $200,000,000. Of this $125,000,000 is required for interest 
on her external debt. But it is quite possible that she could raise by loan in New York 
an amount at least equal to the latter sum, in which case she would have her whole 
surplus available to lend to Great Britain. She will in so doing benefit herself as well. 
She will be merely foregoing the immediate enjoyment of her profits and building up 
for herself a reserve abroad which will be very useful to her after the war. It would, 
of course, serve the same purpose if she were to use her surplus to pay off any indebted- 
ness to England shortly falling due. The more the Dominions were able to lend, the 
greater naturally would be England's purchases from them of food, munitions, and raw 
materials — in preference to neutrals. They would thus reap the immediate benefit 
of their loans. 

It is wise therefore not to shut our eyes to the possibilities of the future. Germany 
has been forced to live on herself. Whether she can continue to do so indefinitely 
remains to be seen. We on the other hand have based our whole war policy on our 
ability to maintain our supplies from abroad. Fortunately there is no reason to assume 
that we shall not always maintain our power to buy a great deal abroad. Our ability 
to repay in the long run is undoubted, and it is therefore very greatly to the interest of 
the countries chiefly concerned to sell us their goods even on credit. If, however, 
these supplies were to be largely cut off, we should have to alter our policy, and try to 
make ourselves self-sufficient, or nearly so. That the Empire could do so if every part 
were ready to make the sacrifices required there is little doubt. But it would involve, 
on the part of the people of Great Britain particularly, efforts and sacrifices far greater 
even than any hitherto made. 

It is therefore a matter of the first importance that we should preserve our credit 
and our buying power. To that end we must devote our whole energies to increased 
production and simultaneously to the strictest economy in consumption. And not 
only we in Great Britain, but the citizens of the Dominions too, so that they may, by 
giving their assistance not only in men, but in money, lend their decisive aid to help 
their brothers and ours in the trenches, and to carry the Empire victoriously through 
this great crisis. 

9 



THE NATION'S NEED 



The following manifesto drawn up and signed by a number of bankers 
and others in close touch with financial conditions in Great Britain has 
been given wide publicity throughout that country. The close touch that 
exists between Canada and Great Britain, particularly in financial matters, 
renders it almost equally applicable to Canada. 

At this time of great national danger it is imperative that every citizen should realize 
the vastness of the work that Great Britain has to perform and should so act that the 
full strength of the nation may be put forth. Not only must everyone pull, but, in 
order that the work may be well within the nation's strength, all must pull together. 

The Allied fleets have driven the enemy's ships from the seas, and have established 
a blockade of the enemy's coasts. The enemy are thus prevented from carrying on 
their foreign commerce except to a very small extent, their income is seriously curtailed 
and their financial strength diminished. Moreover, the fleet has enabled both the 
British people and their Allies to draw abundant supplies of food, of material and of 
munitions from all parts of the world, to conduct their foreign commerce much as 
usual, and to maintain their income at a high level. The closure of the Dardanelles 
and of the Baltic is, indeed, the only remaining impediment to the overseas commerce of 
the Allies. 

On land the Allies have added steadily to their military strength from week to 
week ever since war began, not only actually but relatively to the enemy. Germany's 
hopes of victory depended upon a short and swift war. These hopes have been com- 
pletely dispelled. 

In a long war success depends mainly upon the respective financial resources of 
the combatants, and the consequent power of one of them to maintain, or to add to, 
its fighting strength when the other's is declining, or is not capable of expansion. It is 
not in doubt that the financial resources of the Allies, when fully mobilized and wisely 
controlled, will be vastly greater than the enemy's. 

Therefore, the enemy's efforts have been directed to three essential matters: — 

(1) To seize victory before the forces of the Allies could be mobilized in over- 
whelming strength. 

(2) To reduce the economic and financial strength of the Allies. 

(3) To prevent the Allies from making or purchasing sufficient equipment and 
ammunition for their ever expanding forces. 

The endeavours of the enemy to accomplish these objects have been completely 
frustrated by the co-ordination of the armies, of the financial resources, of the equip- 
ment and of the munitions of the Allied nations. The success of the Allies in defeating 
the enemy's efforts to cripple them in men, munitions and money before they could 
assemble their full strength has now brought the war nearer to its final stage. The 
Allies have assembled new armies of overwhelming strength in France, in Russia, in 
Italy, and in Great Britain, and everything needed to equip them and to supply them 
with munitions has been secured, or is in process of manufacture. Indeed, only one 
thing is now needed to command victory. The only thing remaining to be done is to 
provide all the money needed to support these great armies of new men, and to pay for 
the vast quantities of arms and munitions now being manufactured in all parts of the 
world. 

The task of finding the greater part of the immense sums of money needed by the 
Allies is the special duty of the British people, for they in particular possess the necessary 

10 



financial resources. Their manufacturing power has not been reduced by invasion, 
their cities have not been destroyed, their ports have not been shut off from the rest of 
the world, and their income has not been diminished. Indeed, the income of the 
British people has been maintained at a very high level. Their exports, though not 
as great as before the War, are greater than they were as recently as 1909, their income 
from interest on capital invested abroad has been reduced but little, the earnings of 
their ships are greater than ever, and their factories are working full time. Moreover, 
the effect upon the production of the nation of the mobilization of a great army has 
been largely neutralized by the more vigorous and effective work of the civilian popu- 
lation in general and of the women in particular. Lastly, the average individual 
income is much in excess of any total hitherto reached. Thus the power of Great 
Britain to meet her own expenditures and the sums needed by her Allies is very great. 
What is it, then, that the country has to do? The Chancellor of the Exchequer 
has informed the nation that the Government expenditure in the fiscal year will be: — 

Navy £190,000,000 

Loans to the Allies and Colonies 423,000,000 

Army 715,000,000 

Miscellaneous 92,000,000 

Interest on Debt 67,000,000 

Civil Services, Post Office, Local Taxation, etc 103,000,000 

Total £1,590,000,000 

And that in 1916-17 the expenditure will reach £5,000,000 per day, or 
£1,825,000,000 per annum. 

Therefore, the work that the British people are called upon to perform is to provide 
out of all their financial resources a sum of nearly £1,600,000,000 in the current fiscal 
year, and over £1,800,000,000 in the next fiscal year. In the current calendar year 
(1915) the British people will spend about £1,300,000,000 upon war and government, 
and next year (1916) will need to spend about £1,800,000,000 in place of a sum of 
about £200,000,000 a year before the war. To raise this vast sum is a stupendous 
task, and one that will try the mettle of the nation as it has not been tried for a hundred 
years. Not only has the nation to find this great sum of £1.800,000,000 in 1916. 
but it has to find it with several millions of its most active sons in the fighting line. 

No one can realize the vastness of the task before the nation without becoming 
keenly conscious that it demands the strenuous co-operation of every man and woman, 
youth and maiden in the country; that the nation's energies must be completely con- 
centrated upon the production of really essential things; and that the production of 
all non-essentials must be wholly stopped. Moreover, not only must the nation avoid 
the consumption of all non-essentials, but must even restrict the consumption of 
essentials to the limits of efficiency. Furthermore, individuals possessing securities 
marketable abroad must sell them in order to pay for goods and munitions purchased 
abroad for which no other means of payment can be provided. Lastly, the credit 
of the nation and of individuals must be employed in order to pay for goods and muni- 
tions purchased abroad for which payment cannot be made in goods, services, or 
securities. Only by all classes, employers and employed alike, adding to, and most 
carefully husbanding, income, by selling foreign securities and by creating foreign 
credits, will it be possible to provide the vast sum needed by the nation and the nation's 
Allies. 

The work of mobilizing the whole of the nation's financial resources must now be 
undertaken with courage and with vigor. 

With everyone anxious "to do his bit," the task of financing the War can and 
will be accomplished and ultimate victory assured. 

11 



COST OF THE WAR 

A recent estimate states that the warring nations are spending $70,000,000 a day. 
That Germany's military expenditures are $18,000,000 daily. 
That Great Britain is now spending monthly $600,000,000, France $501,000,000, 
and Russia $400,000,000. 

That the first two years of hostilities will have cost Great Britain nearly 
$12,000,000,000. 
The London Economist gives the following estimate to March 31st: — 

Increased 
Cost of War Added Debt Interest 

Great Britain $10,125,000,000 $6,900,000,000 $345,000,000 

France 8,775,000,000 9,500,000,000 465,000,000 

Russia 7,000,000,000 7,500,000,000 375,000,000 

Italy 1,125,000,000 2,000,000,000 100,000,000 

Belgium and Serbia 225,000,000 1,200,000,000 60,000,000 

Total, Allies.. $27,250,000,000 $27,000,000,000 $1,345,000,000 

Germany 11,350,000,000 10,500,000,000 525,000,000 

Austria 5,500,000,000 5,750,000,000 330,000,000 

Turkey and Bulgaria 150,000,000 900,000,000 55,000,000 

Total, Teutons $17,000,000,000 $17,150,000,000 $910,000,000 

BELLIGERENTS' BORROWINGS 

Up to the close of 1915 the fighting nations had borrowed the colossal sum of 
thirty billion dollars. Three-fifths of this sum was floated by Great Britain and her 
Allies. The other two-fifths were from Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and 
Turkey. Of the total borrowings of belligerents and neutrals since the outbreak of 
war ($30,184,000,000 plus $353,380,000) $800,000,000 was raised in the United States. 
It is interesting to observe that German Government bonds to the extent of only 
$10,000,000 were sold in the American Republic, while the Allies' borrowings in that 
field totalled $525,000,000. 

The following table summarizes the war loans above referred to: 

Allies 

Great Britain $6,265,000,000 

France 7,931,000,000 

Russia '. 3,148,000,000 

Italy ' 415,000,000 

Japan 26,000,000 

Belgium 100,000,000 

Serbia 18,000,000 

Total $17,903,000,000 

Central Powers 

Germany $9,270,000,000 

Austria-Hungary 2,731,000,000 

Turkey 250,000,000 

Bulgaria 30,000,000 

Total $12,281,000,000 

Total belligerents $30,184,000,000 

Neutral countries 353,380,000 

12 



PRODUCE MORE-SAVE MORE 

SIR THOMAS WHITE 

It is true that war is the first business of Canada, until success crowns our cause. 
But it is nevertheless true that modern war is made by resources; by money; by de- 
veloped natural resources; by products; by foodstuffs; as well as by men and by muni- 
tions. And while war is our first business, it is the imperative duty, I repeat, of every 
man in Canada to produce all that he can, to work doubly hard while our soldiers are 
in the trenches, in order that the resources of the country may not only be conserved 
but increased for the great struggle that lies before us. 

The people of Canada can preserve their credit and keep the nation strong for 
the war by increasing production and exercising a reasonable economy. 

"Work harder, save more," is a good motto for war time. 



I do not know any other way for Canada to become a lending country than to 
save more money, produce more and save more; I do not know any way whereby an 
individual can save money and have it for investment, except by the old fashioned 
mode of living within his income and saving his profits to the extent that he can. I 
do not believe there is any magic method. If there is one put forward, prima facie, 
I disbelieve in it. The way for Canada to become a lending country is for Canada to 
produce all she can and to save what she can, and by production and saving Canada 
has been enabled to meet the vicissitudes of the past year as none of us ever expected 
she would be able to meet them, and by production and saving Canada will in time 
become a lending nation and be able to find the money for her own works and be able 
probably to do something more in the way of buying international securities. 



TRADE OF CANADA 

Twelve Months Ending January 1914, 1915 and 1916 

1914 1915 1916 
Imports of Merchandise for consump- 
tion $647,233,510 $470,698,226 $470,418,282 



Exports of Canadian Produce — 
(Merchandise) 

Mine $59,100,714 $53,084,863 $62,960,628 

Fisheries 20,988,841 18,661,560 22,407,687 

Forest 42,707,781 41,523,344 51,211,820 

Animal produce 52,361,474 70,727,132 99,056,115 

Agricultural produce 211,322,370 126,262,825 237,964,468 

Manufactures 55,473,978 71,870,071 190,997,981 

Miscellaneous 111,122 542,920 4,666,732 



$442,066,280 $382,672,715 $669,265,431 



Note: — Not including imports and exports of coin and bullion, nor exports of 
foreign produce. 

13 



CANADA'S FOREIGN INDEBTEDNESS 

Outstanding Canadian Loans in London for the year ended June 30, 

1914 and 1915 

Description 1914 1915 

Government £65,956,621 £72,284,788 

Treasury Bills 3,000,000 

68,956,621 72,284,788 . 

Provincial 24,202,327 24,202,327 

Treasury Bills 1,625,000 825,000 

25,827,327 25,027,327 

Municipal 50,876,310 50,809,710 

Treasury Bills 1,610,020 460,000 

52,486,330 51,269,710 

Railways 285,788,492 291,793,670 

Treasury Bills 1,260,959 850,000 

287,049,451 292,643,670 

Industrials 87,098,919 87,096,519 

Sundries not publicly recorded (esti- 
mated) 25,000,000 25,000,000 

£546,418,648 £553,322,014 

The only material change in the above figures since 30th of June last has been the 
reduction of Treasury Bills afloat in London, from £2,135,000 to £325,000. 

Including the Dominion Government loan of $45,000,000 floated in New York in 
August last.Canada's indebtedness to the United States is probably in the neighbourhood 
of $750,000,000. 

— Sir F. Williams-Taylor, General Manager Bank of Montreal. 



" The problem of finance underlies all the other problems. The nation's need 
in the matter of men and munitions has been, or is in course of being, supplied, but 
nearly all the money has still to be found with which to maintain the forces and to 
supply them with arms and equipment in 1916. This is the work that must now be 
carried on from hour to hour by everyone in the nation with unflagging persistency 
until victory is secured." — The Statist. 



14 



PRODUCTION IN 1915 



"Never before has the true worth oj our agricultural production been so 
impressed upon the mind as a fundamental factor in the industrial and 
financial situation as at the present moment" 



THE FARMERS' RESPONSE TO THE EMPIRE'S CALL 

C. C. JAMES 

A year ago the Minister of Agriculture determined that the situation should be 
fully set before the farmers of Canada. With the hearty assistance of the press of 
Canada this was done. The results were most gratifying. Some seem to think, 
however, that the wheat crop is the main or only farm production of Canada, and 
have credited it in 1915 solely to favourable weather. True it is that Providence 
favoured the grain crops over the larger portion of the West; but if the farmers had 
not paid more than usual attention to good cultivation and good seed, and had not 
worked early and late with a larger acreage and in the harvesting of the crops, Canada 
would to-day be many, many millions of dollars poorer than she is. 

The wheat crop of the prairies was worth about $275,000,000; a big crop, the 
biggest ever known in Canada, but after all, only a little if any over one-quarter of 
the entire farm production of the Dominion. 

In addition to the Prairie Provinces, there are six other provinces in Canada, 
and there are many other products besides wheat. Favourable weather did not prevail 
ail along the line, and yet, every province responded. What of the beef and the bacon, 
the cheese and the eggs, the fruit and the vegetables ? 

What about dairying? In Ontario the output was twenty per cent, over 1914, 
and the market prices were increased ten to twenty percent. Alberta and Saskatchewan 
also made big increases in dairy production; so did other provinces. In 1910, according 
to the Dominion Dairy Commissioner, the milk products of Canada were worth approxi- 
mately $110,000,000. It is a safe estimate to put the dairy output of Canada for 
1915 at $150,000,000. While discussing wheat we should not forget the dairy cow. 
She has done more for Canada during the past ten years than have our wheat fields, 
and in view of what is now happening the world over, there is a possibility that the 
dairy products of Canada in 1916 may exceed wheat in value. The wheat fields 
reached their maximum yield per acre in 1915, the dairy cow is only getting into her 
stride. She is now producing 4,000 lbs. or less a year; 10,000 lbs. a year is what the 
dairymen are working for. 

Lumping all the farm products together, and deducting the food fed to stock, 
we estimate that, in 1915, the farms, orchards and gardens of Canada gave a net pro- 
duct of over a billion dollars. 

Perhaps the people of Canada have not yet fully realized what the farmers did 
accomplish last year through hard work, good management, determination, and 
patriotism. The farm products of all Canada in 1915 exceeded in value the farm 
products of any previous year by at least $300,000,000. It is well for our public men 
and our writers to know that the increase in the value of the farm products in 1915 
was at least three times in value our entire output of war munitions. 

15 



HOW THE PROVINCES RESPONDED 

Ontario — The reports received by the Provincial Department of Agriculture 
indicate that never before was such a genuine effort put forward by the farmers to 
adopt the best methods of cultivation and the best varieties of seed, in fact to do every- 
thing in their power to assure the maximum supply of food stuffs. Aggregrate yields 
show considerable increases in almost every crop. There is no doubt that the patriotic 
appeal was one of the most influential factors in this regard. 



First let us look for a moment at what the records for Ontario show. Wheat is as 
you all know one of the fundamental staples and yet it is quite true that this Province 
during the many years past has been gradually decreasing its wheat acreage. The 
reasons for this are not hard to find and need not be dwelt upon here. The point I 
wish to make is that in the year 1915 under the stress of the present war, Ontario 
increased its wheat area by 40 per cent, and produced a crop 75 per cent, greater in 
amount than that of the previous year. Furthermore only once in the last thirty years 
has such a crop of wheat been produced on Ontario farms as that which was produced 
in 1915. Nor was this accomplished by sacrificing other crops. Oats gave an increased 
yield of 25 per cent., barley of 15 per cent., hay of 15 per cent., and so I might continue 
through the list of the different branches of our varied agriculture in like manner. 
Dairying showed an increase of 25 per cent, and enjoyed by all odds the record year of 
its history in this Province. Without going into live stock and other important branches, 
it may suffice to say that the total value of the field crops in 1915 was $12,000,000 
greater than in 1914, when we had good crops and high prices, and $54,000,000 greater 
than during an average of 10 years. This is a splendid record for Ontario and shows 
vitality which promises to keep it the banner Province of the Dominion. 

— W. B. Roadhouse, Deputy Minister of Agriculture. 

Manitoba — Manitoba's 1915 grain crop stands as a record in the history of the 
Province. Authentic reports are in many cases astounding. Wheat yields of 30 to 
35 bushels per acre for a district are reported from every section, while yields averaging 
40 bushels per acre for whole districts are not uncommon. Individual fields on summer 
fallow, potato land, etc., have gone as high as 60 to 70 bushels. Oats in several districts 
are said to have averaged 80 to 100 bushels. 

These phenomenal yields can be attributed to no single cause, but among the reasons 
advanced these appear to be most important: First, more land was well prepared in the 
fall of 1914 than had ever been the case previously. This certainly had a beneficial 
effect on the crop. Second, a liberal rainfall in the month of June was also advantageous. 
Third: the wheat crop this year bore a wonderful bloom. Practically every cell of the 
wheat head was fertilized, and each head filled wonderfully well. 

— A. J. McMillan, B.S.A., Deputy Minister of Agriculture. 

Alberta — During the past year our farmers responded to the Empire's call for 
"More and more production" in a manner that reflects on them great credit. A splendid 
effort was made, not only to enlarge the area under crop, but to increase live stock and 
all other productions. This effort, combined with an unusually favourable year, 
resulted in producing what is perhaps the greatest grain crop ever grown anywhere. 
Fifty and sixty bushels per acre were quite common, and in not a few localities, seventy 
and even eighty bushels of wheat per acre were vouched for. The potato area was 
five thousand acres with a total yield of nine million bushels, thus meeting the deficiency 
in Eastern Canada. Other root crops showed a very large increase and on the whole 
the year's harvest was away and beyond all previous records. 

— Chas. S. Hotchkiss, Publicity Commissioner. 
16 



The farmers of Alberta made a fitting response to the call for increased production 
during the year 1915. They reaped not only the moral reward of having contributed 
to the Empire's needs, but they also secured a higher material reward than commonly 
results from their labour. 

— H. A. Craig, Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Alberta. 

British Columbia — This province readily responded to the slogan, resulting on 
the whole in an increased area in field crops. In crop yields and in the production of 
live stock an even greater proportionate increase is shown. 

— A. B. Tweddle, Assistant Statistician. 

Nova Scotia — Grain and roots fell 20 per cent, short in yield per acre, and only 
the increased acreage, the result of the "Patriotism and Production" campaign, is 
responsible for filling the grain bins and the root cellars. The year witnessed a 40 per 
cent, increase in dairy production. 

— M. Cumming, B.A., B.S.A., Secretary for Agriculture. 

New Brunswick — The campaign conducted in the interests of increased pro- 
duction was well received and had considerable effect. Prices for all farm products have 
been well maintained, and the farmers find themselves in excellent financial condition. 

Live stock men were active, and more pure-bred stock changed hands or was 
imported than in any two recent years. 

The farmers of the province have entered upon the second year of the war with 
the firm determination to do their part until the end. Hundreds of young men have 
left the farms to join the colours, and the province is facing a labour shortage, but 
ways and means will be found to meet the demand and keep production up to the 
standard. 

— J. B. Daggett, Secretary for Agriculture. 

SASKATCHEWAN'S BIG YEAR 

One would naturally expect a Canadian province to increase her production of 
grain in war time, but the Province of Saskatchewan surpassed itself in 1915. Those 
interested in Canadian matters, will perhaps recall that 1914 saw Southwest Saskatche- 
wan and Southern Alberta suffering from drought with consequent crop loss, so that the 
astonishing yields of the 1915 grain crop over the same area possess added interest. 
It was a common occurrence for oats in Saskatchewan to yield over 100 bushels to the 
acre, and wheat anywhere from 40 to 60 bushels per acre. At Rosetown for instance, 
J. G. Carruthers had a fifteen acre field of oats that gave an average yield per acre 
of 116 bushels. In the same district H. Macey grew 110 acres of wheat which yielded 
him 52 bushels per acre, or 5,720 bushels in all. Going south we find that John Neigel 
at Prussia, with 420 acres of wheat had an average yield of 47.6 bushels. At Lancer, 
Ernest Lipsit harvested 570 bushels of wheat from ten acres. At Webb, A. D. Spooner 
saved 6,776 bushels of wheat off 150 acres. At Rosthern, Seager Wheeler— but most 
people in the wheat world know what he has done, so it is hardly necessary to mention 
that this year he again won the World's Championship at Denver for best hard wheat. 

According to Provincial Government data, the average yield of wheat per acre in 
Saskatchewan was 25.2 bushels, while the south-western part of the province gave an 
average yield of 31 bushels. Dealing with the crop en bloc, we find Saskatchewan 
produced 173,723,775 bushels of wheat, most of it of high grade. Oats, too, did exceed- 
ingly well, and if we base "the value to producer on the farm" on October- November 
prices (December prices were better, but not yet compiled) for wheat and oats alone, 
the Saskatchewan farmer is two hundred million dollars to the good. Throwing the 

17 



whole of this year's crop into the scales, it represents some $281.25 for each man, woman 
and child in the province. 

Luxuriant was the only word to describe the growth of grain crops, alfalfa, timothy 
and other grasses in Western Saskatchewan last year. Foliage in the lower portion of 
the province is not profuse, but if the Garden of Eden looked as enticing as did 
Saskatchewan during the past summer, it is difficult to understand why the Garden 
was forsaken so soon. 

ALBERTA'S BIG WHEAT CROP 

Latest provincial estimates place the average wheat yield for Alberta at about 
33 bushels per acre: Acreage, 1,563,700; production, 51,355,000. Though all parts 
of the Province have contributed to the increased average and grand total, it is 
in the southern part of the province where both the yield and the acreage have been 
increased. 

The large crop is the result of natural and controlled causes combined. When 
moisture is not too plentiful, it is important that it should be available during the 
growing season. In 1914 the records of precipitation at the Experimental Farm in 
Lethbridge for the months of May, June and July show a total of only 3.7 inches. In 
1915 the total for the same period of three months was 11.31. This practically insured 
a crop as far as moisture was concerned, independent of the use of methods of culti- 
vation for moisture conservation. 

At the same time the improvement in yields must be ascribed largely to the summer- 
fallow. A succession of lean years has established the need of summer-fallowing, in 
the area under the characteristic influence of the Chinook, every other year, or at least 
once in three years. In the fall of 1915 there was a large area of summer-fallow. There 
was also such precipitation as made fall ploughing possible on practically all kinds of 
land, and the country responded actively to the call for increased production. There 
was little crop to harvest in the autumn of 1914, so that the land was clear and the farmer 
was not busy. Yields of a phenomenal kind are reported on summer-fallowed land. 
The partial failures of the two or three years previous and the rich returns for work on 
the land in 1915 will no doubt establish better tillage practice in all of the southern 
part of the province. 

Another reason for the heavy yields was the large quantity of heavy yielding vari- 
eties of wheat sown — i.e., Marquis. Considerable seed was supplied by the Federal 
Government. It was obtained from the best supplies available and was of a grade 
that was satisfactory to the Dominion Department of Agriculture. 

— J. McCaig, Editor of Publications, Edmonton. 



A Great Change 

Mr. J. T. Gordon, one of the West's foremost cattle men, and who is also president 
of the Standard Trusts Co. and a director of other financial institutions, says that 
"three years ago, the provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba were import- 
ing their horses, a great deal of their fresh meat, I should say 75 per cent, of the hog 
product, their poultry, their eggs, their cheese, butter and everything that was wanted 
in large centres for the maintenance and support of the masses. What do we find 
today? Instead of these provinces importing and sending money into a foreign country 
where we never got any benefit, as it never came back and circulated, they are exporting 
every one of the items I have mentioned, with the exception of cheese and mutton. 
Within two years, we shall be exporters of those products. You will understand now 
why it is that interest payments have been so well met, up to the present time." 

18 



CANADA'S DAIRY INDUSTRY IN 1915 

Ontario 

Quantity 
1914 1915 

lbs. lbs. 

Cheese output for province 101,900,065 115,500,000 

Creamery output 23,116,104 21,350,000 



Manitoba 

Cheese output 471,355 726,725 

Creamery output 4,761,355 5,839,665 

Saskatchewan 

Creamery output : 

Government Creameries 1,398,731 2,283,945 

Independent Creameries No returns 1,798,413 

Total 4,082,358 

Alberta 

Cheese output 70,581 372,693 

Creamery output 5,450,000 7,400,000 

Prince Edward Island 

Cheese output 2,285,759 2,381,012 

Butter output 601,607 533,965 

Statistics for Quebec, British Columbia, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia not 
available. 



FIELD CROPS OF CANADA, 1915 

The year 1915 will be memorable for the most abundant grain harvest ever reaped 
in Canada up to that time. With the prospect of high prices for wheat and other 
cereals, and responding to appeals for increased production on patriotic grounds, the 
farmers of Canada took the fullest advantage of their opportunities, with the result 
that the area sown to wheat for the harvest of 1915 was not only the largest on record 
in Canada, but exceeded the area sown in the previous year by 1,964,400 acres, or 
nearly 18 per cent. Finally, the growing season was uniformly favourable, and the 
average yields per acre of all the principal cereals in Canada were higher than in any 
previous year on record. For wheat, the average yield per acre was close upon 29 
bushels, or eight bushels more than the previous record of 21 bushels in 1913. The 
total area estimated to be sown to field crops in Canada for 1915 was 37,063,455 acres, 
as compared with 35,102,175 acres, the sown area, and 33,436,675 acres, the harvested 
area, in 1914. 

Yield of Grain Crops 

As a result of the returns of the average yield per acre, made after threshing, the 
total yields of the grain crops in bushels for the season of 1915, compared with 1914, 
were as follows: — 

19 



Yield per 

Area acre 

Acres. bush. 
Wheat— 

1914 10,293,900 15.67 

1915 12,986,400 28.98 

Oats— 

1914 ! 10,061,500 31.12 

1915 11,365,000 45.76 

Barley — 

1914 1,495,600 24.21 

1915 1,509,350 35.33 

Rye— 

1914 111,280 18.12 

1915 112,300 21.32 

Peas— 

1914 205,550 17.64 

1915. . ... 196,210 17.73 

Beans — 

1914 43,830 18.20 

1915 . ... 43,310 16.70 

Buckwheat — 

1914 354,400 24.34 

1915 I ■ 343,800 22.88 

Flax— 

1914 1,084,000 6.62 

1915 806,600 13.18 

Corn for Husking — 

1914 256,000 54.39 

1915 . 253,300 56.72 

Potatoes — 

1914 475,900 180.02 

1915 478,600 130.81 

Turnips, Mangolds, etc. — 

1914 175,000 394.30 

1915 172,700 372.21 

Hay and Clover — Tons 

1914 7,997,000 1.28 

1915 7,875,000 1.39 

Fodder Corn — 

1914 317,000 10.25 

1915 343,400 10.00 

Sugar Beets — 

1914 12,100 8.98 

1915 18,000 7.83 

Alfalfa— 

1914 90,315 2.42 

1915 92,685 2.83 

20 



Total 
bush. 


Value 


161,280,000 
376,303,600 


196,418,1 
312,569,' 


313,078,000 
520,103,000 


151,811,1 
176,894/ 


36,201,000 
53,331,300 


21,557,( 
26,704; 


2,016,800 
2,394,100 


1,679; 
1,899,1 


3,362,500 
3,478,850 


4,895,( 
5,730,": 


797,500 
723,400 


1,844,^ 
2,206,5 


8,626,000 
7,865,900 


6,213,C 
5,913,C 


7,175,200 
10,628,000 


7,368,C 
15,965,C 


13,924,000 
14,368,000 


9,808,C 
10,243,C 


85,672,000 
62,604,000 


41,598,0 
35,964,0 


69,003,000 
64,281,000 


18,934,0 
16,560,0 


Tons 
10,259,000 
10,953,000 


145,999,0 
155,807,0 


3,251,480 
3,429,870 


15,949,7 
16,999,1 


108,600 
141,000 


651,0 
775,5 


218,360 
261,955 


3,095,6i 

3,402,0i 



The quality of the grain crops in 1915, as determined by the weight in lb. per 
measured bushel, is, with the exception of one or two crops, superior to that of the 
previous year and is also superior to the average of the last five years. 

Yield of Potatoes 

In Ontario the average yield per acre was not more than 92.66 bushels, almost the 
lowest yield of potatoes on record for the province. In the other provinces the potato 
yield was also poor, excepting in Alberta and British Columbia. 

Value of Field Crops 

The values are estimated from local market prices as returned by the crop-reporting 
correspondents of the Census and Statistics Office. For all wheat, in 1915, the average 
price per bushel for the whole of Canada is 39 cents less than that of last year and 8 
cents more than that of the quinquennial average. Including the root and fodder 
crops, the total value of the field crops of Canada in 1915 amounts to $797,669,500, 
comprising grain crops $568,161,900, potatoes and sugar beets $36,739,500, and fodder 
crops $192,768,100. 

Wheat, Oats, Barley and Flax in the Northwest Provinces 

In the three northwest provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta, the 
production of wheat in 1915 is estimated at 342,948,000 bushels, as compared with 
140,958,000 bushels in 1914; of oats at 334,840,600 bushels, compared with 150,843,000 
bushels; of barley at 35,317,200 bushels, compared with 19,535,000 bushels, and flax 
at 10,559,000 bushels, compared with 7,083,000 bushels. 

The wheat production of 1915 in Manitoba was 96,425,000 bushels from 3,342,900 
acres, in Saskatchewan 195,168,000 bushels from 6,838,100 acres, and in Alberta 
51,355,000 bushels from 1,563,700 acres. 

WHEAT CROPS OF CANADA 

Area Total yield Total 

acres bushels value 

1910 , 8,863,151 132,049,000 $99,530,000 

1911 11,100,673 230,924,000 148,123,000 

1912 . . 10,996,700 224,159,000 139,090,000 

1913 11,015,000 231,717,000 156,462,000 

1914 10,293,900 161,280,000 196,418,000 

1915 12,986,000 376,303,600 312,569,400 

Yield Average price Value 

per acre to farmer per acre. 

1910 14.89 $ .75 $11.17 

1911 20.80 .64 13.31 

1912 20.38 .62 12.64 

1913 21.04 .67 14.10 

1914 15.67 1.22 19.12 

1915 28.98 .83U 24.15 



Exportable Surplus of Canadian Wheat, 1915 
Based on an estimated yield of 376,303,600 bushels, the quantity available for 
export out of the crop of 1915 is placed by the Census and Statistics Office at 
264,173,300 bushels. 

The largest quantity of wheat previously exported from Canada in any one fiscal 
year was 142,574,000 bushels in 1913-14. The quantity now estimated as available for 
export is 121,599,200 bushels in excess of this amount, and represents about 70 per 
cent, of the total estimated wheat production of Canada in 1915. Moreover, for the 
first time, the Canadian wheat surplus proves more than sufficient to supply the annual 
average wheat deficit of the United Kingdom, which, according to official calculations 
published in the Journal of the English Board of Agriculture for September last, amounts 
to 215,209,300 bushels. 

21 



FIELD CROPS OF THE UNITED STATES, 1915 

The Crop Reporting Bureau of the U.S. Department of Agriculture issued (Decem- 
ber 15, 1915) thp following estimates of the acreage production and value of the prin- 
cipal farm crops in the United States for the years 1914 and 1915, as compared with the 
annual average for the quinquennium 1909-13: — 

Farm value — 

Production December 

Crop . Acreage per per 

acre Total bush. 

000 acres bush. 000 bush, cents. 

Corn ...1914 103,435 25.8 2,672,804 64.4 

1915 108,321 28.2 3,054,535 57.5 

Average 1909-13 104,229 26.0 2,708,334 56.4 

Winter wheat 1914 36,008 19 . 684,990 98 . 6 

1915 40,453 16.2 655,045 95.0 

Average 1909-13 28,356 15.6 441,212 88.3 

Spring wheat 1914 17,533 11.8 206,027 98.6 

1915 19,445 18.3 356,460 86.5 

Average 1909-13 18,741 13.1 245,479 81.2 

All wheat 1914 53,541 16.6 891,017 98 6 

1915 59,898 16.9 1,011,505 92.0 

Average 1909-13 47,097 14.6 686,691 85.7 

Oats 1914 38,442 29.7 1,141,060 43.8 

1915 40,780 37.8 1,540,362 36.1 

Average 1909-13 37,357 30.3 1,131,175 37.5 

Barley 1914 7,565 25.8 194,953 54.3 

1915 7,395 32.0 237,009 51.7 

Average 1909-13 7,619 23.0 181,873 59.6 

Rye 1914 2,541 16.8 42,779 86.5 

1915 2,856 17.2 49,190 83.9 

Average 1909-13 2,236' 15.6 34,911 70.8 

Buckwheat 1914 792 21.3 16,881 76.4 

1915 806 19.6 15,769 78.7 

Average 1909-13 843 19.7 16,597 69.7 

Flaxseed 1914 1,645 8.4 13,749 $1 26 

1915 1,367 10.1 13,845 $1 74 

Average 1909-13 2,490 7.8 19,501 $152 

cents 

Potatoes 1914 3,711 110.5 409,921 48.7 

1915 3,761 95.5 359,103 61.6 

Average 1909-13 3,677 97 . 356,627 60 . 5 

ton 000 tons ton 

Hay 1914 49,145 1.43 70,071 $1112 

1915 50,872 1.68 85,225 $10 70 

Average 1909-13 49,756 1.33 65,987 $12 13 

Sugar Beets 1914 483 11.6 5,585 $5 45 

1915 624 10.4 6,462 $ 5 54 

Average 1909-13 502 10.6 5,342 . . 

bbls. 000 bbls. bush. 

Cranberries 1914 17.4 37.0 644 $3 93 

1915 17.8 25.8 457 $ 6 23 

bbl. 

Apples 1914 84,400 $ 1 85 

1915 76,670 $ 2 04 

The prices in the above table are those paid to farmers on December 1, 

22 



FIELD CROPS OF ENGLAND AND WALES, 1915 

Statement showing the estimated total produce and yield per acre of the principal 
field crops in England and Wales for the year 1915, as compared with 1914, and with 
the annual average of the ten years 1905-14. 















ten 


Field crops 


1914 1915 


1914 


1915 


1914 


1915 


years 
1905-14 




acres acres 


bush. 


bush. 


bush, 
per ac. 


bush, 
per ac. 


bush, 
per ac. 


Wheat 


1,807,498 2,170,170 


58,456,288 


67,925,536 


32,34 


31.30 


32.02 


Barley 


1,504,771 1,231,714 


49,391,584 


36,464,552 


32.82 


29.60 


33.18 


Oats 


1,929,617 2,088,009 


76,429,816 


83,617,024- 


39.61 


40.05 


40.22 


Beans 


284,371 257,655 


8,669,616 


7,156,792 


30.49 


27.78 


30.28 


Peas 


129,528 98,265 


2,979,096 


2,393,808 


23.00 


24.36 


26.39 


Potatoes 


461,621 463,399 


110,249,403 106,702,885 


238.93 


230.35 


230.35 


Turnips and 














Swedes. . . 


1,042,438 929,224 602,594,989 528,933,082 


577.92 


569.41 


588.22 


Mangolds. . . . 


431,366 412,509 354,760,762 350,989,542 


822.53 


850.75 


870.46 






long tons 


long tons 


long 
cwt. 


long 
cwt. 


long 
cwt. 


Seeds hay. . . . 


1,554,907 1,538,067 


2,117,137 


2,287,703 


27.23 


29.75 


28.87 


Meadow hay. 


4,785,451 4,651,609 


5,148,241 


4,299,354 


21.52 


18.49 


23.25 



Note. — The root crops are converted from long tons to bushels at the rate of 60 lb. 
per bushel for potatoes and 50 lb. per bushel for turnips, swedes and mangolds. 



"It is an imperative duty for our population to fill up, by their labour, the wide 
gaps caused by the war in the ranks of the tillers of the soil; a pressing obligation 
devolves upon holders of cultivable land to make every inch of soil produce its maximum 
to meet the enormous deficit in the world's production and to feed the Allies and 
countries starved by invasion. 

"I repeat that the patriotic farmer's first duty, at this hour in our history, is to 
unceasingly increase his production; he will thereby contribute to the solution of the 
problem due to the excessive cost of living, the growth of our national riches and, 
consequently, to the support of Canadian finances and the triumph of the cause of the 
Allies in Europe." 

— Hon. J. E. Caron, Minister of Agriculture, Quebec. 



23 



PRODUCTION IS CANADA'S DUTY 
WHILE EMPIRE IS AT WAR 



THE SUCCESS OF 1915 MUST BE REPEATED IN 1916 



Because modern war is made not only with men and with munitions, 
but also with money and resources, the policy "for Canadians — the war policy 
and the economic policy — is for all those who cannot go to the front to put 
forth their best efforts to increase the production and wealth of the country; 
because this war, in my opinion, is going to be won by superior resources, 
and the superior resources are unquestionably on the side of the Allies. Apart from 
the question of financing the huge sums which we must find to do our part in this war — 
apart from that, Canada, if she increases her production proportionately to what 
she has done this year, will be able easily to sustain the burden of the war. If she 
can finance, and she can, then the question which arises is that of paying the rapidly 
increasing interest on an expanding public debt, but when you set off against the 
interest payments an increased production of one, two or three hundred million dollars 
per year, the economic position becomes clear. If on the one hand you produce, say, 
three hundred million dollars of new wealth, and on the other hand you pay out fifteen 
million dollars in interest, I do not need to tell you, as business men, of the advantage, 
and how the country is going to get on. You will get on well, because you are increasing 
your production to such an extent; so that for those who do not go to the front, I would 
say, give to all the causes — the Patriotic Fund, the Red Cross, all the others — give 
continually, patriotically and generously, and on an increasing scale, because our 
army is increasing, and above all, work, produce more, in order that the country may 
continue to grow stronger for whatever lies before it. I believe the people of Canada 
will do that, and therefore, that we shall continue to do our share, and more than our 
share — this is no time to consider shares; we must put forth the maximum effort. 

— Sir Thomas White, Minister of Finance. 



This great war is due directly to ambitious Prussian Militarism. Germany has 
been able to carry on her land war because of the efficiency both of her industrial life 
and of her agricultural life. She has not conquered the world mainly because of the 
efficiency of the British Navy. The defence of civilization now depends upon the staying 
powers of the Allies and the development of their efficiency. Let the farmers and food 
producers of Canada once more renew their efforts and see to it that nothing is lacking 
in the economic use of their labour. The hope of Canada lies largely in the efficiency 
of her agriculture. 

4. 

A year ago nearly all were optimists with regard to the length of the war, while 
many were pessimists with regard to the probable continued demand for all non-perish- 
able foodstuffs. In the opinion of many farmers, patriotism and self-interest did not 

24 



coincide. Patriotism, however, prompted an effort to obtain the maximum return 
from the land, consistent with economy of production. The returns recently issued 
give the measure of the results achieved in this patriotic effort, and emphasize the 
possibility, not only of increased production, but of increased production at a substantial 
profit. 

With the end of the war not yet in sight, patriotism, combined with a better appre- 
ciation of the gravity of the situation and strengthened by the prospect of self-interest, 
should induce all farmers to devote themselves with even greater energy and determ- 
ination to the task of seeing that the Empire incurs no risk of being confronted with a 
shortage cf food stuffs. — L. S. Klinck, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. 



The increase of the crops is the basis of all possible future prosperity. 



OUR COUNTRY'S NEED 

The Empire may depend upon the farmers of Canada doing their full duty in this 
great war, if the situation is fully and frankly put before them, and if their part in the 
work is clearly and officially set out. There need be no flag-waving processions along 
the highways, no martial music to stimulate patriotism. Just as the facts are presented 
to them, so will they respond with whatever is most needed — money, production, men. 

The world's demands are greater than they were a year ago; the problem is more 
complicated than usual; but, if the stern requirements of an Empire fighting this, the 
greatest world conflict, do not cripple our agricultural leadership, and unduly deplete 
our supply of farm labour, and if Providence shall favour us with normal weather in 
the coming season, the farmers of Canada will do their full duty and give the country 
a production that will be most satisfactory; and in so doing they will give as good 
service at home as will our soldiers at the front. — C. C. James. 



THE FARMER IN 1916 

Professor M. Cumming, Nova Scotia. 

The essence of every communication on agriculture a year ago was production. 
It made no difference whether it was a professional agriculturist, an editor, a bank 
president, or a minister of finance, all uttered the same message. Naturally the Minister 
of Agriculture was the strongest possible supporter of a campaign for bigger crops in 
1915. None took a greater interest in this campaign than the Canadian manufacturer, 
who, seeing his foreign market shut off, recognized that the possibility of the wheels of 
his factory continuing to turn lay largely with the farmer who could produce real 
wealth by turning the latent wealth of the soil into wheat and beef and Other farm pro- 
duce, the liquid gold, so necessary to lubricate the machinery of the whole country. 
The farmer produced and to-day the returns from the farms of Canada constitute a 
record for the Dominion. 

No one at this date knows what the season of 1916 will be. It may be another 
productive year. It may be a lean year. Granting the uncertainty, does it not seem 
a matter of paramount importance that every measure should be taken to avert the 
slightest possibility of a shortage of food supply even should the leanest possible con- 
ditions prevail. And do not forget that the farmer of 1916 promises to be confronted 
with difficulties which will require all his efforts, and perhaps the efforts of those who 
are dependent upon him, to solve. 

25 



The labour problem on the farm, as a result of enlistment, will be, both in the East 
and in the West, an acute one. Financial difficulties, especially in the West, have not 
been wholly solved by this year's big crops. Hay and clover and other important crop 
seeds will be high. Fertilizers, which are an absolute necessity in the East, have 
advanced 20 per cent, and more. But despite all of these difficulties the farmer, if he 
can feel reasonably certain of his market, will do his share. Nevertheless he needs the 
assistance of the financial men, the bankers, of the country. He needs the aid of those 
who are in a position to direct the marketing of surplus products of the farm. 

One wonders if the commercial men of Canada are giving the farmer the credit 
he deserves. Just now, we fear that the glamour of the artificial trade in munitions has 
tended to direct the eyes of the country away from the most important man in the 
community, the producer of real wealth. In this we may be mistaken. But be that 
as it may, our message to the farmers of Canada is "Greater production than ever in 
1916," and in presenting this message we urge every citizen of Canada, whether directly 
engaged in agriculture or not, to give his sympathetic support to those measures which 
our governments, both Provincial and Federal, as well as other big bodies of men, are 
making to promote the fundamental industry of Canada — agriculture. 



WE MUST HAVE A BIG CROP FOR 1916 

To Arms and To Agriculture — The True Calls of Patriotism — Better 
Organization Necessary 

In 1916 The World will reap a big harvest. How big it will be, no one can tell as 
yet. The most able authorities that have expressed opinions doubt if it will be as big 
a crop as that of 1915. In Canada, we have farmers, plenty of them, who state that 
they never saw such crops as those of 1915 in all their lives, and they do not expect ever 
to see such crops again. But it is of immense import to Canada that our crops should 
be as big as they were in 1915 — bigger, if possible. What are we going to do about it? 
Able authorities have placed the value of Canada's agricultural production for the past 
year at about one billion, one hundred million dollars. It is a record. It is a big 
record per acre, big per capita of our population, and biggest of all per farmer, or per 
man. 

For Canada this crop did wonders. It came amid hard times. It has left Canada 
prosperous. It came when our leaders in agriculture were impressing us with the plain 
facts of Canada's position. We had debts upon which the interest totaled up to about 
one hundred and fifty millions of dollars annually. We were borrowing some two 
hundred millions more just then. Since that time we have loaned one hundred millions 
of dollars and are preparing to make another flotation of three hundred millions. And 
for next year there will be bigger drams upon our finances, our armies and people will 
have to be fed; fed and clothed and financed. It is quite true that if we don't produce 
the foodstuffs that the world needs, other nations may do so. But meanwhile what of 
the situation at home? What of the financial necessities? Last year's big crop "saved 
the credit of Canada," according to the statement of Sir Thomas White, Minister of 
Finance. It will have to be saved over again for the year 1916. Yes, we have got to 
grow another big crop for next year. The facts are plain and simple. We have got to. 

How Canada can do this is a question not easy to answer. Few people expect such 
cereal crops for next year, the signs that tell of the acreage of wheat, for example, 
indicate a smaller acreage than that of 1915. Our ablest authorities do not assume 
that we can even equal our 1915 performance in live stock products, or exports. In 
butter, cheese, eggs, and possibly in fruit, we may even exceed the records of 1915, big 
as they are, granted propitious climatic conditions. But the more doubtful the pros- 
pects are that we shall equal or surpass the performances of last year, the more urgent 
the need that every effort should be bent to that ta#k. 

26 



Then there is the labour situation. This year there will be fewer hands to toil, and 
fewer heads to plan for the food production of Canada. Thousands have gone to the 
war, for the call to arms has sounded just as insistently in the ears of the farmer, his 
son and his hired man, as in any others. The farmer is just as willing to go, much more 
willing than many who have not yet gone and upon whom ties and responsibilities sit 
more lightly. But still the demands of the farm are inexorable. The farm work 
must go on, and successfully too, if Canada's credit is to be saved once more, if our 
military activities are to be financed, if our armies and our own peoples are to be clothed 
and fed. 

What is the solution for all of this complex problem? To-day the organization for 
recruiting is more complete that it was a year ago. Its pulling power has been inten- 
sified. . . There is as much actual need for the inauguration of recruiting plans for 
agriculture as there is for arms. The worker on the farm, the worker in the munitions 
factory, can render no bigger or better service to their country than they can render 
where they are. The time may come when these men may be needed to fill the fighting 
lines, but they should be amongst the last, not the first, to be called upon. If they are 
left for the present, they will leave behind them much better economic conditions 
because they stayed, than could possibly be the case were they to be taken first. And 
when they do go, the sacrifice will be big, and national prosperity, even efficiency will 
suffer, and give place to depression, poverty, and want. 

These are facts of national significance. They should not be hid behind, nor 
buried beneath any other facts, the necessity that our young men should answer the 
call to defend their country not excepted. That we should furnish soldiers is no more 
important than that we should have the money and the food and munitions, and that 
soldiers and munition workers and their families should be furnished and financed and 
fed. We have got to raise a big crop for 1916. 

Hired help on the farms will be a big problem in the year 1916. Plans for recruiting 
the forces on the farm should be carefully made, and in this business the farmer in the 
past has been rather remiss. Usually the initial cost to the farmer for his hired help has 
been rather light. It's up to our farmers to make permanent provision for the employ- 
ment of married rather than of single men and to give them the preference wherever 
possible. 

It is time that this whole problem received much more common sense consideration 
than it has in the past. Labour for the farms should be a matter of patriotism, at least 
second to that of recruits for our army corps at the front. 

— From "The Canadian Countryman." 



A military authority has said that any officer can lead his men to fight, but it 
requires the genius of a General to feed them. There is in this some suggestion of the 
service rendered the Empire in the grain fields of the Dominion. 



PATRIOTIC PRODUCTION 

Wise farmers will make even more extensive preparations for a big crop in 1916 
than they did for a big crop in 1915. It is wholly improbable that all exporting countries 
will again have such favourable growing conditions and such large surpluses of wheat for 
export as they have raised this year. Nature is scarcely likely to repeat such a phenom- 
enal universal yield. Some exporting countries, Canada or the United States or India 
or Argentina, will fall behind, and perhaps several of them will have partial crop failures. 

It may be that the belligerent countries of Europe have managed to harvest 
fair-sized crops this season, but the terrible destruction of life and the withdrawal of 

27 



additional millions of men from the land for the battle-line during the last few months 
must have a widespread effect in the reduction of next year's European crops. The 
shortage of European-grown food in 1916 is therefore likely to be a serious factor in 
the world's grain markets. It is not unlikely that continental Europe will experience 
famine conditions before next summer is over. In that event the purchases of the 
Allied nations from exporting countries outside of Europe will be greatly expanded, 
and prices of wheat and other breadstuffs may easily rule high. There is every reason 
for saying that the wise Canadian farmer will make all possible preparations to increase 
his production of foodstuffs in 1916. 



The longer the war lasts, the more will farm products be needed. 



THE SITUATION IN MANITOBA 

GEORGE BATHO, Manitoba Department of Agriculture. 

The agricultural situation in Manitoba is unprecedented. In 1915, according to 
our official figures, our wheat yield was 84 per cent, greater than in 1914, and a very 
striking increase is also to be noted in oats and barley. But, while this appears very 
favourable, there are quite a number of less encouraging facts. 

The first of these is that in some fields the grain in the middle of January still 
stands in the stooks. Of just what value it will be when an effort is made to haul and 
thresh it, even the best farmers do not know at time of writing. 

Then there is a comparatively small amount of land prepared for crop. The 
December, 1915, crop report of this Department presented the following figures: — 

Land prepared for Crop 

1915 1914 

Breaking 193,144 175,336 

Summer Fallow 1,094,514 1,208,394 

Fall Ploughing " 1,509,002 2,733,885 

A very serious shortage of labour on our farms is now felt, and there is every reason 
to expect this to become more acute as the season advances and recruiting continues. 
In many cases elderly farmers whose sole dependence is either in their sons or in hired 
help will, if the sons go to war, be forced to reduce their farming operations during 
1916. Seeing that the ability to produce food is probably greater per man in Western 
Canada than in any other part of the British Empire, and that food is urgently demanded 
if the war is to be successfully prosecuted, the military authorities might very properly 
direct their attention to the men of other callings and permit bona fide farmers and 
farmers' sons as a class to remain at home to produce food. It is to be remembered 
that one trained farm worker is worth much more than an untrained man who tries to 
take his place. Many Manitoba farmers are very emphatic in their statement that the 
enlistment of every experienced farm worker enrolled from now forward will mean a 
proportionate reduction in the crop grown this season. 



If you have never felt the joy of doing something worth while; accomplished 
something that is of benefit to your fellow man and to posterity, do it in 1916, 
because of the satisfaction it brings. 

28 



THE CALL OF 1916 

W. E. SCOTT, Deputy Minster of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C. 

The year 1916 still sees us in the midst of a titanic conflict, in which autocracy 
and despotism are engaged in a death struggle with honour, justice and liberty. Whilst 
the ultimate outcome must undoubtedly be the triumph of right, our British Empire 
may yet have to undergo many heavy sacrifices before the bright sunshine of peace 
breaks through the lowering war clouds. 

We are all asking ourselves how we may best serve our Empire. The farmers 
of Canada have, during the past year, done nobly, and through the disposition of a 
bountiful Providence, our stock and fields have largely increased their output. 

It is, however, our duty not to relax our efforts, but rather to redouble them, so 
that the Motherland and our Allies may know that they can look to Canada with 
confidence for the necessary grains and meats to feed their men at the front and their 
women and children at home. 

Through proper organization, a large output has been effected in Canada of 
munitions of war. Assistance of great importance has been rendered in this way. 
It is, however, still more important that those of us on the land in Canada who, for one 
cause or another, may not have the privilege of serving their country at the front, 
should use every effort to increase production. By so doing, our farmers at home are 
as surely contributing towards the successful termination of the war as are our brave 
soldiers in the trenches in Flanders and elsewhere, and our sailors on the high seas. 

Shall Great Britain look to us in vain? A thousand times No. Our farmers 
will not be found wanting. They will grow more grain and raise more stock, and 
thereby each will do his share towards crushing once and for all, the present nightmare 
of civilization — Prussian militarism. 

Farmers, remember the fate of Belgium, Servia, and Poland. Remember the 
Lusitania and the martyred Edith Cavell, and there will be no doubt as to what your 
answer will be. Once more respond to the call for increased production. 



PROSPECTS IN WEST 

Favourable Conditions for Crops and Live Stock 

Mr. George Lane of Calgary, perhaps the largest individual farmer and rancher 
in western Canada, stated in an interview in the press recently that, while the 
amount of land under summer fallow, ready for the crop of 1916, is less than the 
prepared area a year ago, the land was so well cultivated in the fall of 1914 and the 
spring of 1915, that it is able to hold the present abundant supply of moisture, and 
really make conditions quite favourable for the crops of the coming season. 

In comparison with a year ago, the farmers of the west, Mr. Lane attests, are 
infinitely better prepared to-day to commence operations on the land when the spring 
season opens. "They have plenty of everything to start with this year," said he, "lots 
of good seed, which was so scarce in 1915, and any amount of good feed for live stock. 

"I have never seen the ground in better shape in thirty years to receive the crop 
than it is now. If we have a good spring season with an early opening, depend upon 
it, a mighty big crop will go into the ground in all three western Provinces." 

Taking all kinds of live stock into consideration, Mr. Lane says that 1915 was the 
best year in 25 years in western Canada. "For instance," said he, "hogs have been 
at the unprecedented figure in Calgary of $8.50 to $9 per cwt., and we have had 
buyers competing in Alberta for stock, from Vancouver, Seattle, Winnipeg, Minneapolis 
and Chicago, and we have sent any number of hogs to Toronto." 

29 



Too much emphasis could not be laid upon the importance of the successful 
crop of 1915 in its relation to the live stock industry of the west. Men who 
already possess live stock have had at their disposal for months, tons of the very 
best fodder, in the form of straw and offal from the threshing, while those who have 
not been large holders of cattle or hogs in the past have been able to get into this busi- 
ness quickly and profitably. 



ACREAGE OF FALL WHEAT 

The area sown to fall wheat for next year's harvest is estimated to be 1,100,800 acres, 
which is about 15 per cent.. less than the area of 1,294,000 acres sown in 1914 for 1915. 
The decrease is principally in Ontario and is due to the heavy rains of August which 
prevented the working of the soil in time for seeding. The area sown to fall wheat 
in Ontario is estimated to be 820,600 acres, as compared with 1,043,000 acres sown 
in 1914, the decrease being 222,400 acres, or over 21 p.c. In Alberta there is an increase 
from 230,000 acres in 1914 to 260,500 acres in 1915, the plus difference representing 
13 p.c. In Manitoba there is a decrease from 10,900 to 9,400 acres; in Saskatchewan 
there is no change from the estimated area of 4,100 acres, and in British Columbia 
there is a small increase of 200 acres, making 6,200 acres sown to this crop. 

Amount of Fall Ploughing 

For all Canada about 53 p.c. of the area intended for next year's crops is reported 
as ploughed by October 31, as compared with 71 p.c. last year and 54 p.c. in 1913. 
In the Northwest the percentages are as follows: Manitoba 36 against 92, Saskatchewan 
27 against 77, Alberta 34 against 56. — From Census and Statistics Monthly. 



Improved seed and improved stock properly cared for constitute one of the surest 
means of increasing the returns from the farm. 



Is your land yielding a maximum return for the amount of energy, time and 
money expended upon it? 



We know enough of good farming now to double our yields and treble our income, 
if we would put it in practice. Again we repeat the slogan — "Raise the acre yield — 
there the profit lies." 



The easy, rational and inexpensive way to secure a yield above the average is by 
better seed bed, better seed, better rotation, and crop and animal manures. 



The higher the yield the greater the cost does not apply to a farming condition 
wherein the farmer has not begun to get the natural yield of an honestly treated farm. 

Our farms are not producing within 50 per cent, on an average of the possible 
maximum. 

The profit is in the excess yield above the average. The farmers who are following 
the more intelligent method and getting the larger yields are the ones who are making 
the most money; poor and unintelligent methods are sure to run down the production 
close to or below the profit point. 

30 



British 




Empire 


Foreign 


Overseas 


Countries 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


39.3 


41.7 


10.7 


31.4 


0.2 


17.1 


0.1 


32.3 


13.3 


61.6 


65.4 


15.1 


0.0 


4.6 


8.3 


55.4 


1.1 


7.1 



FOOD SUPPLIES OF THE UNITED KINGDOM 

The economic problems that will have to be dealt with on broad lines after the war 
must necessarily include the question of food supplies; and it is almost certain that the 
problem of how to increase the productiveness of the Empire, so as to enable it to supply 
its own meat requirements for military as well as civilian purposes, will occupy a fore- 
most place. 

The following table, prepared by R. H. Rew, Assistant Secretary of the British 
Board of Agriculture, shows the proportions of the food supply of the United Kingdom, 
contributed by Britain, the Empire and foreign countries respectively. The statistics 
relate to articles produced more or less in the Kingdom, and are based on an average of 
the five years 1910-14: — 



United 

Kingdom 

Per cent. 

Wheat 19.0 

Meat 57 . 9 

Poultry 82.7 

Eggs 67.6 

Butter (including Margarine) 25.1 

Cheese . . v 19 . 5 

Milk (including Cream) 95.4 

Fruit 36.3 

Vegetables 91.8 

Canada's contribution to the food supplies of the United Kingdom was, on the 
whole, well maintained in 1915, particularly in view of the great shortage of means of 
transportation which had to be encountered during the whole period. 

It is true that there is a considerable falling off in the quantities of grain credited 
to Canada, notably in the case of wheat, but it is probable that, as in the past, con- 
siderable Canadian shipments made via the United States are attributed to that country, 
owing to the system adopted by the Board of Trade whereby imports are frequently 
classified as received from the country whence consigned, and not from the country of 
actual origin. On the other hand, there were increases, in some cases to a large extent, 
in receipts of bacon, hams, and cheese. Flour also shows a small increase. 

A noteworthy feature is the revival in Canadian exports of butter, the quantity 
being three times as great as in 1914, while receipts from Canada in 1913 were only 
813 cwts. 

The high prices of the past year drew forth unexpected but very welcome supplies 
of Canadian beef, amounting to some 6,280 tons, of which about 3,600 tons came to the 
United Kingdom, the remainder going direct to the Continent. Had more refrigerated 
freight been available considerably larger quantities could have been shipped. 

In view of Canada's loyalty as a British Dominion it is gratifying to be able to 
record this new departure, and opportune to express a hope that it may be found prac- 
ticable to increase materially the contribution thus made to the food supply of the 
Empire from within its own borders. The Canadian Government is now alive to the 
desirability of fostering the export trade and putting it upon a permanent footing as 
soon as possible. 

31 



MEAT CONSUMPTION IN UNITED KINGDOM 

The quantity of meat consumed per head of the population in Great Britain and 
Ireland (including bacon and hams), is given as follows: 





Consumption 


Home 


Foreign and 




per capita 


Produce 


Colonial Produce 




lbs. 


lbs. 


lbs. 


1900-1 


125.0 


67.8 
67.1 


57.2 


1904-5.: 


122.0 


54.9 


1906-7 


118.8 


63.3 


55.5 


1907-8 


119.5 


64.1 


55.4 


1908-9 


120.2 


67.0 


53.2 


1909-10 


114.0 


64.6 
61.2 


49.4 


1910-11 


...... 115.2 


54.0 









QUANTITIES OF FARM PRODUCTS IMPORTED 
UNITED KINGDOM IN 1914 AND 1915 



BY THE 



(British Journal of Agriculture.) 



1914 1915 

(cwt. 112 lbs.) (cwt. 112 lbs.) 
Beef, mutton and pork, fresh, refrigerated 

or salted 16,149,774 14,662,820 

Bacon and Ham 5,936,910 8,008,568 

Meat preserved 995,211 2,037,651 

Rabbits 505,925 603,659 

23,587,820 25,312,698 

Poultry (dead) 223,599 156,438 

Eggs (in great hundreds) 17,904,805 10,247,960 

Chilled Beef imports, which represent the better class of trade, show a marked 
decline since 1913, the maximum year. The main sources of supply are Argentina, 
Uruguay, and the United States. Imports from the United States, which had pre- 
viously declined, revived in 1915. 

Frozen Beef imports, on the other hand, show a marked increase. The supply 
comes from Argentina, Uruguay, Australia, New Zealand and the United States. The 
United States dropped out for several years previous to 1913. Imports from Uruguay 
are rapidly increasing. 

Mutton — Nearly all the imported mutton is frozen and comes chiefly from New 
Zealand, Australia, Argentina and Uruguay. Imports decreased in 1915. A small 
quantity of fresh mutton is imported from Holland. 

Pork — Frozen pork is imported from the U.S. and fresh pork from Holland. 
Imports decreased in 1915. 

Bacon and Ham — Bacon imports in 1915 were the largest recorded. Imports 
from Denmark declined, and increased from the United States and Canada. 

Poultry (dead) — Received chiefly from Russia, United States and France. Very 
little came from Russia in 1915, and the total showed a decrease. 

32 



DAIRY PRODUCTS 

1914 1915 

cwt. cwt. 

Butter 3,984,204 3,855,395 

Margarine 1,529,219 2,052,183 

Cheese 2,433,864 2,726,942 

Milk (condensed) 1,225,316 1,581,799 



9,172,603 10,216,319 

Butter — Imports showed a decline in 1915. Three-quarters of the supply came 
from Europe (Denmark, Russia, France, Sweden and Holland). The balance came 
from Australia, New Zealand and Argentina. Russia and France sent largely increased 
quantities; Sweden, Denmark and Holland show large decreases. 

The consumption of margarine has greatly increased as a result of short supplies 
and abnormal prices of butter. 

Cheese — Canada supplies half the cheese imported — 1,315,177 cwt. in 1915, 
being almost equal to 1912. New Zealand supplied about half as much as Canada. 
Imports of condensed milk and margarine showed increases. 

Eggs — Imports showed a marked decline from Russia, Denmark and Holland, 
which are the chief countries contributing. 

GRAIN AND FLOUR 

1914 1915 

cwt. cwt. 

Wheat 103,926,743 88,681,800 

Wheat meal and flour 10,060,223 10,489,170 

Barley 16,044,422 12,290,485 

Oats 14,156,715 15,640,100 

Oatmeal 609,992 890,481 

Maize 39,040,747 48,566,400 

Maize, meal 232,469 247,396 

Peas 983,694 1,100,453 

Beans 1,441,559 1,142,810 

Other corn and meal 13,828,443 22,244,455 



200,325,007 201,293,550 



Grain, flour, etc.: — Imports of wheat showed a marked decline. The leading 
sources of supply were the following, in the order given: United States, Canada, India, 
Argentina — Russia and Australia did not figure, the latter on account of crop failure. 
Imports of flour from the United States and Canada, the chief sources of supply, 
increased slightly. - - 

Normal wheat and flour requirements of the United Kingdom (i.e., home and over- 
seas) are about 150 million cwt., of which home production equals about 22 per cent. 
Contributions from the Dominions and India show a marked increase, chiefly on 
account of Canada's increasing production. The ratio of the area of wheat to popu- 
lation is increasing much more rapidly in the British Empire than elsewhere. 

Barley was imported from the United States and India in 1915, Russia and 
Rumania dropping out; total imports declined. 

The importation of oats from the United States increased very largely and de- 
clined from Canada; Canadian oats going to France direct. None came from 
Russia, Germany and South-Eastern Europe. 

Imports of corn (maize) increased from the United States, Canada and Argentina. 
Russia and Rumania dropped out. 

33 



MISCELLANEOUS 

1914 1915 

Wool (lbs.) 712,618,116 926,680,036 

cwt. cwt. 

Tallow and Stearine 1,737,182 1,773,105 

Hides : 1,392,495 1,811,484 

Seeds, Clover and Grass 175,905 260,375 

Potatoes Importation of 1915 less than one- 
quarter of that of 1914. 

Onions, bush 7,472,440 

Tomatoes, cwt 1,394,897 

Fresh Fruits 1915 showed a decrease in all classes 

except apples, almonds and oranges. 

Wool — The bulk of the supply came from Australia, New Zealand, British South 
Africa, India and Argentina. Receipts show a large increase. The average price 
showed a one cent per pound increase over 1914. 

1914 1915 

Horses, No 8,662 8,692 

Live Cattle No live cattle or sheep for food were 

imported in 1915. 



Table showing Increase in Values of Foods Imported into the United 
Kingdom in 1915, compared w th Values in 1914. 

(British Journal of Agriculture) 

Increased val. Increased val. 

per cwt. over per cent, over 

1914 1914 

Beef 17s. = 40 per cent. * 

Mutton 15s. = 34 " 

Pork 4s. 3d. = . 1 

Bacon 6s. 6d. = ^10.17 " 

Hams Is. 7d. (decrease) J 

Butter 19s. 8d. = 16 

Cheese 16s. = 24 

Eggs (per **great hundred) 2s. 3d. = 23 

Wheat 4s. 4d. = 50 

Wheat Flour 4s. lOd. = 44 

Barley 2s. 9^d. = 40 

Oats 4s. 3d. = 65 

Maize Is. 9d. = 29 

* (One hundred per cent, as compared with 1911 prices). 

** Ten dozen = 120. 

Note: — The above are declared values of imported articles; not market prices. 



The splendid services rendered by the British Navy in keeping open the high 
«eas insure the continuance of full imports; but the requirements of the army will 
-still demand the first consideration of the Government; and the course of prices in the 
markets of the United Kingdom must be largely controlled by the proportion of the 
imports finally released for civilian consumption. 

34 



BRITAIN'S FOOD IMPORTS IN WAR TIME 

Glasgow, Scotland, Nov. 12, 1915 

An illuminating analysis of world trade with Great Britain during the war is con- 
tained in a report issued by the Board of Trade. Since the imports dealt with consist 
very largely of agricultural produce, the report should be read with interest by Canadian 
farmers. One finds, for instance, that the United States of America, while adopting 
an attitude of complaint towards our Navy's control over neutral commerce, is reaping 
huge fortunes from us directly as a result of the war situation. The figures in the 
report are those for the first nine months of the present year, and for purposes of com- 
parison with a pre-war period, they are contrasted with the corresponding months of 
the year 1913. United States exports to this country, on this basis, show an excess 
of over £83,000,000. Moreover this figure does not include the revenue from material 
supplied on Government contract, such as munitions, etc. In the ten months to the 
end of October of this year we have paid to the States £8,000,000 more for wheat 
alone. Another million goes against wheat flour, and barley and oats bring up the 
total gain for all kinds of grain to fully £13,000,000. This partly represents increased 
quantities, but the greater part is due to higher prices and constitutes "unearned 
increment" for the American producer and exporter. Other food commodities for 
which we have paid the States more than in a normal year are: — Bacon, £5,300,000; 
hams, £2,000,000; chilled and frozen beef, £3,000,000; and cheese, £1,800,000. So 
that in wheat and other foodstuffs America's gain over the war amounts to the gigantic 
sum of fully £25,000,000. 



BIG PURCHASES IN UNITED STATES 

The following table shows the purchase of products from the United States alone 
made by Great Britain during the first nine months of 1915, as compared with the 
purchases made during the corresponding period of 1914. The total value of these 

items is £26,486,333 for 1915, as compared with £11,793,651 for 1914, an increase of 
£14,692,682, or 124 per cent. 

1915 1914 

cwts. cwts. 

Beef, chilled 488,339 2,079 

Beef, frozen 276,158 350 

Beef, salted 43,730 23,209 

Pork, frozen 22,849 3,230 

Pork, salted (not bacon or hams) 49,504 32,280 

Bacon 2,704,363 1,121,969 

Hams 1,094,499 625,042 

Poultry 57,284 35,660 

Butter 36,548 7,347 

Cheese 445,934 15,131 

Canned salmon 450,700 398,598 

Hops 99,209 45,374 

Lard 1,740,482 1,294,985 

Sugar, refined 1,291,052 370,823 

Other Sources of Supplies 

But America is not alone in this prosperity derived from the misfortunes of neigh- 
boring Powers. Practically every neutral nation in varying degrees has benefited in 
trade. The following table presents the position regarding Britain's imports during 

35 



the first nine months of this year. The columns explain themselves, but it should be 
pointed out that the figure 100 is assumed in this general calculation to represent the 
normal value of the trade: — 

Allied Countries 

Three Six Third 

months months quarter 

Russia 28 35 50 

France 60 65 75 

Italy 134 136 148 

Northern European 

Norway 157 192 187 

Sweden 114 116 174 

Denmark 108 102 90 

Holland.. 110 103 94 

Southern European 

Spain 116 132 127 

Portugal 144 130 134 

Switzerland 126 130 150 

America and Far East 

United States 136 176 218 

Brazil 60 90 137 

Argentine 173 179 176 

China 183 163 167 

Japan 194 221 228 

British Dominions 

Canada 131 146 122 

Australia 136 134 129 

New Zealand 127 126 106 

South Africa 81 100 116 

India 124 138 160 

It will be seen from these statistics that our allies, with the exception of Italy, 
have suffered substantially in trade with us. In the case of the United States the 
gain has been progressive, from a rise of 36 per cent, in the first quarter to 76 per cent. 
for the half year, and to 118 per cent, in the third quarter. The Argentine, whose 
huge gain has been consistent, has during the ten months ending October sent us maise 
valued at £4,000,000 more than her shipments of 1913; wheat, £2,500,000 more; and 
frozen beef, £5,000,000— an advance in these foodstuffs of £11,500,000. Sweden and 
Norway's position on the table is attributed to the dearness of timber. It is sur- 
mised that the slump in the last quarter in the trade from Denmark and Holland is 
due to a falling off in the export of dairy produce. Whether this was due to holding up 
for higher prices, or the draining of the surplus produce into Germany cannot be deter- 
mined. 

Canada's Share 

It is eminently satisfactory to find that all this overseas excess trade is not going 
"out of the family." The British Dominions and India have shared largely in it. 
Hostilities in South Africa spoiled her trade at the first quarter, but she has picked up 
rapidly. In wool alone Australia has sent an excess of £8,250,000 for the ten months 
ending October while her shipments of frozen beef and mutton have risen by £3,000,000. 
New Zealand wool exports to us have gone up by £2,800,000, and her beef and mutton 
to the same amount while she has also added £1,000,000 to her cheese account, 

36 



EXPORTS OF CANADIAN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE 

Principal Articles 

Twelve Months Ended December, 1915 
To United To United 
Articles Exported 1914 Total Kingdom States 

$ $ $ $ 

Animals, living— Total 14,068,106 17,225,406 2,433,985 13,356,761 

Cattle 8,950,960 13,071,370 105,120 11,595,577 

Horses 1,364,193 2,653,605 2,328,374 274,771 

Sheep 282,467 399,591 586,770 

Breadstuffs— Total 108,382,551 216,865,164 178,746,232 11,448,025 

Barley 3,796,264 2,927,555 2,524,344 117,322 

Bran 1,217,324 1,427,578 81,461 1,224,622 

Cereal foods 2,120,241 1,928,192 1,668,617 15,265 

Oats 8,608,778 10,394,919 4,020,402 429,255 

Oatmeal 368,765 293,909 249,521 42,193 

Wheat 69,714,249 166,409,710 149,976,078 7,595,058 

Wheat Flour 21,441,812 31,461,125 19,737,331 843,656 

Fruits— Total 3,476,498 3,336,514 2,791,212 246,040 

Apples, fresh 2,591,501 2,081,446 1,904,222 19,741 

Hay 2,025,300 4,113,521 335,762 514,197 

Hides and skins, other than fur. 8,206,958 7,179,500 3,752 7,162,293 

Potatoes 687,887 506,302 7 31,582 

Provisions— Total 36,168,388 61,015,446 56,657,432 2,154,995 

Butter 575,699 1,059,764 629,840 48,426 

Cheese 19,205,152 25,112,854 24,874,098 20,770 

Meats— Bacon and hams . 9,509,777 23,578,830 23,131,747 360,562 

Seeds 11,391,245 3,480,129 198,104 3,247,408 

Proportion of Agricultural Exports 

Our export trade is paying the Country's debts, and that the extent to which this 
is the case may be understood, it may be stated that, for the fiscal year 1911-12, agri- 
cultural exports amounted to 53% of the total export business. In 1912-13, they 
amounted to 58%; in 1913-14, to 54%; in 1914-15, to 51%; and for the eight months 
to the 30th November for the fiscal year 1915-16, they amounted to 53%. During 
the latter period, total exports exceeded total imports by the amount of $121,130,044. 



37 



CROP PRODUCTION 



"Agriculture is an art that renders those who understand it rich, but 
leaves those who do not understand it, however hard they may labour in 
it, to live in poverty. 11 — Xenophon. 



SOIL CULTIVATION 

J. H. GRISDALE, Director, Dominion Experimental Farms, Ottawa. 

We cultivate our fields and sow our seed to produce crops. The quality and 
quantity of our yields depend upon the strength and rapidity of the growth made by 
the crop. The requirements of strong, rapid plant growth are (1) Moisture, (2) Warmth, 
(3) Plant Food. 

Let us briefly consider these requirements and the extent to which they may be 
controlled or influenced by the farmer through cultural or other farming operations. 

(1) MOISTURE 

The moisture supply depends primarily on precipitation. Precipitation, or rain- 
fall, is, however, not controllable. It is necessary, therefore, to so handle soils as to 
enable them to conserve or retain the moisture received until required for crop pro- 
duction. 

Drainage a Factor in Moisture Conservation 

Several factors influence moisture conservation in soils. Of these good drainage 
is probably the most important. Well drained soils are free from the danger 
of baking or puddling, that is, they are friable and loose on the surface, so'j pre- 
venting evaporation. Well drained soils being free from hydrostatic or free water to 
a considerable depth are in shape to absorb rain as it falls and preserve it in the form of 
capillary or hygroscopic water. It is only as capillary or hygroscopic water that 
moisture can be retained for any length of time in the soil in dry weather, hence good 
drainage is an absolute necessity where moisture conservation is a matter of importance, 
just as it is an indispensable condition where seasons are short or rainfall very great in 
order to carry off the surplus water and allow air to enter the earth to reach plant 
roots and raise the soil temperature. 

Ploughing and Cultivating as Methods of Controlling Soil Moisture 

Shallow ploughing and deep cultivation are, after drainage, probably the most 
important influences making for moisture conservation. Shallow ploughing by keeping 
the humus near the surface greatly increases the moisture holding power of that, the 
most important soil layer. Deep cultivation by stirring the lower stratum of soil 
helps disintegrate the stiff and probably waterlogged upper subsoil, and so very greatly 
increases the amount of capillary water readily available near the surface layer for crop 
requirements. 

Surface Cultivation Conserves Moisture 

No matter what the condition of the surface soil and upper subsoil as influenced by 
ploughing and subsoil stirring, no matter how well drained the lower subsoil, if no pre- 
caution be taken to prevent evaporation, a very large amount of moisture is sure to be 



carried off from the surface by every faintest breeze and weakest sun ray. To prevent 
this, the maintenance of a soil mulch on such surfaces as are exposed to the moving air 
or direct sunshine is a necessary precaution. A soil mulch may be made by means of 
a light harrow. Sometimes, too, it may be made by a roller. The roller has usually 
just the opposite effect; under certain conditions, however, it is of value in this con- 
nection. To illustrate, it often happens that two or three weeks after seeding, before 
the grain is up high enough to protect the soil surface from winds and sunlight, a crust 
forms and moisture evaporation goes on apace. Going over such a field with a light 
roller breaks the crust and forms a soil mulch which effectually stops the loss. 

Humus Conserves Moisture 

Humus absorbs and retains moisture much more readily than any other constituent 
of the soil. Hence one of the best methods of improving the moisture storing and mois- 
ture conserving powers of a soil is to increase its humus content. This may be done 
by the frequent turning under of sod and by the use of barnyard manure. 

(2) WARMTH 

For plants to grow rapidly, warmth as well as moisture is an absolutely necessary 
condition. 

Drainage Warms Soils 

Drainage was shown to be probably the most important factor in making for 
moisture conservation. Drainage as an influence affecting soil temperature is of even 
greater importance. Undrained soils are always cool, usually too cold to favour plant 
growth, save in the case of certain species accustomed to such peculiar conditions. 
Practically all cultivated plants require warm soils. Drainage will warm the soil by 
carrying off surplus moisture and enabling air to enter. 

Soil Mulch Affects Soil Temperature 

Once a crust has formed on the surface of the soil, water escapes rapidly through 
the pores, evaporating as it passes off. The change from liquid to gaseous form means 
the absorption of large quantities of heat by the escaping water, and in this way much 
heat is taken out of the soil. Thus in spring, when heat is of such paramount importance 
it not infrequently happens that a field lying under a bright sun is going down in tem- 
perature rather than rising, for the reason that much moisture is escaping from the 
surface by evaporation. To prevent this and stop the cooling-off process, all that is 
necessary is a cut with a common harrow, that is, a mulch should be formed. 

Humus Warms the Soil 

After drainage and the soil mulch, the colour of the soil is an important factor 
affecting soil temperature. Dark soils absorb heat readily and rapidly. Humus has 
the effect of darkening soils, hence the increasing of the humus content of a soil is an 
important and practical method of raising the temperature of a soil that due to its 
colour might otherwise be slow in warming up. 

(3) PLANT FOOD 

The supply of plant food in a soil is very commonly supposed to be the measure of 
its crop producing powers. Such, however, is not exactly the case. Even the most 
barren soils, so far as plant food is concerned, may in a few years be made to produce 
most excellent crops provided the other conditions of plant growth be right. Any 
soil to which humus can be added at not too great expense will shortly be found to 
yield profitable crop returns. 

Commercial fertilizers might be of some value in building up a worn-out or barren 
soil, in as much as they will supply more or less immediately available plant food, 
and in the case of certain fertilizers being used, such as land plaster, lime or ashes, will 



do something toward rendering available such plant food as may be already in the 
soil. They will also correct any acidity in the soil, and in the case of ashes and lime 
will do something to improve the physical condition. 

Humus, however, is the material required to get the soil in good crop producing 
shape. The farmer's aim should be, therefore, not to find out by chemical analysis 
what elements of plant food appear to be lacking in whole or in part, but rather to 
improve the physical condition of his soil by adding humus, draining properly and per- 
forming the necessary cultural operations in the right way, at the right time. 

Cultural Operations and Implements 

The following notes on cultural operations and implements will probably serve to 
supplement the preceding paragraphs on crop rotation and soil cultivation. 

Ploughing — Ploughing is admittedly the foundation operation in all crop pro- 
duction effort. Ploughing has been performed with many different kinds of plough and 
in many different styles. No definite rule can be laid down as to the best method of 
ploughing. A safe rule, however, is to plough only when the soil is in shape, that is 
when not too wet; this rule, of course, applying to heavy soils only. 

Ploughing deeply in autumn, turning an upstanding furrow, and ploughing shallow 
In spring, turning a low-lying or flat furrow, is another general rule and is applicable 
to a greater variety of soils than the first. Ploughing should, in my opinion, be done 
whenever possible with the two-furrow gang plough, using four, or at least three horses. 
In this way, the cost of the operation is materially reduced. 

Disc ploughs recently put on the market afford a means of performing this pper- 
ation at times and under condition where it would probably be impossible for the 
common mouldboard plough to operate, as for instance, ploughing heavy clay lands 
when hard and dry. They are also useful in burying manure, grass or weeds and in 
exposing heavy soils to the action of the frost, since they leave a very rough surface 
exposed to the air. 

Subsoil ploughing is a cultural operation very seldom practised, and one that should 
be more frequently performed by the farmer, and serves, as indicated in preceding 
paragraphs, to open up the upper subsoil and so increase the water containing capacity 
of the root-holding soil strata. The subsoil plough may to a certain extent be replaced 
by what is known as the subsoil hook, a cheap, light affair, that can be readily attached 
to the beam of any plough and passing over between the handles, do a good job in the 
way of stirring to a depth of three or four inches, the upper subsoil. 

Harrowing — A great variety of implements have been devised and put on the 
market wherewith to perform the operation commonly known as harrowing. Of all 
these implements the disc harrow is probably the most generally useful and the most 
effective in the work of preparing soil for seed after it has been ploughed. The larger 
the disc and the more acute the angle at which it is set in operation, the more effectively 
will it work. To insure good work, however, with a large sharp-set disc, rolling is 
necessary in order to crush the soil down that it may remain in place when being carved 
by the disc. 

A new disc harrow, known as the Double Cutaway, has recently made its appearance 
and has proven to be a most excellent implement. It consists of two disc harrows, one 
in front of the other, cutting, the one wiih an inthrow and the other with an outthrow; 
the discs are so placed as to prevent their running in the same track, hence a much more 
thorough cutting up of the surface soil is insured. Considerably more power is neces- 
sary to operate this disc than in the case of a single disc. It is, however, an implement 
capable of materially reducing the cost of preparing the soil for seed after the land is 
ploughed. 

The spring tooth harrow is an implement that cannot be too strongly condemned, 
where used, as is commonly the case, on sod land or on rough hard land. This imple- 
ment tears up the sods, exposes the grass and leaves an exceedingly rough surface, 
very certain to give poor results in crop production. 

40 



Harrowing is an operation usually very badly performed, and an operation that is 
almost always ended up sometime before it should be on any given area. Good plough- 
ing is a necessary condition of the best crop results, but thorough harrowing is an indis- 
pensable condition of profitable crop returns from any field. Thorough harrowing 
does not necessarily mean three or four or ten different harrowings, but it means such 
treatment as leaves the surface of the seed bed smooth and friable, and leaves the 
bottom of the seed bed firm and solid. Until these two conditions are fulfilled the 
harrow should not stop. 

Where sod land is being prepared for any crop, possibly the best treatment would 
be about as follows: Roll with a heavy roller, disc harrow lengthwise and crosswise or 
on the bias; roll again, disc harrow once more, and then smooth harrow with a common 
spike-toothed harrow. If, however, it is found that the land is not yet in perfect tilth, 
then it might be necessary to repeat the disc harrowing and the rolling. In any case, 
seed should not be sown until the soil is in perfect shape for crop production. It is 
usually safe to harrow again after conditions seem nearly perfect for seeding. 

The spike-toothed harrow may often be run over the land when the average 
farmer would consider it utter folly to use it as all, for instance, in the corn field a few 
days after sowing or planting the corn, and in the same field a few days after the corn 
is up. Harrowing the field at such times is almost certain to materially help the crop. 

Where large areas of corn are grown, an implement likely to prove of considerable 
value is what is known as the slant-tooth or tilting harrow. This enables one to control 
the depth to which the harrow shall sink in the soil, and so permit of harrowing the 
corn or potatoes at times and under conditions when the common spike-toothed harrow 
might do some small amount of damage. 

Seeding — Seeding is now rarely done by hand. It is, however, in too many districts 
still done broadcast, that is, what are known as broadcast seeders are used. Such 
seeders are not nearly so satisfactory as drill seeders. Much of the seed is insufficiently 
covered, while another part is buried too deeply. Consequently it comes up unevenly, 
grows unevenly, ripens unevenly, and there is thus considerable loss at harvesting, to 
say nothing of the seed lost by being buried too deeply or by being insufficiently covered. 

The hoe drill and the single disc are the best seeders, and of these, I believe the 
single disc to be the better. Here, as in the case of the plough and the harrow, as large 
an implement as possible should be selected, since such implements aid materially in 
reducing the cost of production. 

The Roller. — The roller is commonly looked upon as the implement wherewith 
to give the finishing touch. It is just at this point, however, that the greatest danger 
lies. It is as an operation after seeding that rolling is, on the average, of least value. 
There are, of course, conditions where it is advisable to roll after seeding, but the true 
value of this implement lies in its usefulness as a means of preparing the land prepara- 
tory to seeding, as already mentioned in connection with harrowing. The use of the 
roller in preparing sod land for grain or corn is much to be commended, and it is here 
that this implement is of the greatest value to the farmer. In certain soils, as for 
instance, mucky or peaty soils, it is often advisable to roll once or twice before seeding 
and two or more times after seeding; this more particularly, if the land is to be seeded 
down to grass or clover, at the same time as sown to grain. 

No land should be rolled after seeding if the surface is at all damp. The surface 
should be allowed to dry a few days before the roller is put on. Rolling in this way a 
few days or even two or three weeks after the grain is up, breaks the crust, forms a 
mulch, and so helps to conserve moisture, as already mentioned in a preceding para- 
graph. 

On light dry soils, rolling is an essential operation after seeding to insure quick 
germination of both grain and grass seeds. Here again, however, it is often advisable 
to roll a second time two or three weeks after the grain is up. This helps firm the soil 
and breaks the crust as before stated. 

41 



CROP ROTATION 

J. H. GRISDALE, Director, Dominion Experimental Farms, Ottawa. 

Crops as grown by the Canadian Farmer fall far short in yield per acre of what 
they might and what they should yield. Under extraordinary weather conditions they 
sometimes come up to and even surpass what they really should be every year. The 
year just passed, 1915, was of such a character. Our farmers from one end of the 
Dominion to the other never before harvested such crops on the average as in 1915. We 
could do practically as well every year if we only thought so and bent our effort to the 
getting of our farms into such condition as would insure such crops. 

Extraordinary yields need not be expected every year, but crop failure would be 
practically unknown, every year might be "a very good year," and 1915 years would 
come just the same only not quite so strikingly. 

The key to the situation is the man. Let the man cultivate better and follow a 
suitable rotation and crop failure becomes a myth. 

Let us consider this matter from the crop rotation side. 

Crops Needed by the Farmer 

Farmers in Canada require to grow crops likely to give profitable returns in the 
form of seeds, that is, grain crops. At the same time they need large quantities of 
forage, that is, such crops as yield rough feed suitable for live stock must be grown, for 
instance, clover, timothy, roots and corn for ensilage. 

Effects of Certain Crops on Succeeding Crops 

Clover or pasture sods, when turned under, leave the soil in most excellent condition 
for the production of forage crops, such as roots and corn. Soils which have been 
occupied by roots or corn have lost by the end of the season a considerable proportion 
of the humus they contained at seeding time. They are, however, compacted and in 
most excellent shape for growing grain. The grain crops grown upon fields which have 
been under some hoed crop the previous year are likely to give large yields of seed with 
a comparatively small proportion of straw, the ideal condition for most profitable 
returns. 

It is evident, therefore, that each crop affects the condition of the soil in its own 
peculiar way, and that the condition in which a soil finds itself, after having borne a 
certain crop, is nearly always the condition best suited for the production of some other 
crop. 

Having observed the peculiarities of crops as to food requirements, conditions of 
growth and residual effects upon the soil, it is evident that it should be possible to work 
out a succession of crops where the soil condition after each would be such as best suited 
the growth of the next. Arranging crops in this way is called "Rotation of Crops." 

ROTATION OF CROPS 

Rotation of crops means the following of one crop with another in regular and ever 
recurring or repeated succession. Rotation comes from the word "rotare," meaning 
"to turn round." Thence a rotation might possibly include only two crops, as for 
instance, hay and grain alternately for a long period of time. Generally speaking, how- 
ever, a longer rotation that is a succession of crops including a greater diversity, is 
meant when one uses the term rotation. 

42 



Crop Rotations for Eastern Canada 

As rotations possible in Eastern Canada, and as rotations likely to give satisfactory 
results, I might mention the following: — 

"A" — Three year rotation — Grain-hay-hay or pasture. 

"B" — Three year rotation — Hoed crop grain-hay. 

"C" — Four year rotation — Hoed crop-grain-hay or pasture-hay or pasture. 

"D" — Five year rotation — Hoed crop-grain-hay-grain-hay or pasture. 

"E" — Five year rotation — Hoed crop-grain-hay-pasture-grain. 

"F" — Six year rotation — Hoed crop-grain-grain-hay-hay or pasture-pasture. 

Some Remarks on Rotations 

Rotation "A," of three years' duration, is one suited for the farmer who cannot, 
on account of the character of his land, or who does not care for some other reason to 
grow any considerable area of roots, or other hoed crop. This rotation: — 

First year — grain, seeded down with 10 lbs. red clover, 2 lbs. alsike and 12 lbs. 
timothy per acre. Second year — timothy or pasture, will provide a large quantity of 
forage and at the same time do much toward building up or improving the soil on the 
farm. On a 100-acre farm in Ontario on which this rotation was used for six years the 
crop producing powers of the soil were practically doubled, and in this particular case 
very little barnyard manure was used. 

Rotation "B," of three years' duration: — 

First year — hoed crop, followed by second year grain, seeded down with clover 
and timothy, say 10 lbs. red clover, 2 lbs. alsike and 6 lbs. timothy per acre. Third 
year — hay or pasture, is a rotation likely to give very large returns in the way of crop 
produced and net profit per acre. It is a rotation peculiarly well fitted for certain 
districts in eastern Canada, where farms usually include considerable areas of rough 
land fit for pasture, but not available for crop production. On such farms the division 
of the arable land into three equal or nearly equal areas and the following thereon of 
the rotation described, will enable the farmer to carry a much larger number of cattle, 
and will insure his getting much bigger returns than where a longer rotation is followed 
and a relatively smaller proportion of the arable land given over to the production of 
forage crops such as corn, roots and clover hay. On the Experimental Farm, Ottawa, 
this rotation has proven to be by much the most profitable of all rotations tried. 

Rotation "C," a four year rotation, including: — 

First year — hoed crop; followed by second year — grain, seeded down with say, 
10 lbs. red clover, 2 lbs. alsike, 12 lbs. timothy per acre. Third year — hay or pasture. 
Fourth year — hay or pasture. 

This rotation recommends itself for use on farms where most of the land is 
arable and where provision has to be made for pasturing, to some extent at least, on 
arable land. It has the advantage of sod being turned down once in four years, of 
clover occupying the land, to a greater or lesser extent, three years out of four, and of 
being under pasture to some extent the third or fourth year. This rotation would 
probably suit a light, sandy soil, even better than rotation "B," since rotation "B" 
in the case of light, sandy soils would probably have a tendency to open up or loosen 
the soil too much. 

Rotation "D," of five years duration, as follows: — 

First year — hoed crop. Second year — grain, seeded down with 10 lbs. red clover, 
2 lbs. alsike and 6 lbs. timothy per acre. Third year — hay, land ploughed in fall. 
Fourth year — grain, seeded down with 10 lbs. red clover, 2 lbs. alsike and 6 lbs. timothy 
per acre. Fifth year — hay or pasture, land to be left unploughed till the following 
spring, manure to be applied during the winter and turned under with a shallow furrow 
for corn production the sixth year, or the first year of the new cycle of rotation. Such 
parts of the hoed crop field as it is desired to devote to roots or potatoes should be 

43 



ploughed in late summer the year previous. Immediately after ploughing the land 
should be rolled, disc harrowed and worked down to insure rotting of the sod. Short 
manure or rotted manure should be applied during the fall or winter and worked in 
on the surface preparatory to growing roots or corn next year. This rotation does not 
allow for the production of timothy hay, but provides a very large supply of clover 
hay suitable for most live stock, and is certain to give large grain crops, both after corn 
and after the clover. The crop coming after clover is likely to be somewhat heavier in 
the straw, but on a stock farm (the kind of farm for which such a rotation is fitted) an 
extra amount of straw is always valuable. This rotation, since it allows for growing 
grain on two-fifths of the whole area, may recommend itself to such farmers as desire 
to grow all the grain feed they require on the farms. 

Rotation "E" is similar to rotation "D." It, however, allows for the production 
of some timothy hay. It is as follows: — 

First year — hoed crop. Second year — grain, seeded down 10 lbs. red clover, 2 lbs. 
alsike and 12 lbs. timothy per acre. Third year — clover hay or pasture. Fourth 
year — timothy hay or pasture, the land under timothy hay or in pasture to be ploughed 
in August with a shallow furrow, rolled, disced and harrowed to insure breaking down or 
rotting of the sod, and harrowed at intervals during the fall to destroy weeds and get 
the soil into good working condition. In early October this land should be ploughed 
again with slightly deeper furrow, or else ridged up with a double mouldboard plough 
and left for the winter. 

Fifth year — grain, seeded down 10 to 12 lbs. red clover per acre. This clover is 
allowed to grow all fall, manure applied during the winter and the whole mass of clover 
and manure turned down in May for corn or roots. This rotation, while not yielding 
quite as large a proportion of forage as rotation "B" or "C," has the advantage of allow- 
ing the farmer to grow more grain, and so providing for almost all his feeds on the 
home farm. It is a rotation that can be safely recommended to any farmer interested 
in dairying or beef production in eastern Canada. 

Rotation "F" is of six years' duration, and might be of various forms. The form 
given above: — 

First year — hoed crop; second year — grain; third year — grain: fourth )^ear — hay; 
fifth year — hay or pasture; sixth year — pasture, is probably not the best arrangement of 
crops, but it is the rotation most commonly followed in many parts of Canada. It has 
the disadvantage of trying to grow two grain crops in succession. Were it modified to 
read: First year — hoed crop; second year — grain; third year — hay; fourth year — hay; 
fifth year — pasture; sixth year — grain, it would be likely co prove more satisfactory, 
both as a rotation for producing large quantities of forage and as a rotation for keeping 
the farm in good condition. 

Some Reasons for Adoption of a Rotation 

Any one of these rotations carefully followed and the cultural operations con- 
nected therewith performed at the right time and in the right way would be sure to 
increase tremendously the crop production of any given farm, and at the same time 
increase but slightly, if at all, the cost of production. In addition to the increased 
returns and lower cost of production per unit of crop, the following advantages might 
be anticipated from the introduction of a rotation into the farming operations of the 
average eastern Canada farmer: — 

1. The cost of fencing on farms where live stock are kept would be materially 
reduced, since it would be necessary to fence off only three, four or five fields instead of 
fifteen or twenty as is very commonly the case. Farmers of course do not always fence 
off each small field, still, where fields are not fenced, the disadvantage of being unable 
to pasture any given area when conditions were such as to invite such treatment, and 
the trouble of driving cattle across unfenced fields to reach other fields, would more than 

44 



make up for the extra cost incurred in the construction of suitable fences. The intro- 
duction of a rotation including a few properly fenced fields would do away with all 
trouble in this respect. 

2. All cultural operations of one kind would be in one field, thus lowering the cost 
of reducing the travelling necessary from one small plot to another. All corn or hoed 
crops would be together, all grain crops in one group, and all hay crops in another, 
hence much time would be saved, and so cost of production lowered. 

3. Larger machinery . could be used. Where fields are few they are sure to be 
larger, and larger fields can always be handled more cheaply with large machinery. 

4. Every field would receive its fair proportion of barnyard manure, and receive 
this manure at regular intervals. In this way every part of the farm would be kept in 
good tilth, and the whole farm kept up to its highest producing possibilities. As 
operations are usually conducted on farms where no rotation is practised, certain fields 
adjacent to the farm buildings or supposedly possessing some peculiar soil characteristics 
are usually favoured to the disadvantage of the rest of the farm. Many farms include 
small areas upon which practically all the manure is lavished each year, greatly to the 
detriment of the rest of the farm, and much to the disadvantage of the owner. The 
influence of a rotation in improving conditions in this respect can hardly be over- 
estimated. 

5. Considerably less labour is required to keep fields in good condition where a 
rotation is followed. While it might be claimed that ploughing a field every third or 
fourth year would involve a large amount of labour, it can be stated on the other hand 
that performing these cultural operations more frequently permits of their being per- 
formed much more easily year by year. At the same time, if careful record be kept 
of the amount of labour upon a field where no rotation is followed, it will probably be 
found that practically just as many hours of horse labour or man labour have been spent 
as where under a short rotation. 

6. Fields under long rotations or no rotations are almost certain to become infested 
to a greater or less extent with weeds. Fields under a short rotation are practically 
always clean, provided of course that the cultural operations are properly performed. 
The value of the rotation in helping eradicate all injurious plant life is a point the 
importance of which cannot be too much impressed upon our farmers in eastern Canada 
to-day, where weeds are so exceedingly prevalent. 

Many other minor points might be cited in favour of the introduction of a rotation. 
The above should, however, suffice to indicate its value on the farm. The rotation, as 
I have attempted to demonstrate, is important, but no rotation can make up for poor 
cultivation or faulty soil treatment. 



WINTER PREPARATIONS FOR CROP PRODUCTION ON 

THE PRAIRIES 

J. H. GRISDALE, Director, Dominion Experimental Farms, Ottawa. 

The demand for all grains will very probably be good in the fall of 1916. It will 
therefore be all the more advisable to produce as large crops as possible. 

"Increase the area" alone, is a poor watchword. "As much as can be properly 
handled" is the right idea. 

Early on the land, with everything ready beforehand and a fixed determination to 
put the seed in well and to put in as many acres as you can possibly do well, will work 
wonders in the way of raising the average acre yield and increasing the average acreage 
under grain for each farmer. 

45 



Thorough preparation of the land intended for grain is not only advisable but an 
absolute necessity on the prairies. Here, where the growing season is short at best, no 
one can afford to neglect any precaution likely to hasten germination, insure steady 
growth, or in some measure guarantee early ripening. 

Motive Power and Implements. — Whether horses, oxen, steam tractor or gasoline 
tractor be used to do the farm work, care should be taken to have them in good shape 
for work before actual seeding operations begin. Horses or oxen in poor flesh or long 
idle cannot be expected to do good work when the rush begins. Feed well for some weeks 
before seeding can possibly begin and give considerable exercise with a view to getting 
them into condition for the rush at seed time. 

Tractors, whether steam or gas, should be thoroughly overhauled and tried out 
some weeks ahead of seed time. Repairs come slowly when the land lies ready; better 
have a few of the more commonly needed parts or repairs on hand before work really 
begins. Do these things now. 



SEED TIME SUGGESTIONS FOR THE PRAIRIES 

J. H. GRISDALE, Director, Dominion Experimental Farms, Ottawa. 
SOIL PREPARATION FOR WHEAT, OATS AND BARLEY 

On Summer-fallowed Land. — The treatment to give the land both before and 
after seeding depends upon the character of the soil and the fall preparation. 

All land should be harrowed as soon as it is possible to get thereon in the Spring. 
The harrowing helps warm it up and conserves moisture. 

All land should be in good shape for seed, that is, fairly fine on the surface, quite 
firm and as smooth as possible before any seed is sown thereon. 

After you think the field is just right, give it another stroke of the harrow. Thorough, 
yes, extraordinary soil preparation pays and pays well. 

On Stubble Land — For fall ploughed stubble land the treatment should be the 
same. 

Unploughed stubble land to be sown to wheat might be burnt over the first warm, 
windy day in the spring, then given one or two cuts with the harrow before seeding and 
once over after seeding. 

If stubble will not burn readily or if it is moderately short and therefore need not 
be burned over, double disc before seeding and harrow afterwards. 

When it is intended to sow stubble land to oats or barley, spring ploughing 4 or 5 
inches deep will be found to be the best preparation. If not possible to plough then 
treat as for wheat. 

For Flax — Flax is usually a profitable crop. It may be sown on any kind of soil. 
Unlike other crops, it will even do well on prairie breaking provided it is sown not later 
than May. 

On Breaking. — Break or plough 3 inches deep, disc well and sow. Roll or pack 
before discing if breaking is rough or broken, roll or pack after seeding if a good job of 
breaking was done. Sow 30 to 40 pounds of seed to the acre. 

QUANTITIES OF SEED TO SOW 

Wheat. — The quantity of wheat to sow to the acre, while an important matter, 
is one that must be decided at the time of seeding and according to the season and the 
condition of the land. 

Thick or heavy seeding usually matures more quickly than thin or light seeding. 

Light, poor land Will not carry satisfactorily as heavy a seeding as strong, rich soil. 

46 



A safe rule is to sow from \\i to 13^ bushels of wheat to the acre on a good strong 
summer-fallow, the lighter seeding if put in early, a considerably heavier seeding if late 
in season before seeding is done. 

On stubble land a considerably lighter seeding should be given. If the land is 
rather dry, possibly 3 pecks per acre would give the best results. 

Oats and Barley. — Oats and barley should be sown as soon as possible after 
wheat is in. The same general directions as to relative quantities of seed apply as in the 
case of wheat. Sow 1^ to 2^ bushels seed to the acre according to fall preparation 
and character of the soil. 

Flax. — Flax should be sown on summer-fallow or new land at from 30 to 40 pounds 
to the acre, the lighter seeding on lighter soil and heavy seeding on strong, rich soil. 
Do not sow too early, May 15th is quite sufficiently early. On stubble lands a lighter 
seeding should be given, say 25 to 30 lbs. to the acre. 

In tabular form below are summarized the rates of seeding for the above crops: — 

Rates of Seeding to Acre 

On Summer-fallow or On Stubble 
New Land 

Wheat \y±X.o\y 2 bus. M to 1M bus. 

Oats IK to 2Y 2 bus. V/ 2 to 1% bus. 

Barley 1% to 2Y 2 bus. 1 to V>A bus. 

Flax 30 to 40 lbs. 25 to 30 lbs. 

THE SEED 

1. All grain should be treated for smut before seeding. Steep in bluestone or 
formalin solution. (For full instructions see below.) 

2. See that you are sowing deep enough but not too deep. 

(a) On summer-fallowed land sow about two and one-half inches deep. 

(b) On stubble land sow about three and one-half inches deep. 

(c) If ground is rather dry at seeding time, sow a little deeper. 

(d) If ground is fairly damp, a little less pressure is needed. 

3. If ground is very loose, pack either before or after seeding. 

4. Do the seeding early. Early-sown crops have a considerably better chance of 
giving good returns than late sown crops. 

Germination Test. — If not sure of the germinating qualities of your seed try it 
out before sowing. 

Send a sample to the Dominion Government Seed Laboratories at Calgary or 
Ottawa or, what will answer the purpose quite as well and possibly better, test it yourself. 

To do this v proceed as follows: Count out a hundred kernels the run of the grain, 
sow in some of your own soil in a shallow box placed in a sunny window and kept at 
comfortable living-room temperature. Keep soil damp but not wet. Note the growth 
for two weeks. If only part of the seeds germinate or if the plants grow very slowly 
it will be necessary to sow proportionally more seed to the acre. 

TREATMENT FOR SMUT 

The cost of treating grain for Smut is so very low as compared to the increased 
yield likely to result therefrom that it should be considered as one of the indispensable 
practices of every grain grower. 

Always treat wheat and oats. 

The following treatments will be found most effective: 

Bluestone Solution.— 5 lbs. commercial bluestone to 50 Imperial gallons 
water. 

47 



Formalin Solution. — 1 lb. of formalin (normal strength) to 40 Imperial gallons 
of water. 

Steeping Method. — In bluestone solution, immerse grain not less than two 
minutes — not more than three minutes. In formalin solution, not less than four 
minutes and not more than five minutes. 

Sprinkling Method. — Heap grain on clean floor. Sprinkle either solution over it 
with broom or can; mix well. 40 gallons will treat 40-50 bushels of grain. When using 
bluestone, spread out to dry at once after mixing; form grain into piles when using 
formalin, and cover for three hours with bags — then spread out and dry. 

Moist grain cannot feed the drill as freely as dry grain — adjust your drill. 

Note. — For detailed information on subject, ask for Exhibition Circular 24 or 
Experimental Farms Bulletion 73, Publications Branch, Ottawa, Ont. 

PREPARE FOR NEXT YEAR'S CROP 

Once the seeding is done for this year begin to get ready for next year's crop. 

Too much importance cannot be attached to early and through preparation for the 
next year. 

The proper and necessary preparation is the summer-fallowing of at least one-third 
of the cropping area where that area or any part thereof has been under crop for more 
than one year. 

Two crops will almost invariably exhaust the moisture in any given area in Sas- 
katchewan or Southern Alberta. In the drier parts of these provinces, as, for example, 
South-western Saskatchewan and Southern Alberta, one crop on summer-fallow usually 
reduces the soil moisture to such a low percentage as to suggest the necessity for another 
summer-fallow. Hence, in these parts, it is frequently advisable to summer-fallow 
every second year instead of every third year as recommended for parts somewhat 
more favourably situated as to rainfall. 

Summer-fallowing Methods. — The summer-fallow treatment should be begun 
by giving the field a good ploughing. Plough from 7 to 8 inches deep. Plough in the 
fore part of June and thus prepare the land to receive and hold the June and July rains. 
Harrow right after ploughing or better still at the same time, certainly not later than the 
next day. There is only one right way to handle the land after ploughing. Instructions 
as to handling might however be given in several apparently distinct sentences, although 
they all amount to the same thing, thus: 

1. Cultivate the summer-fallow frequently throughout the growing season, or 

2. Keep the summer-fallow black, or 

3. Maintain a mulch or dust coat on the fallow, or 

4. Do not allow weeds to grow on the summer-fallow. 

FIELD CROPS IN MANITOBA 

PROFESSOR T. J. HARRISON, B.S.A., Professor of Field Husbandry, 
Manitoba Agricultural College 

Methods of Land Preparation — Due to the heavy crop and adverse weather 
conditions during threshing time, this operation was greatly delayed, with a 
consequence that very little land in the Province has been fall ploughed, and prepared 
for wheat. The high price of wheat last spring also induced many farmers to sow 
more wheat than they would have done in an ordinary year. The result is that a 
much less amount of summer-fallow has been prepared, so that the spring of 19i6 will 
find the farmers of this Province with only a small amount of land prepared for wheat. 
The result will be that a large amount of wheat will have to be sown on spring ploughing. 
This being true, the best method of preparing the land should be employed. The 

48 



results from a number of experiments conducted both at the College and Experimental 
Farms throughout the West seem to indicate that the best method of preparing stubble 
land for wheat is by ploughing about 4 or 5 inches deep, packing and harrowing the 
same day as ploughed and sowing the seed before the ground has had a chance to 
dry out. The same method of preparation will also apply to land for oats and barley. 
If the season should become dry after seeding, the data that has been obtained so far 
would seem to indicate that it would pay to harrow the growing grain. The first 
harrowing should be given just as the grain is peeping through the ground and the 
second harrowing deferred until the grain is from 4 to 6 inches high. The kind of 
harrow that is used will depend upon the implements the farmer has on hand and the 
capital he wishes to invest in implements. The lever harrow, with the teeth slanted 
slightly backwards, gives the best satisfaction, but any light harrow can be used to 
good advantage, and many farmers are using the ordinary diamond drag harrow. 

Variety of Crop to be Sown — Throughout the southern part of Manitoba either 
Marquis or Red Fife wheat can be used to good advantage. In the northern portion 
of the Province, especially where there is danger of frost, Marquis will give the best 
satisfaction, while in the very northern districts Prelude may be sown. In these latter 
districts it is usually more profitable to use some earlier maturing crop, such as oats or 
barley. In practically every district in the Province, Victory and Banner oats give 
best satisfaction, while O.A.C. No. 21 and Manchurian barley are the best of the 
6-rowed types. Among the 2-rowed sorts, Canadian Thorpe is considered good. 

Seed and Seeding — After the variety has been decided upon, the next important 
operation is selecting good seed of that variety. If best results are to be obtained, it 
should be absolutely pure, that is, free from both weed seeds and other kinds of grain. 
The next point to be considered is its viability. If best results are to be obtained the 
seed should germinate at least 80%. Some of the seed for the spring of 1916 will not 
be of a very high quality because of the unusual weather conditions of the fall of 1915. 
Some of the oats are frosted, the wheat sprouted and the barley weathered, which will 
cause a very low germination; therefore, before the seed is sown it should be tested for 
germination. If the seed is low in vitality, other seed should be procured, or if that 
cannot be done, a larger quantity of seed should be sown per acre. Before seeding 
any of these grains, they should be treated for smut, using either a solution of formalin 
or bluestone. The wheat should be sown as soon as the ground can be worked and 
not sown later than May 16th. Oats can be sown from the last week in 
April until about May 20th; barley can be sown from the last week in April until 
the first week in June. The amount of seed sown per acre will depend upon the vitality 
of the seed, the preparation of the land and the amount of rainfall. With seed of 
average germination and soil well prepared, in Manitoba, usually 1J^ bushels of wheat, 
2 bushels of oats and \% bushels of barley will give good results. 

Forage and Root Crops — On every farm some live stock should be kept, and 
this will necessitate the growing of forage and root crops. While corn last year was 
badly damaged by frost, this should not discourage the growing of this valuable crop, 
and every farmer should sow at least five acres. The variety that gives best results 
generally throughout the Province is Northwestern Dent. The seed of corn should be 
secured early, as there is likely to be a shortage. 

Where summer pasture is to be supplied, spring rye, oats, barley and peas can be 
used to good advantage. The cereals can be mixed together in about equal parts and 
sown two bushels of cereal to one of peas. If late fall pasture is required, it can be 
obtained by sowing winter rye and rape or turnips.* Every farmer should plan, how- 
ever, to seed down a small portion with grass and clover to supply both hay and pasture. 
Unless the land is useless for other purposes, it should be sown with the intention of 
breaking it up in about two years for other crops; if it is to be used for hay, timothy, 
Western rye and red clover can be used to good advantage; if it is to be used for 

49 



pasture, Western rye, brome and red clover may be used. Tf there is danger of the 
brome becoming too persistent, English blue grass might be substituted. 

A few roots should be grown on every farm. Among the turnips, the Perfection 
Swede is best; Mammoth Long Mangel will also unually give a high yield. 

Weed Control — Last fall being very wet, many of the perennial weeds were not 
killed, and consequently we may expect to find in our summer-fallows more sow thistle, 
Canada thistle and quack grass than we had last year. Wild oats and other annual 
weeds should not be so thick. On land that has to be cropped, the best method of 
controlling the latter class will be to harrow the growing crop. While the prices of 
grain will have a tendency to induce many farmers to crop as much land as possible, 
they should be careful to crop only that which is in good condition and summer- fallow 
the poorest and weediest fields. 

Marketing — The market for cereals will undoubtedly be good again next fall 
because there will t?e a big demand for wheat and oats. It may not, however, be as 
strong as this past year because of the large amount of grain being held by farmers. 
While, no doubt, a large amount has been put on the market, every farmer is holding 
one or two carloads until spring. This is largely because prices this past two or three 
years have been much better during May and June than they were during the previous 
fall. 

Labour — One of the biggest drawbacks to the production of large amounts of 
farm produce this year will be the scarcity of labour. Recruiting is taking away 
many of the men from the farm who are not very busy during the winter time, but 
are required for the sowing and harvesting of the crops, so that the farmer should 
plan to secure his labour early and in this way sow only the amount of crop that he 
can harvest. 



SOME TIMELY HINTS 

PROFESSOR S. A. BEDFORD, Manitoba Department of Agriculture. 

The summer-fallows of Manitoba ought to be more thoroughly cultivated than 
hitherto. Only on such fallows as are kept perfectly bare of weed growth during the 
whole season will perennial weeds be eradicated. 

As summer-fallows are better prepared, only Marquis wheat should be sown 
thereon, Red Fyfe lodges too readily on well worked fallows. Mensury barley and 
Banner oats still give the best results in yield and quality. 

Wheat should be seeded as soon as the land works freely, but not later than May 
7th to 10th. Sow oats as early in May as possible and barley from May 7th until 
June 1st. Sow as deeply as possible in light dry or loose soil and shallow on wet or 
stiff soil. 

Thoroughly harrow the field after seeding, and if annual weeds are plentiful harrow 
the crop with a weeder or harrow. 

As to the eradication of wild oats, it may be noted that skin ploughing in the 
fall gives excellent results. 

Fodder corn is a very satisfactory fodder crop here. It yields well and is one 5f 
the best crops for the eradication of weeds. Soiling crops and grain cut green for hay 
are also useful for weed eradication. 

Manitoba farmers should provide themselves with more granary room and not 
rush their grain to market all at once. 

50 



THE SASKATCHEWAN CROP GROWERS' PLANS IN 

WAR TIME 

PROF. JOHN BRACKEN, Professor of Field Husbandry, University of 

Saskatchewan. 

To those of us who are not in khaki but who are nevertheless anxious to do their 
share in bringing victory to the Allies' cause the question of modifying our farm practices 
to meet the needs of the present crisis is one that deserves our most serious consideration. 

The call has come to the Canadian farmer to increase his production, because, in 
this way, he can be of very material service to the Empire. No one doubts the favour- 
able effect a large crop will have on our staying powers in this war. The question is, 
can we get the larger crop? 

We produced 10,543,796 acres of grain in 1915. We fallowed 2,043,841 acres of 
land and "broke" 729,553 acres of virgin prairie. 

The fallow is practically ready for seeding without extra work. Where it has been 
done well no additional cultivation other than mulching by surface tillage is necessary 
or advisable. Where it has not been done well it is too late now to do anything that 
will make it right; although no doubt, many poorly prepared fields may yet be improved 
by suitable cultivation in the spring. Our fallow can be depended upon to produce some 
crop. The climatic conditions will determine whether it will be large or small. 

Much of the "breaking" can still be improved, but the time for doing the best wcrk 
on this land is also past. We can yet see, however, that a suitable seed-bed is prepared 
and that poorly cultivated land is surface tilled. The breaking lends itself more to 
improvement than the fallow. It is not so sure to give us a crop as the fallow, but more 
sure to do so than the stubble land. 

Of the 10,500,000 odd acres that were cropped this year, very little has received 
any preparation for next year's crop. Under ordinary circumstances at least 3,500,000 
acres of this land should be fallowed. This would leave 7,000,000 acres of stubble 
land to prepare for a crop. The Provincial Department of Agriculture estimates that 
1,730,000 acres of this have been fall ploughed, leaving over 5,250,000 acres yet in 
stubble. 

Under these conditions what is to be done? Shall we sow ill-prepared land and take 
a chance, as, fortunately, many of us did in 1915, or, shall we sow only the land that 
can be well prepared? In other words shall we, having made a fortunate stroke, take 
another turn at the wheel, or shall we play safe? There can be no doubt that the 
latter is the better plan, not only for the nation but also for the individual. 

The Empire's needs must receive first consideration from the farmer as well as 
from the soldier. But poor farm practice will not result in satisfying the Empire's 
needs. If we expect that the war will be concluded within from twelve to twenty 
months, the most patriotic among us may be led to sow all or nearly all of our land, 
including a portion or all of what should be fallowed. We would serve an immediate 
need at the expense of the future. We would take chances on our 1916 crop and run 
an even greater risk with the crop of the following year. 

Without a reasonable amount of fallowed land in 1916, what would be our contri- 
bution to the Empire's needs in 1917, providing the war continues two years or more? 
Where would the individual be financially? It is conceivable that the 1917 crop might 
be a failure. It is not only conceivable, but it is quite probable, that it would be a 
small one — small in direct proportion to the absence of fallowed land. 

Ordinarily the stubble land that is cropped is either fall ploughed, spring ploughed, 
burned and surface cultivated, or sown on the stubble without any cultivation. Less 
than one-quarter of the estimated stubble land to be sown was ploughed last fall. It is 
possible that an equal proportion was disced. This leaves at least 3,500,000 acres to 
be prepared in the spring. If the spring opens up early, some spring ploughing can be 
done for wheat and more for oats. This year, on account of the long stubble, much of 
the land can fortunately be burned and cultivated, and thus fairly well prepared at 

51 



low cost. But such preparation is not sufficient for grassy land, nor for tight clay 
soils, nor for some weedy fields. It may be sufficient for immediate returns on other 
soils that are in good condition. 

But some of this land will be sown without ploughing, or burning, or discing. 
Grassy fields, or those cropped two or more years without ploughing are likely to fail 
under this treatment. Fields in good condition, and only one year removed from fallow, 
may return a net profit by this practice if the season is a moist one; but even under 
favourable conditions such preparation is sure to lower rather than increase our total 
production, and if the season is unfavourable such fields are likely to result in a loss to 
the owner as well as to the nation. 

Generally speaking our total production can be increased in proportion to the intelli- 
gent work we put on the land and to the power at our command for adequately tilling 
the soil. At average prices for wheat, the net profit to the producer may not be increased 
by additional cultivation after land has been reasonably well prepared, but as long as 
high prices prevail it will pay to do more intensive work than we have ever done before. 

It would seem that Saskatchewan farmers during this testing time will be able to 
9erve the Empire best, 

(1) By concentrating our best thought and greatest effort, not in sowing 
every acre under cultivation, but in sowing all the land we can prepare well and 
by fallowing the balance; 

(2) By using standard varieties of standard crops, and seed that is free from 
weeds and disease and that will grow vigorously; 

(3) By preventing, as far as possible, the present waste of energy, time and 
power on the farm, and by increasing the efficiency of the capital and equipment at 
our disposal ; 

(4) By putting into practice only tested and proven methods of crop pro- 
duction. 

We must not forget that in a semi-arid northern climate crops do not grow large 
and get ripe merely because it is our wish that they do so. Neither should we build 
our hopes on having another season such as the one just past. We must, rather, 
remember that our efforts during the next year or two years, as in all the years that are 
to come, will be crowned with success in exact proportion to the intelligent application 
of the energy and the brains we apply to the undertaking. 



PREPARATION OF SEED BED FOR OATS IN SASKATCHEWAN 

M. J. TINLINE, B.S.A., Acting Superintendent, Dominion Experimental Farm, 

Scott, Sask. " „ 

Some interesting data has been secured in connection with the preparation and treat- 
ment afforded new land for growing oats. A part of a field that had been broken in 
1914, was measured off in 5 acre divisions; the work on this field in 1914 was such as is 
usually given by the best farmers, i.e., it was packed and double disced within three 
weeks after breaking, and double disced and harrowed with a smoothing harrow in the 
autumn. In the early spring, all the plots were given a stroke with the smoothing 
harrow. Ligowo Oats were sown at the rate of 2J^ bus. per acre»on April 30th. The 
crop was harvested on August 25th and 26th. 

The additional treatment and results secured are given in the following table, — 
Plot Treatment Yield per acre. 

Bus. Lbs. 

1. Harrowed, sown, packed, harrowed when grain was 

6" high 94 ' 2 

4. Harrowed, floated, sown 93 2 

3. Harrowed, sown, packed after seeding 88 25 

2. Harrowed, sown 83 2 

52 



The extra treatment given these plots is additional to that usually afforded new 
land in Saskatchewan, and the results prove that more work can be put on new land 
with profit. 

The packer used was the surface packer. The smoothing harrow the ordinary 
diamond harrow. The float is a wooden drag, made after a plan of the one used by 
Seager Wheeler, and is very similar in construction to the ordinary drag used in levelling 
roads. 



RATE OF SEEDING IN ALBERTA 

G. H. HUTTON, B.S.A., Superintendent, Dominion Experimental Farm, 

Lacombe, Alta. 

The problem of determining the best amount of seed to sow to the acre is a many- 
sided one, involving such considerations as rainfall, ability of the soil to hold moisture, 
soil preparation and other factors. Experiments were begun at this station in 1908 f 
and continued for four years. At Lethbridge in Southern Alberta, similar experiments 
have been conducted. These should form a fairly safe guide. From results obtained 
we have felt warranted in recommending the use of larger quantities of seed than were 
thought best a few years ago. 

Our present field practice is to sow 3 bushels of Marquis wheat per acre on summer 
fallow, breaking, or following corn, roots or potatoes; of oats, 3 to 314 bushels, and of 
barley, 2 to 2^£ bushels, on fall-ploughed stubble land. 

In the drier districts to the south and east of Lacombe it would not be practicable 
to use such liberal quantities as this, but heavier seeding should be practised in those 
districts than has frequently been recommended. We recommend not less than 1H 
bushels of wheat on well worked summer-fallow and breaking. While this may prove 
too much in some years, there are other years when the use of this quantity will insure 
against frost by inducing early maturity. 

Results at Lethbridge indicate that wheat should be sown at the rate of 105 pounds 
to the acre on non-irrigated land. This is much heavier than was usually recommended 
a few years ago; but it is based on four years' experiments, and should cover a fairly 
average group of seasons. 

I should not feel justified in advising a general increase beyond the rates above 
indicated in the amount of seed to be used next spring. Spring ploughing dries out 
more rapidly than fall ploughing, and if a dry season should follow, such advice would 
give bad results. 



Individual Experiences showing what Good Cultivation will do. 

A farmer near Briercrest reports that from 90 acres summer-fallow on which an 
outfit worked exclusively during 1914 — that is after seeding up to harvest time — he, 
this year threshed 4,843 bushels of wheat, almost 54 bushels per acre. On 40 acres 
stubble he had 1,503 bushels, an average of 2Q}4 bushels per acre. He had 23 acres 
of oats on summer-fallow, which yielded 2,065 bushels, and 50 acres on stubble, which 
gave 1,150 bushels. The stubble for both wheat and oats was disced and harrowed last 
fall and disced and harrowed this spring, and thoroughly well worked. 

In our August issue we referred to crops in Tp. 12, Ranges 5 and 6, west of 3rd, as 
the best seen on the trip. We estimated yields at from 40 to 50 bushels per acre, for 
there were no weeds. The owner of the machine who did the threshing in this district 
reports as follows: "I have kept account of yields; some farms have yielded 50 bushels 
per acre, the lowest 40. Some stubble fields averaged 45 bushels per acre. Oats 80 
to 110 bushels per acre. Mr. B's wheat, east of his barn, gave 45 bushels per acre. 



He cut it too green, and it shrank badly. It should have gone away over 50 bushels. 
This is the field reported on the first week in July as the best stand I had ever seen in 
Western Canada. Special note was made of these farms as having no weeds. 

A farmer, 8 miles north-east of Caron, had a small field of 8 acres extra well culti- 
vated, part of it in potatoes last year, which yielded him 550 bushels of wheat this year, 
that is 68% bushels per acre. 

Hundreds, yes, thousands of similar reports might be given from Swift Current, 
Cabri, Vanguard, Pontiex, Maple Creek, Rosetown and Kerrobert districts. 

— "The Saskatchewan Farmer." 



SIX REASONS AGAINST THE ONE-CROP SYSTEM 

First: — A one-crop system is unsafe economically because it is dependent upon 
crop conditions and market conditions. 

Second: — It does not maintain soil fertility. 

Third: — No permanent system of agriculture has been devised that does not 
include a reasonable livestock industry. 

Fourth: — A one-crop system does not permit of economical farm management. 

Fifth: — Under the one-crop system the returns come in but once a year. 

Sixth: — The one-crop system limits knowledge and narrows citizenship. 



Diversification is the biggest and most vital, the most hopeful and helpful word 
in the story of better farming. It is farm insurance and the beginning of farm profit 
and permanency. It means raising and feeding more crops on the farm, thus getting 
two prices and the manure from them — it means something frequently going to market 
and cash as frequently coming back. 

A well-balanced business insures against losses and provides a much better utiliza- 
tion of the labour and equipment. 



JUST ONCE MORE 

M. CUM MING, Secretary for Agriculture, Truro, Nova Scotia. 

"I have harvested a bigger crop of potatoes and roots than any farmer in this 
community, and as good a crop as I ever put in my barns in any season, and yet the 
neighbours are all talking about their small yields of these crops this year." So said 
a farmer living in a community in Nova Scotia, where crop correspondents report 
only fifty per cent, of a potato yield and seventy-five per cent, of the usual yield of 
roots. "And how do you account for this?" said the person to whom the remark 
was addressed. "Well," remarked the farmer, "the only reason I can give is that I 
had a relative staying with me on the farm this year, and when I could not think of 
anything else for him to do, I told him to go out and run the cultivator through the 
potatoes and roots." "Probably my fields were thus cultivated two or three times 
more than those of my neighbours. This is the only reason I can give for my big 
crops." 

Everybody knows in a sort of a way that cultivation pays, but an extended obser- 
vation of the farms, at least in Eastern Canada, leads the writer to say that, so far as 
practice is concerned, the whole lesson has not yet been learned. "How often shall I 
harrow this field before seeding it downr" said a boy of my acquaintance to his father, 

54 



who was well known as a good farmer. "Harrow as often as you think right and then 
harrow once more," replied the father. The boy who told me this incident added 
that father always grew big crops of oats. 

There is sound scientific knowledge behind each of these incidents and the know- 
ledge is of a kind that every farmer should bear in mind in the year 1916 as never 
before. Big crops are needed. Big crops we must have. Fertilizers, which are largely 
used in the East, are from twenty to thirty per cent, higher than they were before the 
war broke out, and while one fears that the high prices may lead to farmers using 
less fertilizer than usual, yet the fact remains that better cultivation than usual with 
a smaller application of fertilizer will give bigger results. 

The average of some two hundred soils of Nova Scotia recently analyzed in the 
chemical laboratory at the Agricultural College shows that each acre of the depth of 
six inches contains four thousand pounds of nitrogen, three thousand pounds of phos- 
phoric acid and five thousands pounds of potash. In comparison, a 45 bushel crop of 
oats plus straw will remove from the soil 52 lbs. of nitrogen, 19 lbs. of phosphoric 
acid and 38 lbs. potash. This means that even in the first six inches of soil there is 
enough plant food present to grow upwards of a hundred or more big crops; and then 
there is the reservoir of the subsoil to draw upon. The trouble, however, is that these 
vast stores of plant food exist in an insoluble or unavailable condition. Cultivation 
is the tool with which the farmer can set this plant food free, and it is also the tool that 
will enable him to get bigger returns from the manure and fertilizer which he adds to 
the soil. 

In general, the fields of Eastern Canada are not big. Moreover, one more harrow- 
ing or cultivating calls for horse labour to a greater extent than man labour. Let it 
be the aim, therefore, of every farmer at least in Eastern Canada in the year 1916 to 
cultivate just once more, and then, if he has time — once more. 



GROWING POTATOES ON SANDY SOILS 

A. L. GIBSON, B.S.A., Ontario Agricultural College, Guelph. 

Potatoes are an ideal crop to grow on soils of a sandy nature. Probably no crop 
can be made to give more profitable returns on sandy soils than potatoes. Even our 
poorest Ontario sands can usually be made to produce a very profitable crop. Such 
soils will yield potatoes of the highest quality and practically free of disease. Had 
all the available sandy soils of Ontario been devoted to potatoes where possible in the 
season of 1915, the scarcity of potatoes would have been unknown; moreover a large 
area of the heavier soils where potatoes were almost a complete failure,* could have 
been devoted to a more successful purpose. 

Experiments with Potatoes on Norfolk Sands — During the past year the 
Department of Chemistry at the Ontario Agricultural College commenced experiments 
with potatoes on the poorest of Norfolk County sand. These experiments showed 
that providing a sand is properly treated and fed, remarkable yields can be obtained 
even in one year. In the case of the soil mentioned the ground was ploughed in the 
fall and received a dressing of 10 tons fresh cow manure, containing very little straw. 

Effect of Lime on Sand — An application of lime to sandy soils invariably pays 
even though the soil may not appear sour by the litmus paper test. Early in the 
spring a dressing of two tons of limestone dust was given, followed by a thorough 
cultivation of the disc cultivator and harrow. Besides permanently improving the 

55 



physical condition of the land and even preventing the sand from blowing, this appli- 
cation of lime alone produced an average increase of nearly two tons per acre with a 
higher proportion of large saleable potatoes. 

Effect of Special Fertilizers — Special fertilizing on such soils is absolutely 
necessary to obtain maximum yields and profits. In the experiments being discussed, 
early Irish Cobbler potatoes were planted, and by treating the soil with a mixture of 
Sulphate of Ammonia and Superphosphate, the yield was further increased over the 
liming result by four tons per acre. In brief, by liming and special fertilizing, these 
experiments showed that on a soil that was locally abandoned as unprofitable for 
cultivation, a crop of 400 bushels per care of early potatoes could be obtained. 

Fertilizers recommended — From careful study and observation of these experi- 
ments the following general application per acre is recommended for early potatoes on 
soils similar to the poorest sands of Norfolk County: — 

Sulphate of Ammonia 200 lbs. 
Superphosphate 400 lbs. 

(14% available phosphoric acid.) 
This mixture will contain: — 

Nitrogen 6.3% 

Available Phosphoric Acid 9.3% 

Any available supply of potash such as wood ashes, which can be obtained at a 
profitable figure, would considerably improve this mixture. Nitrate of Soda may be 
used in place of Sulphate of Ammonia, but should be applied as a top dressing in at 
least two applications, after the plants are up at intervals of two or three weeks. Owing 
to the war the price and supply have almost placed Nitrate of Soda beyond the reach 
of the farmer. In the case of late potatoes the Sulphate of Ammonia could very 
well be replaced with 250 lbs. of Calcium Cyanamide, a nitrogenous fertilizer now 
being made in large quantities at Niagara Falls and sold at a very reasonable price. 
Basic Slag applied in the same quantity in place of Superphosphate gives equally good 
results on such soils. 

Application of Fertilizers — Fertilizers should be very finely crushed and 
thoroughly mixed with an additional amount of sand to increase the bulk. This 
insures more even distribution. Where Basic Slag is used it should not be mixed with 
the Sulphate of Ammonia, but applied separately. The application should be made 
on a calm day, being broadcasted either by hand or machine about two weeks before 
planting and followed with a light harrowing. 

General Cultivation and Spraying — Seeding and later cultivation should be 
conducted as commonly practised in good potato culture, special attention being 
given to avoid the robbing of the crop by weeds. Sprouting of the seed in shallow 
boxes before planting is recommended, especially where subject to late frosts, so that 
planting may be delayed without retarding the harvest. It should not be forgotten 
that even on sandy soils the spraying of potatoes with Bordeaux Mixture is very essential 
to a good-crop. Bordeaux Mixture may be mixed with Arsenate of Lead or Paris 
Green when spraying for the potato beetle. This spraying mixture would consist of: — 
Copper Sulphate (Bluestone) 4 lbs., unslacked lime 4 lbs., Arsenate of Lead 3 lbs., or 
Paris Green 1 lb., to 40 gallons of water. The Copper Sulphate is dissolved in a wooden 
vessel with hot water, poured into a barrel, and cold water added to make 20 gallons; 
slake the lime, preferably with hot water, and add cold water in which the Arsenate of 
Lead or Paris Green has been well mixed. Gradually mix the lime and poison solution 
with the Copper Sulphate in the barrel, stirring well all the time, and finally make 
up to 40 gallons with more cold water. Spray while the mixture is fresh, taking care 
that the under side of the leaves get the spray. Give at least two sprayings. 

56 



WAR AGAINST INSECT PESTS 

THE FOES OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION 

C. GORDON HEWITT, Dominion Entomologist, Department of Agriculture. 

Ottawa. 

The Swiss motto, "To cultivate the soil is to serve one's country," is to-day, when 
the Empire is at war, more applicable than ever to the farmers of Canada. To meet 
the necessities of Canada and the Empire, it is necessary not only to maintain produc- 
tion at its usual rate, but to make every effort to increase it to a still higher point. 

Destruction by insect pests is one of the chief factors in reducing the output of the 
farm. All crops are affected — field, orchard and forest. The aggregate loss to Canada 
due to these causes is not generally appreciated. When a serious outbreak of an 
insect pest occurs on a farm, the farmer realizes the extent of his individual loss, but 
the aggregate loss caused by the continual destruction effected by insects working 
insidiously in the fields and diminishing crop production as a whole, is comprehended 
by few. Careful investigation indicates that the loss averages anywhere from ten to 
twenty-five per cent, of the crop. On the lower estimate the annual loss to Canada 
from the depredations of insects is reckoned at over one hundred and twenty-five 
million dollars. Taking the latest figures of crop production, the loss on a ten per 
cent, basis works out as follows: — 

Field Crops (grain crops, potatoes, sugar beets and 

fodder crops) $80,000,000 

Vegetable Crops 5,000,000 

Stored grain products 5,000,000 

Live Stock (loss in hides, milk and flesh) 30,000,000 

Tobacco 100,000 

Fruit, orchard and small fruits, including losses and 

cost of spraying, etc. (Based on 1911 figures)... 5,000,000 

Total $125,100,000 

Canada suffers proportionately greater losses from insect pests than older countries 
owing to a number of reasons. The chief reason is that a new and fertile country is 
being opened up and developed; large tracts of land are being put under cultivation, 
providing an abundance of food for insects which previously lived in small numbers in 
restricted cultivated patches or on wild plants. For three thousand miles our territory 
adjoins that of a country whose development preceded ours, and in the process of this 
development foreign pests were accidentally introduced with the result that more than 
half of the worst insect pests are introduced species. Development requires imports of 
natural products such as trees, plants, seeds, fruit, etc.; such natural products carry 
pests from their native countries; on establishment in the new country these pests 
increase more abundantly owing to the absence of their natural enemies, which, un- 
fortunately, are not imported at the same time. All these conditions are mainly 
peculiar to a new country. A large proportion of the losses could be prevented, even 
with our present limited knowledge of control measures. 

We cannot, particularly at the present time, afford to allow preventable losses to 
occur. Therefore, it behooves every farmer to take steps, or to redouble his efforts, to 
curtail losses from this cause, and to increase production by eliminating loss. Insect 
pests are insidious foes, and the fight against them is an incessant war demanding 
constant watchfulness. In many cases their presence is unknown until their increase 
has become so great as to cause serious losses. The destruction and loss goes on year 
in and year out until finally it reaches a climax in a general outbreak. Recent out- 
breaks of such insects as the army worm, tent caterpillar, pea aphis, locust, cutworm, 
illustrate this. These outbreaks might in most cases have been prevented. 

57 



METHODS OF INSECT CONTROL 

C. GORDON HEWITT, Dominion Entomologist. 

In this connection it is desirable briefly to indicate some of the more general 
measures that may be adopted with a view of decreasing the annual loss due to insect 
pests and to prevent widespread outbreaks. 

The first essential is clean farming. This involves the destruction of weeds; not 
only because these enemies of the farm take the food and the place of the crop, but 
because they also afford permanent breeding places for many insect pests. Fences 
and hedgerows should be cleaned up. Rubbish and litter, under which numerous 
noxious insects hibernate, should be collected and burnt. Where grain is grown, the 
volunteer crop, which nourished certain cereal pests such as the Wheat Midge and 
Wheat Stem Maggot, should be destroyed. After a crop such as cabbages or roots has 
been harvested, clean up the field and burn the rubbish which would otherwise serve 
as food and shelter for insects. A clean field and a clean orchard will mean larger 
crops. 

Special attention should be paid to cultivation. If the ground is properly prepared 
in the spring with a view to the production of a strong growth, the plants will be in the 
best state to resist insect attacks. A poor growth cannot withstand insect injury. If 
the crop has been attacked during the year by insect pests such as certain insects 
affecting the stems of cereals or root-destroying grubs such as white grubs and wire- 
worms, deep ploughing in the fall should be adopted. In the case of grain the stubble 
is buried deep enough to prevent the emergence of insects which attack the plants 
and are passing the winter in the soil. In the case of white grubs and wireworms, 
which pass the winter at some distance below the surface of the soil, their shelters are 
broken up and the unprotected tender grubs are in a large measure exposed to adverse 
climatic conditions. Summer fallowing aids insect control. 

The rotation of crops is an excellent means of preventing or controlling certain 
insect pests. The repeated sowing of the same crop provides a rapid means of increase 
for insects affecting that crop. In certain cases the best method of controlling an 
insect is to change the crop. There are certain facts which should always be remem- 
bered : if land is infested with white grubs or wireworms, do not plant corn or potatoes 
in the following year, but sow an immune crop, such as buckwheat or clover. Also, 
grass land when put into cultivation is apt to be infested with root-eating insects such 
as wireworms and steps should be taken accordingly. 

Too much stress cannot be laid upon the urgent necessity of protecting our native 
birds, the majority of which constitute our most valuable allies in our war against 
insect pests. Very few of our birds are really harmful; most of them destroy enormous 
quantities of insects annually. The policy of the agriculturalist in regard to the birds 
should be not only non-destructive but also one of active encouragement. The en- 
couragement of birds about the farm involves little expense or labour. Nesting boxes 
can be made out of rough slabs of lumber or old shingles; these should be distributed 
about the farm or in the woodlot. Here and there on the farm a few bushes and 
thickets should be permitted to grow to serve as shelters and nesting sites. The 
shooting of wild birds should not be permitted on the farm. 

In conclusion, constant watchfulness should be practised. The first signs of any- 
thing suspicious should be immediately investigated, and if there is any doubt as to 
the cause of the trouble or its cure the Dominion or Provincial Department of Agri- 
culture should be consulted without delay. Neglect to take action or delay may mean 
the loss of a whole crop. 

53 



WHAT GOOD ROTATION WILL DO 

1. Rotation keeps the soil in a high state of productivity. 

2. Tends to counteract drought. 

3. Keeps down weeds. 

4. Results in a more even distribution of labour. 

5. Decreases cost of production. 

6. Provides feed for live stock, with an increase in profit. 



ACRE PROFIT COMPETITIONS IN ONTARIO 

C. F. BAILEY, Assistant Deputy Minister of Agriculture for Ontario. 

At a time like this, when food production is admitted to be an important factor 
in determining the ultimate outcome of the present war, it is interesting to note the 
results of the "Acre Profit Competitions" recently conducted in Ontario. These 
competitions were open only to young men who had taken a short course under the 
District Representative, and as the name implies, were limited in extent to 1 acre of 
land. 

The following statement shows the highest results for the past two years in the 
nineteen counties where potatoes were selected as the crop for competition: 

Yield Cost Production Value per Bus. Profit 

1914 501 $32.62 $0.40 $167.18 

1915 514 42.02 .75 336.72 

As compared with the average yield per acre for the Province of 116 bushels, this 
yield of 514 bushels secured by the winner in the competition may seem phenomenal. 
When, however, the average of the nineteen winners in the competition is taken into 
consideration, it does not seem unreasonable to believe that the average for the 
Province might be greatly increased. 

The averages of the winners in all counties were as follows: — 

Yield Cost Production Value per Bus. Profit 

1914 337 $40.43 $0.40 $134.80 

1915 271 40.06 .75 202.77 

The year 1915 was an unfavorable one for potatoes. Weather conditions favoured 
the development of rot which in many instances ruined the crop. Yet, strange to say, 
a higher yield was secured by the winner in 1915 than in 1914. While the average 
yield for 1915 was not so high as the previous year, the average profit is greatly increased 
on account of the high prices prevailing. 

In the counties where oats were selected as the crop for competition, the differences 
are equally as marked as in the case of potatoes. 

The following table shows the results of the winner in the competition for oats for 
the past two years: — 





Yield 


Cost Production 


Value per Bus. 


Profit 


1914 


86 


$15.70 


$0.50 


$25.30 


1915 


104 


17.75 


.40 


23.98 



The averages for the winners in all the counties were as follows: — 

1914 73 $12.52 $0.50 $23.95 

1915 82 15.54 .40 17.38 

59 



An analysis of the above tables shows quite clearly that 1915 was a favourable year 
for oats. While a yield of 104 bushels per acre is very high, it is not by any means the 
highest on record — a yield of 114 bushels in the Rainy River District having been 
reported to the writer. The favourable season is further evidenced by the fact that the 
average of all winners in the counties growing oats amounted to 82 bushels and the 
average for the Province was 41.9 bushels. 

In the mangel growing competition, the winner had a yield of 1,652 bushels, as 
compared with an average of 498 bushels for the province. The cost of production 
was $42.33, and the net profit was $155.91 with mangels valued at 12c. per bushel. 
In turnips a yield of 994 bushels was secured in the competition and the average for 
the Province was only 478 bushels. Corn for seed also showed a marked increase over 
the average yield of the Province — 154 bushels as compared with 70 bushels. An 
even more striking difference was noted in the corn for silage competition, when a 
yield of 39% tons was secured, the average yield for the Province being 11 tons. 

When we know that these large yields have been secured by our young farmers, we 
realize something of the possibilities of agricultural production, and naturally are 
desirous of learning how such results were obtained. It should be borne in mind m this 
connection that these results are secured from a limited area, and that the a op no 
doubt received much more careful attention than could be hoped for when growing crops 
on a large scale. It is equally true that the land selected for this competition would 
probably be one of the best fields on the farm. These facts in themselves, however, 
do not account in any large degree for the marked difference between the yields secured 
in the competition and the average for the Province. It will be remembered that the 
young men taking part in these competitions have come to appreciate the importance 
of employing up-to-date methods of farming In other words they have selected well 
drained fields, prepared a good seed bed, secured seed of high germination and desirable 
variety, given the crop thorough cultivation and where necessary have made intelligent 
use of spraying materials. These are the factors that have, in the main, been responsible 
for these large yields, and the regret is that their importance is not more widely recognized 
and more generally adopted. 

Note: — In estimating the cost of operation, $5.00 per acre is allowed for rent of 
land; 15c. an hour for manual labour and 10c. an hour for horse labour; a charge of 50c. 
is made for each two-horse load of barnyard manure. In the same way a charge of one 
half the purchase price of commercial fertilizers is made against the crop ; each contestant 
must keep a careful record of the cost of operations and in every instance reliable 
witnesses are secured to weigh or measure the crop to be harvested. A valuation based . 
upon the prevailing market price- is put upon the crop but arbitrarily fixed by the 
Department in order to insure uniformity for purposes of comparison. The net profit 
is arrived at by deducting all < ust of production plus rent of land from the total value 
of crop. 



60 



GOOD SEED 



M Still mill the seeds, tho' chosen with toilsome pains, degenerate if 
man's industrious hand cull not, each year, the largest and the best." — 
Virgil. 



REJECT THE UNFIT 

Only sound, live men are fit for the trenches. The recruits are coming in, enlist- 
ment is keen. First of all comes the medical examination. The weaklings, the 
deficient, the unpromising, are weeded out. They may look fit enough, but the rigid 
examination discards them for they will not do at the front. Every inefficient man is 
a burden to the strong and sturdy fellow. Then they are gone" over again and any 
alien enemies are ejected. The alien enemy is even a greater menace than the unfit and 
untrained. You who are raising food for the fighters at the front are fighting at home. 
What about your seed? Seed is the parent of the crop. Put it through its testing. 
Do not waste your energies on weakling seed. Eject the alien enemy seeds — the weeds. 
Give your soil a fair chance. Do not waste your labour with the poor seed or dirty 
seed. Fight fair and be fair to yourself. 



THE SEED SITUATION 

GEO. H. CLARK, B.S.A., Commissioner, Seed Branch, Dept. of Agriculture, 

Ottawa. 

The seed season of 1915 was a very unusual one in respect to the production of 
seed, especially in Eastern Canada, as the very wet weather before and during harvest 
greatly affected the crops. The available supply of foreign seed has also been materially 
influenced by the war in Europe and by weather conditions in the United States. 
These circumstances have combined to bring about a condition in respect to the general 
seed supply which requires careful attention from every farmer. 

Wheat — In Ontario, and the other eastern provinces to a lesser extent, the quality 
of the wheat was materially lowered through wet weather at harvest time. However, 
where the grain has been well dried and carefully stored it will probably be suitable for 
seed in most cases, but care should be taken to see that the vitality has not been damaged 
through heating. Where there is any room for doubt, a vitality test should be made. 

Fortunately, there has been a large crop of good quality wheat in Western Canada 
which may be drawn upon by those districts in the East which require to purchase seed. 
The difficulty that has hitherto prevailed in securing pure seed wheat from Western 
Canada should be largely removed this year as a special grade has been established for 
seed wheat that is free from noxious weed seeds within the meaning of the Seed 
Control Act. Wheat of either the Red Fife or Marquis variety which has been certified as 
suitable for seed by a government inspector may be obtained at the government interior 

61 



terminal elevators at Moose Jaw, Saskatoon and Calgary. With this supply of clean 
wheat available there should be no excuse for dealers or farmers in Eastern Canada 
purchasing seed wheat contaminated with weed seeds, as has often been done. 

Oats — Damage to the oat crop in Eastern Canada was even more extensive than 
to wheat. In Ontario and parts of the other eastern provinces, good sound seed oats, 
free from weather damage, are very scarce and difficult to secure. In many cases there 
is evidence that the vitality of the oats has been seriously affected through weathering 
or subsequent heating, which makes it more necessary than usual to have vitality tests 
conducted before sowing the seed. 

The crop in Western Canada is very large this year and of good quality and a large 
supply of good seed oats should be available from this source. As with wheat, special 
provision is this year made whereby a supply of pure seed may be obtained through the 
government interior elevators. Oats that are free from noxious weed seeds are being 
separately stored and will be cleaned for seed and shipped out under a seed inspector's 
certificate. It is hoped that dealers or farmers in Eastern Canada who require to pur- 
chase seed in carlots will take advantage of this special grade and thereby avoid getting 
oats containing large numbers of noxious weed seeds, as is nearly always the case when 
ordinary commercial grades are purchased. 

Treating Oats and Wheat for Smut — Last season, in Ontario especially, and in 
the other eastern provinces to a large extent, the damage to the oat crop through smut 
was unusually great. The loss throughout Ontario has been estimated at from six to ten 
per cent, of the crop, and in many instances the actual number of heads affected reached 
from fifteen to twenty per cent. This enormous loss is almost entirely preventable, 
and every farmer should adopt precautionary measures for next season. The prevalence 
of smut last year will mean that practically all the oats to be used for seed this year will 
be badly contaminated with the smut spores, and, if conditions are favourable for their 
development the disease may be even more serious than last season. In order to 
prevent an outbreak of this disease the seed should be treated before sowing to destroy 
the smut spores. This may be effectively done by using a solution made from one 
pound formalin in thirty-five gallons of water. 

The treatment prescribed for oats is equally effective for wheat, and should be 
followed in all cases in Western Canada where smut is likely to appear. In the 
eastern part of Canada the damage is often sufficient to warrant treatment of seed 
wheat. 

Barley — Much the same conditions obtain in respect to barley as were outlined 
for oats, although there is a more limited supply available in Western Canada. At 
time of writing it is not known whether much seed barley will be available at the govern- 
ment interior elevators in the West, but it is anticipated that there will be at least a 
limited supply. 

Cleaning Seed Grain — The importance of thoroughly cleaning seed grain to 
remove weed seeds and the small, immature or light kernels cannot be too strongly 
urged. From the condition of much of the seed actually being sown by farmers through- 
out Canada, it is evident that better yields and higher quality of grain are sacrificed 
through lack of attention to cleaning the seed. As a rule, grain intended for seed should 
be reduced in bulk from one quarter to one half by screening and wind blast. Oats 
usually require the most severe cleaning. For the farmer who uses his own grain for 
seed, there is no loss in severe cleaning as what is removed may be used for feed. The 
extra work involved in cleaning seed several times will be many time repaid in the crop. 

Corn — The available supply of seed corn in Ontario, and also in the United States, 
is considerably below the average in quality. Owing to wet weather, the crop was late 

62 



in maturing and a smaller proportion than usual was selected for seed, and it was not as 
dry or well matured as in an ordinary season. The quality by next spring will depend 
largely on storage and weather conditions, but more care than usual will be required 
both in storing and handling if the ensilage grower is to receive his seed corn in first 
class condition. There is great danger of damage to the vitality through frost when 
the seed is not sufficiently dry, and moulds are likely to develop when the weather 
becomes warm or if the corn is not given sufficient ventilation in storage or during 
shipment. The situation will demand the most careful attention on the part of all con- 
cerned, and farmers are strongly urged to secure their seed early so that there will be time 
to examine and test the germination before planting. Farmers would be well advised 
to purchase their seed before the mild weather and to have it well dried by artificial heat 
in their own buildings in order to lessen the danger of damage by mould. This would 
also give them plenty of time to have germination tests conducted. 

Alfalfa — There was practically no alfalfa seed produced in Ontario in 1915, and the 
crop in parts of the United States that are considered to produce hardy seed was very 
limited. Most of the United States seed this year is coming from Texas and Arizona 
and is not recommended for northern districts. In view of the extreme scarcity of 
northern-grown seed, farmers are advised to be very careful about purchasing seed this 
year with the idea of seeding down for a permanent crop. If only a mixture for hay is 
desired, hardiness is not so essential. If a permanent stand is desired, only seed that 
can be guaranteed in respect to variety and place of growth should be used. For this 
purpose southern seed, which is largely on the market this year, will be sure to give 
disappointing results. 

Red Clover — The Ontario crop of red clover seed last year was extremely short 
and of very poor quality both in respect to purity and vitality. Most of the No. 1 seed 
on the market this spring was grown in the Western States under irrigation. It is 
large plump seed of good purity, but there is little information available in respect to the 
suitability for Canadian conditions. The home-grown seed would probably be prefer- 
able if it were equally good in other respects, and it is recommended that native 
seed be used as much as possible, even though the grade be lower and it may be necessary 
to sow a little more seed per acre on account of lower vitality. 

Alsike Clover — Much the same conditions prevail with alsike as with common 
red ; although there is a greater quantity of Ontario grown seed, it is of rather poor general 
quality. Much of the seed produced in the central part of the United States is somewhat 
similar to the Ontario seed. The best appearing and highest grade seed being put on 
the market this year is from the Western States. 

Timothy — The conditions of supply in respect to timothy seed are more normal 
than with clover. Most of the seed is coming from the United States, and is perhaps 
rather darker in colour and more hulled than usual. About the average quantity of 
seed is available in Quebec, and some of this is above average quality. The Prince 
Edward Island crop is about normal, and there is a limited quantity of seed available 
in Alberta. 

Field Roots and Vegetables — Under normal conditions, most of our field root 
and vegetable seeds are imported from the countries now at war. Owing to the accumu- 
lation of large stocks previous to the outbreak of the war, there will probably not be 
serious difficulty in supplying the demand for most kinds of seeds this spring, but 
unless much more seed is grown in North America than usual this year ,the situation 
may be serious for the spring of 1917. In 1915 quite a large number of farmers in the 
different provinces grew root and vegetable seed on a small scale mostly for their own 
use. In some cases quite large quantities are available for market. The results on the 
whole were very satisfactory, and farmers are advised to adopt this practice more gener- 
ally during the coming season in order to insure the supply of seed for 1917. 

63 



THE PRODUCTION OF HIGH CLASS SEED IN CANADA 

L. H. NEWMAN, Secretary, Canadian Seed Growers' Ass'n, Ottawa. 

Canada requires over 40,000,000 bushels of seed each spring to sow the area at 
present devoted to the production of ordinary farm crops. The average yields obtained 
per acre for the different crops is deplorably low, and investigation into the causes of 
these low yields indicates clearly that the use of inferior seed is one of the chief factors. 
The great national importance of the use of good seed is easily deducted. Thus, an 
increase of five bushels per acre in the yield of wheat at $1.00 per bushel would mean an 
increase to the revenue of the country of $55,000,000. An increase of ten bushels per 
acre in the yield of potatoes, which is easily obtainable, would mean an added revenue 
of almost $3,000,000, estimating the price of potatoes at 60 cents per bushel. Oats, 
one of our most important crops, is influenced readily by the quality of the seed used. 
An increase of ten bushels per acre in the case of this cereal, selling at 50 cents per bushel, 
would mean an added income to our country of over $48,000,000 annually. In these 
days when millions are being spent in the terrible toll of war, the figures given are 
significant. 

Many agencies are at work at the present time with a view to instructing and 
encouraging farmers in securing seed that will give them more bushels to the acre. 
Possibly one of the most effective organizations concerning itself with this problem 
is the Canadian Seed Growers' Association. This body is composed of actual farmers 
who are engaged specifically in producing what is known as "Registered" seed. This 
is a term given to seed, the breeding, purity and vitality of which is known and vouched 
for. The members operate under expert direction, being closely in touch not only with 
the headquarters at Ottawa, but also with local authorities whose duty it is to look 
after the interests of the individual growers. There are in Canada approximately 1,200 
men engaged in this work, and these are now producing many thousands of bushels of 
seed. This seed is being distributed in a practical way through the ordinary channels 
of trade, thus enabling farmers not only to procure seed of a superior quality, but also of 
a variety known to be suitable for the district. The offerings of the different growers are 
listed in a seed catalogue which is distributed widely throughout Canada, and in this way 
the grower and purchaser are brought together. All registered seed goes out in sealed 
sacks, to which a special tag bearing the certificate number, is attached. In this and 
other ways the quality of the seed is practically guaranteed. 

Those who wish to obtain full details regarding the work of this Association should 
write the Secretary, L. H. Newman, Canadian Building, Ottawa, and secure a copy 
of the booklet entitled "The Canadian Seed Growers' Association and its Work." 



CEREALS 

RECOMMENDED VARIETIES AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS 

CHARLES E. SAUNDERS, Ph.D., Dominion Cerealist, Ottawa. 

Before deciding what acreage and what kinds of grain crops to sow, a farmer will 
of course consider the requirements of his own live stock, and the prices, so far as he 
can predict them, which are likely to be offered for any grain he may have for sale. 

The problem of prices, always difficult, and exceptionally so in war times, scarcely 
comes within the scope of these notes. The preparation of the land is another matter 
of very great importance, and one on which the success of grain crops largely depends. 
A discussion of this topic belongs, however, rather under the head of management than 
of cereals. 

64 






In so far as the seed alone is concerned, there are three main considerations that 
are of the utmost practical importance: The first of these is to select suitable varie- 
ties, the second is to obtain plump seed of good vitality, and the third is to insure its 
freedom from weed seeds and foreign grains. 

Without attempting to go into details, which will be gladly given to anyone who 
cares to write for them, the following list of some of the best varieties for Canada, of 
the different types of grain may be useful. 

« 
Spring Wheats 

Marquis — early — very productive — beardless. 

Huron — early — very productive — bearded. 

Red Fyfe — rather late — very productive — beardless. 

Prelude — very early, fairly productive — bearded. 

These are all hard, red wheats. 
White Russian is a very productive, rather late, beardless variety of somewhat 
soft character. It is highly prized in the Maritime Provinces, but should not*be grown 
in those provinces that desire to maintain a reputation for producing hard wheat. 

Winter Wheat 

For districts liable to wet, cold weather, Dawson's Golden Chaff is perhaps the 
best sort. It is a beardless variety with excellent field characteristics, but produces 
rather soft kernels and starchy flour suitable for biscuits and pastry, but unsuitable 
for light bread. 

For localities subject to dry cold, where the young plants are not likely to be well 
covered with snow during severe weather, Turkey Red is probably the most profitable 
variety. It is bearded and generally produces rather hard kernels. The flour from 
this wheat is highly esteemed for bread-making. 

Oats 

Banner^— rather late — very productive. 
Ligowo — slightly early — productive. 
Daubeney — very early — kernels small. 

Barley 

Manchurian, six-row — very productive. 
O.A.C. No. 21, six-row — very productive. 
• Duckbill, two-row — very productive. 

Peas 

Arthur — very productive — rather early — peas of medium size — yellow. 
Prussian Blue — very productive — peas blue and of medium size. 
Golden Vine — very productive, peas small, yellow. 

Among the new varieties of grain now before the Canadian public which have 
already proved invaluable — but of which the exact rank has not yet been determined — 
the following very productive sorts may be mentioned: 

Solo peas — a dark variety from Sweden. 

Victory Oats — from Sweden, also called Seger and Conqueror. 

O.A.C. No. 72 Oats — a selection from Siberian, rather late in ripening but other- 
wise very promising. 

Grain-growers are very strongly advised not to purchase seed at any price (and 
particularly to avoid purchasing expensive seed) of any variety that has not yet 
received favourable mention from some of the experimental farms or agricultural 
colleges. As a rule, new sorts should be tested at first in small areas only, and should 
be carefully compared with some old standard kind for a year or two, before being 
grown on a large scale. 

65 



Change of seed is wrong in principle and very dangerous in practice. A 

good rule is never to change your seed unless you are sure that the new seed is better 
than the old, and that it is perfectly free from weed seeds. It is generally much wiser 
to clean and grade up one's own seed than to make any change — unless a new and 
superior variety is being received. 



WHAT VARIETIES SHALL I SOW IN 1916? 



Results of 4,000 Experiments in Ontario, as established by the 
Experimental Union 



Oats 

Of all varieties grown in Ontario to-day, the O.A.C. No. 72 is the most outstanding 
variety. It is the heaviest yielder, has the stiffest straw and the grain has only 27% 
of hull. It is also very resistant to smut. Comparing it with the Banner, which is 
the most widely grown Oat in this Province, we see that over a period of nine years 
the average yield of the O.A.C. No. 72 was 90.6, while that of the Banner was only 
72.5 bushels per acre. 

Another Oat that is coming into prominence is the O.A.C. No. 3. It is a very 
early Oat and therefore is quite suitable for sowing with Barley where a grain mixture 
is desired. 

Barley 

In the experiments conducted at the College the O.A.C. No. 21 Barley still leads. 
It is even better than the Mandscheuri variety, introduced by the College 26 years ago. 
It is now estimated that 96% of all Barley grown in Ontario belongs either to the 
O.A.C. No. 21 or Mandscheuri varieties. It is worthy of note that of the 40 entries 
of Barley at the Winter Fair, O.A.C. No. 21 was the only variety exhibited. 

According to the reports of the Bureau of Industries, the yield of Barley per acre 
for the past 16 years has increased twenty-three per cent. This has undoubtedly 
been due to the introduction of superior varieties. It is estimated that the value of 
this increase is approximately $3,50i,,000. 

Spring Wheat 

The past year has seen an increase in the production of spring wheats, due of course 
to conditions in Europe which have brought about an increase in the price of wheat. 
Of the two varieties sent out to experimenters last year, the Wild Goose variety gave the 
highest yield, 19.9 bushels per acre. However, Marquis yielded 19.2 bushels and has 
much better milling qualities. 

Mixed Grains 

The average results of experiments conducted over a period of five years show that 
a mixture of one bushel of barley and one bushel of oats give the highest yield. This is 
sown at the rate of two bushels per acre. For two years, during which the growing 
season was rather dry, a heavier seeding gave better yields. In each year the poorest 
yield resulted from the thinnest seeding. 

Roots 

In Mangolds, Sutton's Mammoth Long Red gave a slightly higher yield than the 
Yellow Leviathan. However, taking the result of experiments over a number of years, 
the Yellow Leviathan has given higher yields and is the most popular mangold in 
Ontario to-day. 

66 



Potatoes. 

In the Co-operative experiments with potatoes, the Davies' Warrior gave the 
highest yield. Some farmers have objected to this variety because of its lateness. Of 
the earlier varieties, Extra Early Eureka still holds its lead. — From O.A.C. Review. 



ROT RESISTANT VARIETIES OF POTATOES 

Prof. C. A. Zavitz states that experiments at the Ontario Agricultural College show 
a very great difference in the susceptibility of the different varieties of potatoes to the 
rot. For instance, in 1915, a year in which rot was unusually prevalent, two varieties 
had less than one per cent, each of rot, and two varieties had upwards of fifty per cent, 
of rot under similar conditions. Taking the average of experiments for five years it 
has been ascertained that those varieties which were the freest of rot were the Davies' 
Warrior, the Extra Early Eureka, the Stray Beauty and the Holborn Abundance, and 
those most subject to rot were the Early Rose and the Beauty of Hebron. 



HOW SASKATCHEWAN GRAIN GROWERS MAY DO THEIR 

"BIT" IN 1916 

G. H. CUTLER, Professor of Cereal Husbandry, University of Saskatchewan, 

Saskatoon, Sask. 

In their effort to assist in the big business of War by providing food for the men at 
the front, the grain growers of Saskatchewan will do well to give earnest heed to the 
following details affecting production: 

Seed — Good seed is seed that is not only free from every kind of weed seeds, but 
consists of one variety, of plump well matured grain, of high germinability. As a 
preventive against the ravages of smut it must be carefully treated with formalin. 
These statements are supported by the experiments conducted in the Investigation 
Field at the University of Saskatchewan, quoted below: 

1. The value of good seed. 

(a) Seeded by weight — 1^2 bus. per acre. 

Bus. per acre 
Average 2 years. 

Plump seed 47 . 665 

Ungraded seed 43 . 875 

Light and shrunken seed , 44. 041 

(b) Seeded by number on the basis of 1^ bus. per acre. 

Plump seed 48. 138 

Ungraded seed 45.455 

Light and shrunken seed 44. 208 

2. The value of the fanning mill as a means of obtaining the most efficient seed. 

Bus. per acre 

Uncleaned seed 56 . 666 

Grain once cleaned 58 . 333 

Light and shrunken grain 55.333 

Screenings 55 . 000 

Weeds introduced through improper cleaning of seed grain not only crowd upon the 
growing plants and hamper them, but consume most extravagant amounts of moisture 
and thus reduce production to that extent. 

67 



3. Control of Smut. 

Treatment % of plants diseased 

Tagged wheat untreated 46.72 

Tagged wheat treated, smut balls floated off 00. 

Tagged wheat treated, smut balls not floated off 4.72 

Clean wheat treated and seeded on soil infested with smut 

spores 32. 11 

The Formalin treatment is a very essential operation and must not be overlooked. 
Formalin of known quality is imperative. Don't expect too much from 'leftovers' 
from treatment to treatment. Throw out all leftovers and give the formalin the 
benefit of the doubt. 

Variety — Let us stand unalterably by Red Fyfe and Marquis. Pioneer may fill 
a useful place where greater earliness is desired than can be obtained with Marquis. 
Some of us were deceived into buying Egyptian King in 1915; let us not err in this 
direction again. Egyptian King will disappoint us in our endeavours just in proportion 
as it failed in the comparative trials in the Investigation Field, as it shown by the follow- 
ing table: 

Variety Weight per No. of days Bus. per acre 

bus. maturing 5 years aver. 

Red Fyfe 62 lbs. 120 29.300 

Marquis 63 lbs. 116 29.000 

Pioneer ... 62 lbs. 112 24.248 

Egyptian King 62 lbs. 116 23.936 

Depth of Seeding — We can sow too deep, and we can also sow too shallow for the 
best development of root and plant. Seeding in the moisture is a safe guide to follow. 
Four inches, yes three inches is too deep; on the other hand 13^ inches is too shallow. 
Remember that the greatest root-development takes place between 1% inches and 2 
inches beneath the surface of the soil. Therefore in a properly prepared seedbed 2}4 
inches is the depth of seeding that on the average will insure the best development of 
root and plant and therefore more nearly result in maximum production. 

Rate of Seeding — The rate at which we as grain growers shall seed must depend 
upon several factors. We quote results obtained on fallow in the Investigation Field: 

Bus. per acre 
Rate of seeding 2 years average 

1 bus. per acre i 32.833 

\y 2 bus. per acre ' 30.916 

\ z /i bus. per acre 29.625 

2 bus. per acre 29.354 

2Y 2 bus. per acre 28. 133 

These figures indicate that the rate at which we should sow at Saskatoon is 1 bus. 
per acre. In accepting these data it should be borne in mind that during the past two 
seasons the rainfall has been lighter than normal; also the additional fact that the 
seed used was unusually small. 

In deciding therefore upon the rate of seeding let us consider the following factors: 

1. The size of seed used — large seed heavier rate than small seed. 

2. The kind of soil — warm soil less than cold soil. 

3. The preparation of the soil — fallow land will require heavier seeding than 
second or third crop. 

4. The time of seeding — late seeding may require more seed. 

5. The danger of frost — heavy seeding increases the earliness. . 

6. The danger of drought — light seeding resists drought and is therefore best 
in dry areas. 

7. The percent and strength of germination. 

68 






Date of Seeding — The following were the results obtained by experiment : — 

Wheat on fallow. 
Date Seeded Wt.' per bus. Bus. per acre 

average 2 years 

First seeding 63 lbs. 35. 208 

Second seeding 63 lbs. 33 . 250 

Third seeding 63 lbs. 34 . 847 

Fourth seeding 61 lbs. 32.625 

Fifth seeding 59 lbs. 32 . 667 

To obtain the highest yields of wheat of the best quality these factors should guide 
our seeding operations: 

1. Time spring opens up — late spring, sow wheat as soon as possible. 

2. Preparation of land — seed fallow land earlier than second or third crop. 

3. Kind of land — seed heavy land first. 

4. Geographical location — Northern parts of the province, early seeding desirable 
for wheat. 

5. Thickness of seeding — thick seeding promotes early maturity. 

6. Kind and varieties of wheat — Red Fyfe should be seeded first, Marquis later, 
when these are used upon the same farm. 

To "do our bit" as grain growers and produce every possible bushel in 1916, we 
must employ plump, well-matured seed, free from weeds, treated with formalin, of 
Marquis or the Red Fyfe variety, seeded at the proper depth, at the proper rate and at 
the right date. 



IMPORTANCE OF THE FANNING MILL 

Let a farm be as clean and well cultivated as it may be and the crop grown a good 
one, it is still a fact that cleaning the seed will soon pay for a good cleaner. A fanning 
mill costs, say $30.00, a man needs to make only $1.00 an acre on thirty acres to pay 
for the machine. 

The poorly equipped fanning mill is responsible for a lot of inferior and dirty grain 
being sown. Without a proper complement of screens it is impossible to do good 
work. 

The capacity of a mill frequently gets more attention than it deserves. Efficiency 
is of much greater importance. 

In operating, nothing is of greater importance than the air blast, as it is the scale by 
which is weighed the heavy and light seed. It should be strong enough to carry over 
the back all light grains, big or little, and not too strong to blow over much good grain. 
It is particularly essential that the blast be regular. If the speed is reduced even momen- 
tarily lighter grains are sure to fall where they do not belong, if too strong there will be a 
loss of good grain. Where gasoline or electric power is available, it will prove more 
satisfactory than the steadiest of man power. 

For the most part hand machines are best for ordinary farm purposes. The 
volume of work can readily be handled by a hand machine and the additional cost of a 
power outfit is not warranted by the better work they do. But there is a place for the 
power machine in the hands of the seed centres that are springing up here and there 
through the country under the supervision of the C.S.G.A. — Prof. James Murray, 
Macdonald College, Que. 



An important factor in crop improvement in addition to good seed is the selection 
of a good variety. In the growing of any crop one should be sure that he has the variety 
best adapted to his conditions. After having chosen the best variety, it is further 

69 



necessary to select the best of the crop for seed. In the case of oats or wheat they 
should be thoroughly fanned and screened through a blower and only the largest, plumpest 
seed used. 



LOSS FROM GRAIN SMUT 

H. T. Gussow, Dominion Botanist, from observations of two years based on personal 
counts and calculation, estimates that the annual total loss due to smut in wheat, oats 
and barley amounts to $17,000,000 or 6.2 per cent, of capital invested in these crops. 
The loss in oats alone is roughly equal to the combined losses of wheat and barley. In 
the United States it is estimated that the loss due to the smuts of wheat alone amount 
to over $14,000,000, and when all the smuts and rusts are considered the losses amount 
to hundreds of millions of dollars. 

MONEY IN ALSIKE 

R. S. Duncan, District Representative, Port Hope, Ont., writes: — "A young 
farmer, by the name of Herman Peters, of Canton, who lives five miles north of 
Port Hope, has threshed 86^ bushels of alsike, by weight, from approximately 7 acres. 
This seed has been sold to a seed merchant in Toronto forl83^c.a lb., or $11.10 per bushel. 
This is a total production of $960.15, or $139 per acre. This is almost a record in alsike 
seed production." 



70 



FERTILITY AND FERTILIZERS 



The following four articles on manures and fertilizers have been com- 
piled from the evidence of Dr. F. T. Shutt, given before the Standing 
Committee on Agriculture. 



Crop production may be increased either by extending the acreage or by increasing 
the yield per acre. The resulting output may be the same in either case, but the profit 
to the farmer will not be the same. The farmer's profit will generally be found in 
increasing the yield. This, in many cases, is at present below what is profitable. 
What are the means by which it may be raised? 

One of the most important factors governing yield is soil fertility. It is not by any 
means the only factor. Besides the amount of available plant food contained in the 
soil, moisture, temperature, vigour of seed, and a number of other conditions have a 
bearing on the success or failure of a crop. Nevertheless it is one of the prime factors in 
determining yield. 

If available plant food is deficient, the crop will be deficient both in quality and 
quantity. It is therefore fundamental to successful farming that fertility be maintained 
where it is abundant and increased where it is deficient. 

THE IMPORTANCE OF HUMUS 

Semi-decomposed vegetable matter, or humus, is probably the most valuable of all 
soil constituents. This is the element that gives to virgin soils their extraordinary rich- 
ness, and it is the exhaustion of this element by poor farming that destroys fertility. 

What are the functions that render humus so important? First, humus is nature's 
guardian for the important element nitrogen. When the humus is burned out of the 
soil by irrational methods of farming, the nitrogen goes with it, and the cost of commercial 
nitrogen is three times that of phosphoric acid and potash, weight for weight. 

The productiveness of a soil is governed largely by its physical and mechanical 
condition. These things depend to a great extent on the amount of humus it contains. 
The soil must not only contain food available for the growing plant, but it must offer a 
comfortable medium for the germination of seed and for the growth and extension of the 
young and tender rootlets. Soil to be comfortable to the plant, must be in the right 
condition of tilth, must give access to air and retain moisture. Humus assists in all these 
functions. 

The bacteria of the soil feed upon humus. Provided the soil is warm, moist, and 
well aerated, the more humus it contains, the better will they thrive. The function of 
soil bacteria is to convert soil elements into forms suitable for the use of plants. No 
humus, no bacteria; no bacteria no plant food; hence no crop. 

THE VALUE OF MANURE 

Farmyard manure is the most effective general fertilizer that we can apply. A 
ton of fresh barnyard manure of good quality contains, on an average, 10 pounds of 
nitrogen, 5 pounds of phosphoric acid and 10 pounds of potash. So that, based on its 
plant-food content alone, a ton of such manure would be worth at least $2.50. But 

71 



manure has a much higher crop-producing power than its composition indicates. The 
reason for this is that manure furnishes humus-forming materials; most commercial 
fertilizers do not. This constitutes the fundamental difference between manure and 
fertilizer. 

Manure is never of any greater value than it is at the moment of its production. 
For certain purposes, rotted manure is more desirable than fresh manure, but these 
need not be discussed. Except for such purposes, it should be at once drawn to the fields 
and distributed. Manure not so utilized loses from one to two-thirds of its initial 
value. Even under the best conditions, it is impossible to rot manure without loss, 
but the loss is least where manure is kept compact and moist and protected from rain. 
By getting the manure on the field while still fresh, the farmer returns to the soil seven- 
tenths of the plant food taken from the soil in crop growth. 

Comparatively small applications at short intervals are more effective than larger 
dressings applied frequently. It is therefore more economical to feed the soil year 
by year than to endeavour to load it up, say once in five or ten years. 

Manure should not be too deeply buried. The food should be where the feeding 
roots are, and where the moisture is, say within the first six inches of soil. There will 
be a larger return if the manure is lightly turned under, or merely carried into the 
prepared surface by discing, than by burying it by deep ploughing. Usually there is 
at best only a limited amount of manure, and in this way the most will be made of it. 

THE VALUE OF CLOVER 

Rational farming means the return to the soil of a large proportion of the plant 
food taken from the soil by the crops grown upon it. There are only two means of 
doing this, one through the production and right use of manure, and the other through 
the growth of clovers. By the introduction of clover or other legumes into the rotation, 
in districts where these crops grow luxuriantly, a marked increase in soil fertility is 
invariably the result. It is frequently found that the resultant increase in yield is 
equal to that obtainable from a five to ten ton application, per acre, of barnyard manure. 

The unique property of the legumes is that they are able, with the aid of certain 
bacteria that live in little swellings on their roots (called nodules) to secrete nitrogen 
from the air. 

When such crops are turned under, they may add from 50 to 150 pounds of nitrogen 
per acre, thus vastly increasing the soil's productiveness. Even when cut and used for 
fodder, the soils will still be richer in nitrogen because of the roots left in the soil. 
Legumes leave the soil richer in nitrogen; all other crops leave it poorer in nitrogen. 
Alfalfa with its heavy root system appropriates the most nitrogen; red clover comes 
second. 

As to the conditions of soil favourable for the growth of legumes: These crops 
need a certain amount of available lime, and soils that are acid or "sour" will not 
produce a thrifty growth. In such cases the application of lime or ground limestone 
gives very beneficial results. 

Some soils are deficient in nitrogen-fixing bacteria. To overcome this, cultures 
of the required bacteria have been put on the market. Because of liability to loss of 
vitality, they are very often unsuccessful, and their general use cannot be recommended. 
A better method is to take a certain quantity of soil from a field where clover, alfalfa 
or sweet clover is growing luxuriantly. Apply from 100 to 300 pounds per acre, as 
soon as possible after taking from the field. Make the application on a damp grey 
day if possible and harrow in immediately. 

THE PROFITABLE USE OF FERTILIZERS 

The profit from fertilizers depends on their intelligent use. Their intelligent use 
depends partly on a knowledge of soil conditions and crop requirements; partly on the 
combination of the materials and the amount used. These questions have so many 

72 



aspects that their solution can be arrived at only through much study and experiment. 
To state in a general way what profit, if any, will result from their use is not possible. 
Fertilizers may be and are used profitably in many instances. On the other hand, 
their indiscriminate purchase and use is almost sure to result in general loss. 

Experimentation, so far as it has gone, has led to some definite conclusions: 

First : Commercial fertilizers are not a substitute for manure, and it is not possible 
to maintain soil fertility by their use alone. To attempt it is not sound practice, either 
scientifically or economically. They are supplements to manure, not substitutes for it. 

Second: In the larger number of instances, where profit has been obtained, it has 
resulted from the application of a "complete" fertilizer. A compound in which the 
three elements, nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash are present is known as a "com- 
plete" fertilizer. 

Third: The largest profits do not always result from the largest application. 
Farmers sometimes reason that, if a certain amount of fertilizer is good, more is better. 
Not at all. That is not the way to look at it. The point to observe is not so much 
increased yield as increased profit. The increase in yield between the use of 300 
pounds and 500 pounds of fertilizer may not be sufficient to justify the increase in 
cost. Speaking generally, the best returns, dollar for dollar, have been obtained from 
moderate applications. 

Fourth: It is a known fact that the growth of crops is limited by the percentage 
of plant food that is present in the minimum. If, for instance, there is an excess of 
available nitrogen and an excess of potash, but only a small amount of phosphoric 
acid — not sufficient for the needs of the crop — the amount of phosphoric acid will 
determine results. In this fact will probably be found the chief reason why in the 
majority of instances a complete fertilizer is desirable. There are occasions, doubtless, 
where the special requirements of a crop or the deficiencies of the soil call for special 
applications of one or more of these elements. A knowledge of such facts forms the 
basis for the economic compounding of a fertilizer. 

Many assume that a chemical analysis of soil and crop should determine require- 
ments. The complete analysis of a soil is seldom to be justified for this reason: The 
immediately available elements in a soil mark its fertility. As, invariably, the immedi- 
ately available elements are present only in very small amounts, it is not easy to dis- 
tinguish by analysis between the available and non-available. Nor is it possible to 
predict by this means the return obtainable from any particular fertilizer. There are, 
however, one or two chemical tests that enable advice to be given in a general way as 
to soil deficiencies, with the probability that profit will result from supplying the 
elements that are lacking. We must appeal to the soil itself by actual tests with 
fertilizers. Perhaps the best way for the farmer to do this is to leave a strip undressed 
with fertilizer for comparison; but it should be borne in mind that the full result is 
not always seen in the first crop that follows the application. 



INOCULATION OF LEGUMES 

One of the chief benefits from growing legumes is the nitrogen left in the soil by 
the decay of the root tubercules or nodules. Every legume in order to have tubercules 
on its roots must be inoculated with the specific organism that has been isolated from 
that particular legume, or with soil in which nodulated plants of that legume have 
been successfully grown. Repeated trials have shown that under ordinary farm con- 
ditions bacteria that form nodules on one legume will not produce nodules on legumes 
of any other species. The bacteria left in the soil by the red clover nodules will not 
provide inoculation for a successful crop of alfalfa nor vice versa. There is one notable 
exception to this rule: Cross-inoculation is possible between alfalfa and sweet clover. 
The strain of bacteria that produce nodules upon sweet clover will also produce nodules 
upon the alfalfa plant, but this is the only practical example of the kind. 

73 



To ensure the development of nitrogen-gathering nodules, the farmer should use a 
culture of high inoculating power, isolated from the particular legume he desires to 
plant, or he should get inoculated soil from a field that has grown this legume with 
numerous nodules on plant roots. — From The Country Gentleman. 



HOW MUCH FERTILIZER? 

M. CUMMING, Secretary for Agriculture, Truro, N.S. 

All the older countries of the world use commercial fertilizer to a greater or less 
extent. In Eastern Canada, vast quantities are annually used. While it is true that 
much of this fertilizer is used to poor advantage, and while it is moreover true that 
many farmers who use commercial fertilizer are apt to become careless in preserving 
and increasing the quantity of their barnyard manure, yet the judicious use of com- 
mercial fertilizer in the East has usually given big returns. This year, however, when 
it is more urgent than ever that big crops should be grown, the price of commerical 
fertilizer has soared away up, and at present farmers are hesitating as to what course to 
pursue. 

In a publication entitled "Germany's Food Supply, Can it Last," being a study by 
German experts, the following sentence occurs: "It is feared that owing to the 
present difficult circumstances the farmers will be shy of buying manure to any great 
extent, but this would be to conjure up the danger of a barren harvest next year." 
The problem is much more serious for hemmed in Germany than for free Canada 
or any other part of the British Empire, and yet it is a real problem here also. 

There is one thing worth remembering and it is that less fertilizer with more culti- 
vation will go further than more fertilizer with less cultivation. Do not cut down your 
purchases of fertilizer too much, but resolve to make up for any deficiencies by the 
extra use of the harrow and the cultivator. This is work that makes bigger demands on 
horse than on man power. If it is done, the farmer will in 1916, once again harvest big 
crops. 

LIME 

R. HARCOURT, Professor of Chemistry, Ontario Agricultural College, 

Guelph. 

Lime is an essential constituent of the food of plants and, at the same time, one of 
the mineral materials most readily leached from the soil. During the past season's 
work on the soil survey of this province, thousands of borings were made in the soils 
of the countries studied. In most cases the surface soils were acid to litmus paper, 
and there was not enough carbonate of lime present to cause any apparent effervescence 
until a depth of 20 to 24 inches was reached. In some places there was none even at 
40 inches, the maximum depth of our borings. 

This downward movement of the lime is due to the fact that, through the action of 
acids formed by the decay of organic matter in the soil, lime is brought into solution 
and is then carried downward by the water as it settles into the soil. Consequently, 
the richer the soil is in decaying organic matter, the faster the natural supply of lime will 
be depleted, and, as an abundance of organic matter is an essential constituent of a 
good soil, soils under the best of cultivation are bound to gradually lose their supply of 
lime. 

Many methods have been devised for determining the amount of acid in a soil, 
but none of these are suitable for field use. In most cases, it is sufficient to ascertain 
the fact that the soil is acid. For this purpose, a fairly satisfactory test can be made with 
blue litmus paper, which can be purchased at almost any drug store. It is sold in sheets 

74 



or in little "books" which contain about twenty- five or fifty strips of the paper, about 
one-half inch wide and two or three inches long. This is the most convenient form in 
which to have the test paper. If the sheets are purchased, they may be cut into strips 
the size of those in the books and placed in a clean, dry, wide-mouthed, well-corked 
bottle, to keep them from acid fumes. When this paper comes in contact with an 
acid it turns red. 

A very simple method and a very satisfactory one, in our experience, of applying 
the test, is to make a ball of damp soil, break it open and lay the paper on the broken 
surface, then squeeze the parts together again and allow to stand for from three to five 
minutes. On opening the ball, if the paper has turned red, we may conclude that the 
soil is sour, and in need of lime. It is apparent that the hands must be free from acid, 
and the soil damp enough to press into shape. Unless the soil is very dry, we have 
usually found, that by getting a sample three or four inches below the surface, there 
was enough moisture to answer the purpose. 

Lime has two main types of action; it supplies basic material which is very necessary 
for the soil, and it impfoves the physical condition of both sands and clays. The 
necessity for a base is very definitely marked, for, in its absence the soil becomes acid and 
is "sour." Such soil is not well suited to plant growth and will not carry luxuriant 
crops. Certain weeds, however, grow well, notably sorrel and Scouring Rush or Horse 
tail. The sourness is not only inimical to plants, but also to micro-organisms, and the 
differences seen in vegetation are probably no greater than those existing in the nature 
of the organisms that live in the two classes of soils. Just as certain plants naturally 
predominate in sour soils, so also do certain micro-organisms, and, apparently, some of 
these at least, prevent the growth of the most desirable forms. Thus a soil may contain 
an abundance of organic matter; but, if sour, there will be little or no nitrogen in the 
form of nitrates, because the nitrifying organisms required for their production cannot 
develop under the existing conditions. 

The alteration in physical condition brought about by liming is probably due to 
the binding together of the small particles of clay, causing them to act like soils made up 
of larger particles. Or, in other words, the deflocculated or sticky clay is converted 
into the flocculated or friable form. The coarse particles of sandy soils are also bound 
together through the action of the lime and the soil becomes firm and does not dry out 
so readily. 

In addition to correcting acidity and improving physical state, it is probable that 
lime is absorbed from its solution by certain constituents of the soil, and displaces some 
of the substances previously absorbed. In this way, lime causes the liberation of a 
certain amount of potash from the soil so that a dressing of lime may to some extent 
take the place of an application of potash. When potash is so scarce as it is at the 
present time, this is an important point. 

Taking into consideration all the important functions of lime in the soil and the 
fact that our soils are steadily losing their lime and that none of our farm crops will grow 
in an acid soil, it is evident why the application of lime is so important. 

Lime may be purchased in the form of quick-lime, hydrated and air-slaked lime, 
and limestone dust. Hydrated lime is simply the quick-lime slaked, screened and 
bagged. The air-slaked material is the quick-lime that has slaked without the direct 
addition of water. It differs from the hydrated lime in that it has taken up some carbon 
dioxide from the air and part of the lime has passed back into the carbonate condition. 
Thus quicklime is the oxide of lime (CaO), the hydrated, the hydroxide of lime (Ca(OH 2 ) 
the air-slaked, a mixture of the hydroxide and carbonate of lime (Ca(OH 2 ) and (CaC0 3 ), 
and the limestone dust, the carbonate of lime (CaCOs). 

Gypsum, or land-plaster, sulphate of lime (CaS0 4 ), has all the good effects of lime 
in the soil, excepting that it will not neutralize acid. It is more soluble than the other 
forms of lime and may be applied at a much less rate per acre. 

When considering which of the above forms should be applied, it is well to remember 
that the fresh lime hastens the decay of organic matter. On soils of free aeration where 

75 



there would naturally be rapid decay of vegetable matter, freshly slaked lime should 
not be used. In so far as the air-slaked lime has carbonated, it would be safer; but, 
the best form would be the limestone dust. On the other hand, on a heavy clay, or on 
a sour "muck" soil, especially if deep, it would be better to apply the freshly slaked 
lime. The dust will probably give as good results taken over a period of years, but the 
quicklime will be quicker in its action. 

In considering the rate of application it is well to remember that lime is being 
steadily leached out of the soil and that we do not intend to apply lime every year. 
Furthermore, 56 lbs. of quicklime, 74 lbs. of hydrated lime, and 100 lbs. of carbonate of 
lime are equivalent quantities, especially for neutralizing acids. Consequently, 1,000 
lbs. quick lime and 1,786 lbs. of limestone dust will have about the same effect in the 
soil. One ton of quick lime or two tons of limestone dust makes a fair application and 
probably enough to last three or four years, but where the soil is very acid much larger 
quantities may be necessary. No ill effects will follow very heavy dressings with the 
carbonate of lime, but the quicklime will sterilize the soil if applied too heavily, and 
thus check crop production for a year to two. 

For immediate action, the finer the limestone is ground the better, but sufficient 
lime is commonly applied to last three or four years, and if it is all made very fine, there 
is great danger that it may leach away too quickly. If the coarser particles are about 
the size of the particles in corn meal or the finer forms of granulated sugar, and all the 
fine dust that would naturally be formed in such a reduction be retained, it will be 
gradually brought in use with less loss of material. 

The ground limestone dust is a comparatively new fertilizer product in this Province. 
The other forms of lime may be procured wherever lime is burned. The limestone 
dust is simply limestone reduced to a powder. All the firms preparing crushed stone 
for road purposes, screen the broken stone, separating all material that will pass through 
3-16 or 3-8 inch screen. These screenings contain a good deal of dust, some of it as 
fine as desired for agricultural purposes; but the great part of it is very coarse. It is, 
however, a material well worth considering when i t can be hauled directly onto the 
land, but it is doubtful if it will pay to ship this coarse material by rail. In some places 
as at the Wentworth Quarries, Canadian Quarries Ltd., Hamilton, Vinemount and 
Pointe Anne Quarries at Point Anne, the fine dust is separated from the coarser 
materials of the screenings and a very satisfactory product obtained. 

Four firms in Ontario are now preparing the limestone dust for agricultural pur- 
poses and are equipped with machinery to reduce the limestone to any degree of fineness 
desired. They are the Crushed Stone Company, Toronto, The Henderson Farmer's 
Lime Company, Beachville, and the Standard White Lime Company, geachville, and 
the Ontario Stone Corporation, Toronto (Quarries at Uhthoff, Ont.) It may be 
purchased in bulk or in sacks like cement. 



EXPERIMENTS WITH LIME IN NOVA SCOTIA 

During the past two years, experiments with the liming of soils have been carried 
on at the Nova Scotia Agricultural College by Prof. J. M. Trueman, who supplies the 
following particulars as to results hitherto obtained: — 

In 1914, three plots were sown to oats and three to wheat, in a mixture containing 
timothy and clover. Before sowing, half of each plot was treated with ground limestone 
at the rate of four tons per acre, this being twice the quantity usually employed. 

The liming made no apparent difference in the yield of grain, but the clover on the 
limed portions was considerably ahead of that on the unlimed at the time the grain crop 
was cut. This difference became more and more marked until the close of the season, 
and continued as growth started in the following spring. 

76 



On four of the plots, the limed portions showed a gain in yield of cured hay ranging 
from half a ton to a ton and three-quarters per acre. Two plots showed no increase, 
due evidently to the fact that the soil was in extra good condition and grew clover well 
even without liming. The second growth showed just as marked a difference in favour 
of the limed parts as did the first crop. As the benefits of liming continue for a number 
of years after the application, the results of succeeding crops will be of interest. 

Prof. Trueman points out that, according to these experiments, lime gives the best 
results on soils of medium richness. Where the soil is already in good condition for 
growing clover, lime does not have any marked result on the yield. Likewise on poor 
soils the results are unsatisfactory. Such soils are deficient in vegetable matter and 
plant food, and these things lime does not furnish. These are conditions that the 
farmer should test for himself by treating at least one acre with sufficient lime to be sure 
of his results. 



THE WAR AND FERTILIZERS 

The recommendations of Dr. Van Slyke, Chemist of the N.Y. Agricultural Experi- 
ment station, call for more attention to thorough tillage, a conservation and utilization 
of all plant food produced about the farm, and use of clovers. 

"We shall probably learn," said Dr. Van Slyke, "that we can get along with less 
potash than we have been led to believe. The propaganda carried on by the German 
Potash Syndicate induced many to use potash far in excess of their needs. Rock meals, 
reputed to contain potash, will be offered for sale said the speaker. They are ground 
from rocks which contain unavailable potash and if you want to get 'stung,' use them." 
Unleached hardwood ashes may be obtained, and they should contain in the vicinity of 
5 per cent, potash. They vary so in composition that they should always be purchased 
under a guarantee to contain a certain fixed amount of potash. During the coming 
season some mixed fertilizers, the speaker said, would contain perhaps one per cent, of 
potash. In this form the potash would be very expensive, and it would not be profitable 
for farmers to purchase the potash in a mixed fertilizer, as the amount contained therein 
would be totally inadequate if potash was required, and, furthermore, the price of it 
would be out of all reason. 

The phosphatic manures do not present so difficult a proposition as does potash. 
Ground phosphatic rock was not a readily available source of phosphoric acid. 

The speaker recommended the use of common salt on grass lands and other farm 
crops. From 150 to 300 lbs. per acre, he said, could often be applied with profit. It 
was explained that sodium, which is a part of common salt, changes the insoluble potash 
compounds of the soil into available form. 

THE POTASH FAMINE 

According to the British Board of Trade, the German syndicate controlling the 
potash beds, sold in 1913 potash to the value of £96,000,000. This amount would have 
been largely exceeded in 1914 had it not been for the war. 

There are few soils that do not contain enough potash in some form, and the amount 
required to be added should be small. Green crops should be grown and dug into the 
soil. In this way the latent potash power of the soil will be developed and utilized. 
There is too great a tendency in modern agriculture to draw from the outside for plant 
food, rather than to look to the soil to give it. The present potash famine may therefore 
be of great service to agriculture by compelling the cultivator to bring up his crops on 
nutriment from the soil, instead of by the feeding bottle of modern manuring. (From 
West India Committee Circular). 

77 



FLUCTUATIONS IN COST OF FERTILIZER MATERIALS 

Based on actual Selling Prices at New York and Baltimore, from month to 
month for prompt deliveries. 



July, 1914 Normal 

August, 1914 6.00 above 

Sept., 1914 Normal 

Oct., 1914 3.00 below 

Nov., 1914 3.00 ■ 

Dec, 1914 3.00 " 

Jan., 1915 1.00 « 

Feb., 1915 2.00 " 

March, 1915 4.00 ■ 

April, 1915 6.00 " 

May, 1915 6.00 * 

June, 1915 6.00 " 

July, 1915 7.00 " 

Aug., 1915 8.00 " 

Sept., 1915 9.00 " 

Oct., 1915 15.00 ■ 

Nov., 1915 20.00 ■ 

Dec, 1915 22.00 " 

Jan., 1916 25.00 " 

Feb., 1916 33.00 * 



sid Phosphate 


Muriate of 


Sulphate of 




Potash 


Potash 


Normal 


Normal 


Normal 


1.00 above 


50.00 above 


30.00 above 


1.00 « 


60.00 


u 


40.00 


u 


Normal 


55.00 


a 


35.00 


a 


Normal 


45.00 


u 


25.00 


a 


Normal 


35.00 


B 


15.00 


« 


Normal 


25.00 


« 


10.00 


a 


Normal 


80.00 


a 


60.00 


a 


Unsettled 


115.00 


u 


95.00 


a 


Unsettled 


120.00 


u 


100.00 


a 


Unsettled 


135.00 


u 


110.00 


a 


1.50 above 


145.00 


a 


110.00 


a 


2.00 « 


160.00 


u 


130.00 


u 


3.00 ■ 


190.00 


u 


160.00 


u 


4.50 " 


210.00 


u 


175.00 


u 


5.50 ■ 


260.00 


« 


200.00 


a 


6.50 " 


310.00 


a 


250.00 


a 


7.00 ■ 


410.00 


a 


300.00 


a 


7.50 " 


460.00 


u 


300.00 


a 


8.00 ■ 


560.00 


a 


300.00 


u 



-From Ontario Fertilizer Co. 



The following price sheet on manurial constituents is supplied by Gunns Limited. 



Muriate of Ammoniam Tankage 
Blood Potash Sulphate per unit 

Percent. per ton per cwt. 



Acid Phos. Nitrate of 
per ton Soda 

P 2 5 16% per cwt. 



Jan., 1916 

Dec, 1915 

Nov., 1915 

Oct., 1915 

Sept., 1915 

Aug., 1915 

July, 1915 

June, 1915 

May, 1915 

April, 1915 

Mar., 1915 

Feb., 1915 

Jan., 1915 

Dec, 1914 

Nov., 1914 

Oct., 1914 

Sept., 1914 

Aug., 1914 

July, 1914 



$3.30 
3.30 
3.30 
3.30 
2.60 
2.65 
2.65 
2.50 
2.55 
2.65 
2.65 
2.80 
2.85 
3.00 
3.00 
3.30 
3.30 
3.15 
2.90 



$490.00 

435.00 

245.00 

230.00 

230.00 

220.00 

210.00 

140.00 

100.00 

100.00 

100.00 

90.00 

Nominal 

Nominal 

Nominal 

Nominal 

Nominal 

Nominal 

37.07 



$3.90 
3.55 
3.50 
3.50 
3.40 
3.40 
3.40 
3.25 
3.20 
3.19 
3.00 
2.80 
2.65 
2.60 
2.65 
2.70 
2.95 
2.65 
2.60 

78 



$3.20 
3.20 
3.25 
2.70 
2.60 
2.60 
2.60 
2.60 
2.65 
2.65 
2.70 
2.70 
2.70 
2.85 
3.00 
2.95 
3.20 
3.10 
3.00 



and 10c 
and 10c 
and 10c 
and 10c 
and 10c 
and 10c 
and 10c 
and 10c 
and 10c 
and 10c 
and 10c 
and 10c 
and 10c 
and 10c 
and 10c 
and 10c 
and 10c 
and 10c 
and 10c 



$13.60 
12.80 
12.80 
8.50 
8.50 
8.50 
8.50 
8.00 
7.50 
7.50 
7.00 
7.00 
7.00 
7.50 
7.50 
8.00 
8.00 
7.50 
7.00 



$2.90 
2.90 
2.60 
2.60 
2.45 
2.35 
2.35 
2.35 
2.35 
2.30 
2.20 
2.00 
1.90 
1.90 
1.95 
1.90 
2.05 
2.07^ 
2.10 



CANADIAN FERTILIZER EXPORTS 
(Years ended Mar. 31) 



1914 




1915 




Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Bbls. 


$ 


Bbls. 


$ 


434 


19,218 


569 


26,172 




29,644 


. . . 


34,359 



Ashes, Pot and Pearl 

Ashes, all other 

Fertilizers "not otherwise 

provided" 1,594,785 . . . 2,171,352 

Of this, 116 bbls. were foreign produce. 

Cyanamide, manufactured at Niagara Falls, is exported to United States, as the 
Canadian market takes only a portion of the product. The exportation of potash 
and of liquor containing potash from beet sugar factories is prohibited. The question 
of prohibiting the export of wood ashes is under consideration. 

With muriate of potash at $400 per ton, wood ashes containing 5% potash would 
be worth $2.00 per hundred pounds for the potash alone. 

CANADIAN FERTILIZER IMPORTS 

(Years ended Mar. 31) 

1914 1915 

Quantity Value Quantity Value 

cwt. $ cwt. $ 

Furnace Slag 63,764 11,788 

Bone Ash, dust, etc 76,577 161,227 96,283 200,663 

Compound Fertilizer 602,142 714,584 

Fish refuse 30,755 28,836 

Guano, etc 64,742 90,894 63,582 93,747 

German Potash Salts 397,310 2,042 760,902 13,370 

Phosphate Rock 16,221 17,122 

Ashes, Pot and Pearl 277,222 11,281 66,540 6,376 

Not otherwise classified 3,513 853 



FARM DRAINAGE 

PROF. W. H. DAY, Agricultural College, Guelph, Ont. 

Perhaps few will question the statement that, with ordinary soils, the most impor- 
tant factor in crop production is the correct amount of water in the soil during the 
growing season. In the arid regions of the West where dry farming is practised, 
summer-fallowing is resorted to once in two or three years in order to conserve sufficient 
moisture for the production of crops in the remaining years. In humid sections, such 
as Ontario, Quebec and the Maritime Provinces, there is always a part of each year 
when considerable areas of land contain excessive moisture. If the excess occurs 
during the growing season and continues longer than a day and a half to two days, 
injury to crops will result. There is also the danger of drought, which in humid climates 
cannot be guarded against by dry farming methods as can be done in arid climates. 
For both extremes there is a common corrective, viz., to tile drain the land. Obviously, 
this will remove the excess moisture when such is present, but, just as certainly, it 
provides a greater supply of moisture for the crops in time of drought. This is effected 
in two ways: First by rendering the soil more porous and consequently capable of 
retaining more moisture when the excess has drained away; secondly, by permitting 
the roots to penetrate deeper than in undrained soil, thus providing them with a deeper 
feeding ground from which to draw moisture in time of drought. 

79 



The value of underdrainage in a dry season was well illustrated in 1914. Beginning 
with September, 1913 (when the soil began to store water for the next crop), and ending 
with August, 1914, the year was one of the driest, if not the driest, on record in Ontario. 
The rainfall was below normal in autumn, winter, spring and summer* the total defici- 
ency being almost six inches. Yet from eight Drainage Demonstration Plots, sicuated 
in different parts of the Province, we found that in every case on the drained half of 
the field the crop was much better than on the undrained half, the average difference 
in money value being $14.12 per acre, and that in one of the driest years on record. 
The year 1911 was also a dry one, and the difference obtained from reports by twenty- 
five farmers well distributed was $16.37 per acre in favour of drained land. 

The type of season in which drainage gives least results is one similar to that of 
1915 in Ontario, i.e., a dry spring followed by moderate rains during the growing season 
and sufficient during the ripening for proper filling. In most parts of the Province during 
the year 1915, it was not till about harvest time that the rains became excessive. The dry 
spring facilitates seeding so that even the undrained land is sown in good condition. 
The moderate rains during the growing season keep the plants thriving well all the time 
even on the undrained land. The average returns from fourteen demonstration plots 
for 1915 show a difference of $4.48 per acre in favour of the drained land. But the 
rain during harvest was so excessive that in many localities some of the grain on low 
land could not be cut. With the underdrained land there was no trouble of this kind. 

The greatest results from drainage are secured in years with excessive rains in the 
spring and early summer and drought during the latter part of the growing season. In 
such seasons, germination and early growth are retarded, the root systems are small 
and lie near the surface, the leaves turn yellowish and sickly in apppearance, and the 
plants, generally, become stunted. Later when the drought comes, the weakened roots 
cannot grow deeper as fast as the soil becomes dry; consequently it is only a few days 
until the plants show signs of wilting, indicating that they are suffering from lack of 
moisture, and the crop is a meagre one at best. On drained land, seasons of this type 
give good crops, and reports of farmers show that the average difference in value, 
taking various kinds of crops and different degrees of benefit, will run over $20 per 
acre in favour of the drained land. 

Drains should be laid about two and a half to three feet deep, and about four rods 
apart where systematic drainage is required. For drainage in a small way, the shovel, 
pick and drainage plow are used for excavating purposes, but in larger undertakings 
traction ditchers are now widely used. These cut a ditch full depth, true to grade, 
ready for the tile in passing once over the ground. For laterals, three or four inch tile 
are laid, depending on whether the fall is ample or scant, and for mains four to twelve 
inch for individual farms. For community drains even larger than twelve inch tile 
are frequently used. 

The average cost of draining land throughly, i.e., with a drain every four rods or 
thereabout, will range from $25 to $35 per acre depending on local conditions. It will 
be seen that even when results are least, as in 1915, ($4.48 per acre), drainage pays 
from 12 to 18 per cent, on the money invested. In average years the returns range 
from 35 to 50 per cent. 

The amount of drainage required in Canada is immense. In Ontario we estimate 
that of the cleared land about one-third or nearly 5,000,000 acres is in urgent need of 
drainage, while considerably more would be the better of it. Besides this, there are 
large quantities of slash, swamp and marsh which might be reclaimed by drainage — 
probably one-quarter of a million acres anyway. And these figures refer to old Ontario 
alone. Much of the clay belt of new Ontario also will require drainage before it will 
produce to its full capacity. In Quebec and the Maritime Provinces, where the rainfall 
is greater than in Ontraio, drainage is even more needed, likewise in parts of British 
Columbia; while in the eastern portion of the prairie provinces come a number of 
enquiries showing that some drainage is needed even there. 

80 



TRACTION DITCHING MACHINES 

From information furnished by the Buckeye Traction Ditcher Company of Findlay r 
Ohio, the following statement has been compiled. The first ditcher was imported into 
Ontario in 1904. Four more machines came into the same province in the following 
five years, one into Quebec in 1907 and one into New Brunswick in 1909. Since then 
no less than 134 have been brought in up to December 31st, 1915, as follows: 

1910. 11 machines 1913 25 machines 

1911 16 " 1914 31 

1912 24 " 1915 27 

The importation by Provinces has been as follows: 

Alberta 1 machine 

New Brunswick 1 " 

Nova Scotia 2 machines 

Saskatchewan 2 " 

Quebec 3 

British Columbia 4 " 

Ontario 128 



Total 141 machines 

The extensive use of traction ditching machines in Ontario is due largely to the 
instruction and demonstration campaign carried on by the Ontario Agricultural College. 
This is financed by provincial appropriations and by a portion of the annual grant 
under The Agricultural Instruction Act. Ontario has an Act for providing cheap money 
for drainage purposes. 



THE COST OF TILE DRAINAGE 

W. W. HUBBARD, Superintendent Experimental Farm, Fredericton, N.B. 

It is impossible to give an accurate forecast of what a drainage system will cost per 
rod or per acre until a very thorough examination is made of the nature of the soil and 
subsoil and the depths to which it is required to go to get suitable grades and outlets as 
well as how close together the drains must be to drain the land. In our generally rolling 
country, grades and outlets are not difficult, but there is a great deal of subsoil that is. 
On the, Experimental Station land, for instance, outside of perhaps 20 acres, the 370 
acres lying between the C.P.R. track and the St. John river has a tenaciousclayey 
subsoil with many boulders in it that makes machine excavation very slow and hand 
work very laborious and expensive. In most parts, after the top 18 inches is removed, 
the pick must be used on every inch below and boulders are encountered that require 
the use of considerable quantities of dynamite. Explosives add considerably to the 
cost in two ways. First, their own cost (13c. to 20c. per pound) and by causing 
much loss of time in that the ditchers must quit work and retire to a safe distance every 
time a charge is ready to be ignited. While a power ditcher can excavate to a depth of 
39 inches for 30c. per rod and sometimes under very best conditions for slightly less, 
and hand excavation can be made for 50c. per rod, under the conditions at the Experi- 
mental Station the cost has been $1.70 per rod. 

Beside the cost of excavation, in the case of underdrains, the cost of the tile, the 
stone or the wooden pipe have to be considered. 

81 



At the present time tile are much higher than they might be in New Brunswick. 
At the Experimental Station three inch tile have cost us from $15 to $28 per thousand 
feet and larger sizes in proportion. 

To give a general idea as to cost, the following figures may be taken. 

With tiles at the given price per thousand, soil that will enable a power machine 
to dig to a depth of 39 inches at 30c. per rod and a horse device for filling in the ditch, 
the following will be the cost per rod : 

Tile at $15 at $20 at $28 

Tile 24.8c. 33c. 46.2c. 

Excavation 30 30 30 

Distributing and laying tile 4 4 4 

Filling ditch 5 5 5 



63.8c. 72c. 85.2c. 

Land under-drained which gave only a half ton of almost worthless hay per acre 
I have seen yielding, by the aid of cultivation alone, from 23^ to 3 tons of the highest 
priced Timothy hay, worth this year from $13 to $18 per ton. At the Experimental 
Station we had a field of four and one-third acres so wet that it had never given anything 
but a light crop of hay. After draining it at the cost of $75.00 per acre, with the help of 
the power ditcher, we had the following season 340 barrels of potatoes from it without 
the application of $1.00 worth of manure. The potatoes yielded at the rate of 783^ 
barrels per acre, and sold for $86.35 per acre. Deducting cost of raising them, $38.00, 
it left $48.35 profit. This would pay the interest on the money invested of $4.50 and 
leave $43.85 to go against the cost of drainage, thus in one year reducing the indebted- 

against the land to $31.15 per acre. 



"The man who, expending his energies wholly on private affairs, refuses to take 
part in public affairs, pluming himself on his wisdom in minding his own business, is 
blind to the fact that his own business is made possible only by the prosperity of all." 

— Herbert Spencer. 



82 



THE LIVE STOCK INDUSTRY 

H. S. ARKELL, Assistant Live Stock Commissioner, Ottawa. 

(1) Our Export Trade 

In a list of the articles, in connection with which we may expect to do export busi- 
ness, there may be included — eggs, poultry, bacon, hams, pork cuts, frozen pork, beef 
for mincing purposes, frozen beef, chilled beef, beef offal, including hearts, livers, tripe, 
etc., canned corned beef, potted meats, pork and beans and army rations. 

It may also be of interest to note, although the matter is not within the purview of 
our live stock trade, that there exists a very important demand, as having reference to 
articles that Canada can supply, for canned and dried vegetables, canned fruits, fruit 
jams, butter and cheese. 

Eggs 

British Imports — Of this commodity, as of many others, Great Britain is the 
largest importing nation in the world. She imports very heavily from Russia, Denmark 
and other countries, but, as is well understood, her normal supply has now been very 
seriously interfered with on account of the war. In 1913 her imports from Russia 
amounted to the value of £4,745,229 while in 1915 her import from that country had 
decreased to £1,748,822. Great Britain's total imports of eggs, which in 1913 amounted 
to the value of £9,590,602, in 1915 fell to the low level of £6,122,970. These figures 
tell their own story. Because of this deficiency Canada was able to export last year, 
to the United Kingdom, eggs to the value of £584,234. ($2,800,000). 

Opening of the Market — As the export business developed, particularly during 
the fall months, the Canadian trade was able to realize that, notwithstanding difficulties 
and costs of transportation, it might become a lucrative one for this country. There is 
good reason to believe also that 7 despite some losses that occurred on a falling market at 
the end of the season, British wholesalers have been able to obtain a useful profit upon 
their Canadian purchases. In sympathy with the export market, Canadian prices 
have considerably stiffened as against normal values since August last. Moreover, it 
is already apparent that the extent of the purchases which will be made to meet the 
demands of this trade may, with some confidence, be depended upon to hold prices to 
producers at a gratifyingly high level during the current year. An examination of 
British values, with respect to new laid stock, fresh Irish, as also Russian, Dutch and 
American supplies reveals the fact that a satisfactory revenue to the producer, whole- 
saler and the British produce merchant may be obtained by the enterprising prose- 
cution of this business. 

It is generally expected that during the period of the war, while free supply of 
Russian eggs is interfered with, Canada may be able to continue the exportation of 
large quantities at remunerative prices. The head partner of one influential importing 
firm, after discussing the matter very freely with me in London, has already visited 
Canada, with the view of making large purchases for April, May and possibly fall 
delivery. 

Continuance of Trade — Following the war the continuance of our export trade 
in eggs will be seriously challenged by Russian competition. Viewing the matter 
carefully, however, from both the British and Canadian standpoint, it does not appear 

83 



improbable that this trade can be maintained, provided that, in the meantime, it is 
safeguarded against dishonourable dealing, unsatisfactory quality in the produce 
forwarded and the practice of ineffective or inefficient business methods either here or 
in England. 

Holding the Position. — Whatever steps, therefore, can immediately be taken 
to ensure uniformity and high quality will be of inestimable advantage to the trade 
later on. It may not be generally understood that the admission is freely made by 
Great Britain that, in comparison with local conditions, the egg trade as a produce 
business is more highly developed and more skilfully organized in Canada and the 
United States in the methods devised to standardize grades, safeguard quality and 
educate the consumer to the advantage of buying a first class product. If Canada 
should be able to transfer this system and this organization to the British market in 
the sale of our product, such would, without doubt, become of permanent and material 
assistance to her in her competition with other countries. 

Bacon 

British Market — The situation existing with respect to the supply and sale of 
bacon on the British market, illustrates very clearly the upheavel in trade relationships 
caused by the war. It, however, suggests the opportunity now presented to Canada, 
applicable not only in the case of bacon, but of many other products as well, of initiating 
and developing a trade on practically equal terms as against the competition of other 
nations. Countries that have been engaged in the business for years, now possess no 
particular advantage over their younger rivals. A new trade era is being established. 
Commercial connections and other trade assets which they formerly possessed, have 
been largely broken down and nullified within the last eighteen months. This is one 
of the most important and significant features to be borne in mind in any propaganda 
that may be entered upon looking toward the extension of our business abroad. 

The Danish Supply. — Danish bacon has hitherto and even yet continues, nomin- 
ally, to set the standard for all bacon consumed in the United Kingdom. Denmark 
has been obliged, however, for various reasons, to very appreciably reduce her killings, 
and the swine industry in that country has been seriously interfered with. Proximity 
to the war and her inability to obtain American corn and Russian barley, have operated 
to reduce the pig stock of the country. Moreover, sales to Germany, which country, 
it is understood, is paying forty cents per pound for Danish bacon, have opened up the 
promise of a new market and may result, temporarily at least, in a gradual discontinuance 
of shipments to the United Kingdom. 

Notwithstanding the greatly increased value of the 1915 product, Denmark exported 
to England considerably less than in 1914, while for the month of December 1915, the 
value of her exports to Great Britain amounted to only £703,704 as against £912,614 
for the similar period in 1914. The wholesale price of Danish bacon is at present one 
hundred and five shillings per hundred weight. Although this price is twelve shillings 
in excess of that for any other bacon offered, it is in some sense but a nominal quotation, 
the supplies being so short as not seriously to effect the market. People who have used 
Danish bacon for years have been obliged, owing to the short supply, to fill their weekly 
order from supplies available from other sources. 

Increase in Imports — One other fact is noteworthy. Great Britain has 
enormously increased her imports of bacon since 1913, the values being £17,428,881 
in 1913 and £25,441,460 in 1915. This increased importation is attributable to two 
causes: first, the very heavy purchases by the British War Office for army use; second, 
the increased home consumption of meat due directly to the high wages offered and paid 
in the most important classes of employment in the United Kingdom. It is confidently 
expected that, even after the war, the meat consumed in Great Britain per capita will 
considerably exceed the amount previously eaten, inasmuch as the habit of meat 
eating, once acquired, is not easily broken. 

84 



General Supplies — Not only are the supplies of bacon from the continent decreas- 
ing, but the local production as well is being materially reduced, on account of the extra 
demand for fresh pork, caused by the high prices of beef and mutton. It should be 
noted that, while Irish bacon is becoming an appreciable factor in the trade, the output 
is not at all commensurate with the increased demand. Practically the only other 
sources from which Great Britain can draw her supply are to be found in Canada and 
the United States. The latter country has more than doubled her exports to the 
United Kindgom since 1913, and in 1915 forwarded an amount exceeding in value that 
supplied by Denmark by £3,623,987. Canada has also increased her exports from 
£863,139 in 1913 to £3,324,511 in 1915, but at the present moment is exporting about 
one-quarter only of the amount furnished by the United States. This latter considera- 
tion must be recognized, notwithstanding the fact that Canadian bacon is selling at an 
advance of from ten to twelve shillings per hundred weight above American, and is 
admitted to be generally of superior quality. The Canadian hog is of a type from which 
Wiltshire bacon can be successfully produced, while the fat hog of America cannot easily 
be adapted to the fastidious requirements of this trade. With the stimulus given to all 
sales and the high prices resulting from War Office orders, there may easily be seen the 
opportunity that is now presented to Canada to develop a very remunerative bacon 
trade with Great Britain. 

Quality of the Output — This opportunity undoubtedly exists, and if properly 
safeguarded, can be fully realized. It must be pointed out, however, that while 
Canada clearly holds the favourable position above outlined, this position can be 
established only by commercial enterprise, business development and strict integrity, 
coupled with volume of supply. I have reason to believe that bacon is at present being 
exported from this country that is a credit neither to the business experience nor to 
the honesty of intention of those who are sending it forward. 

From another point of view, it should be noted that lack of information with 
respect to the niceties of the trade, a faulty cure, even ineffective advertising may be 
just as fatal to the future of our export business as are dishonesty or fraud. In this 
enterprise Canada will be faced by the keenest competition of wit, business acumen and 
intense application, that capital and brains can furnish, and we cannot hope to get very 
far unless we create such an effective system as may enable us to meet such competition 
on its own ground. 

Frozen Beef 

War Demand — A somewhat complicated problem presents itself as regards the 
sale of this commodity. The price of frozen beef is practically and effectively controlled 
by the British War Office. This control, it is generally admitted, has prevented a 
monopoly price being realized by the packers, has provided against any undue rise in 
value, except from widely operating causes, and has even resulted in a depression of the 
market in a comparison with prices that might have been expected to obtain, owing to 
greatly increased demand as against a bare continuance of normal supply. The War 
Office has been able to attain this pre-eminent position in the meat trade through its 
control of the transport service, and, while this control remains intact, the 
price of frozen beef in Great Britain, France and Italy will, undoubtedly, be 
materially affected by the dictation of the Imperial authorities. It is, perhaps, 
worth while stating in this connection that contracts with the French and Italian Govern- 
ments become, by consent, practically inoperative, except when ratified by the British 
War Office, and that this ratification is refused unless the price is approved, or, in other 
words, conforms to the figure that the War Office itself is obliged to pay. The fact that 
Great Britain has undertaken to furnish France with 20,000 tons of frozen meat per 
month and Italy with 100,000 tons per year, will indicate the extent of the British War 
Office operations and its practical dominance of the situation. It was intimated that 
this supply to these two countries would probably be continued during the period of the 
war. 

85 



Effect of British Control — The general tendency of the facts just noted is to 
hold the price of frozen beef at a level approximating that which obtained during times 
of peace. As will be understood, this level parallels, fairly accurately, the price at 
which beef can be supplied by the Argentine, Australia and New Zealand, where the 
costs of production, both on the farm and in the packing houses, are considerably lower 
than in Canada. Notwithstanding, therefore, all the good will that Great Britain may 
have toward this country, Canada will remain somewhat at a disadvantage in the way of 
securing contracts and in her ability to sell her beef in Europe during the period over 
which the Imperial Government is able to exercise its effective control of the market. 

Independent Activities — Despite the obvious advantages, however, inherent in 
this control, it is apparent that certain factors are contributing to weaken somewhat 
the position of the British War Office in this regard. In the first place, it is 
being questioned whether Great Britain will be able to continue her practical 
monopoly of the meat carrying trade, through which she has been able to 
exercise her regulation of prices. It was pointed out that both France 
and Italy are interesting themselves in the creation, for their own use, of a fleet 
of transport ships and have given consideration to the independent purchase 
of their meat supplies. The perfecting of any arrangements in these directions will 
considerably weaken the powerful position Great Britain has hitherto held. In the 
same degree, it will undoubtedly lead to a return to the natural equilibrium, as regards 
price, which would ordinarily be reached under the untrammelled influence of normal 
supply and demand. Whatever opinion one may hold respecting developments of this 
nature, it is felt that attention should be drawn to them because of their bearing upon 
the position of this country in securing sale for her meat. 

Future Demand — Another factor, operating in the same direction, is the increased 
demand now being created for frozen beef. It has been demonstrated to France by her 
use of this product for army purposes that it is a thoroughly wholesome article of food. 
Unless, therefore, the agrarian interests in the country again regain control of the 
situation, it is expected that France, for a period of years, will open her market to. 
foreign supplies, if not generally, at least from the allied countries. This new European 
market, together with the increased consumption of meat, which it is believed will 
continue after the war, should probably serve to create a general rise in price for 
beef supplied through the export trade. This price, as compared with prices formerly 
existing, will continue at least until supply is able to cope with the demand. 

Future Supply — Prior to the war, the available sources from which beef could 
be obtained were able only to furnish the quota required by the United Kingdom. No 
appreciable surplus was apparent. Heavy purchases from the Argentine, resulting 
from War Office orders, together with a severe drought in Australia, are resulting in the 
shrinkage of the current output from these countries. So true is this fact that, not- 
withstanding War Office control, current prices have risen considerably and to a figure 
at which both United States and Canada have been able within limitations to compete 
for business. It was learned, in fact, that, as a result of the conditions just referred to, 
an additional rise in the price of the imported article might be expected to occur during 
the current year. Furthermore, the pressure of army requirements has been such as to 
necessitate several emergency purchases, the general tendency of which has been able to 
appreciably lift the level of the market. From a general survey of the whole situation, 
it may be concluded that Canada will be in a better position during the coming months to 
obtain sale for her product than she has been able to secure during the past year. Having 
reference to last year's trade it may be stated, on the best of authority, that average 
prices current on Smithfield Market in 1915 show an increase of 40% since the outbreak of 
war. 

Market in France — It should now be pointed out that the market for Canadian 
beef or, at least, for the quality which is being produced, lies in France and in Italy rather 

86 



than in Great Britain. The beef hitherto furnished by Canada has not been such, 
generally speaking, as to find favour on the Smithfield market nor for war office contract. 
The British public demands fat meat or at least meat that is prime fed and well finished. 
The supply furnished by the Argentine, Australia, New Zealand and even by the 
United States, is able to meet these requirements. Our cattle, as compared with the 
product of the above mentioned countries, are not prime and lack finish. Canadian 
grass-fed bullocks cannot stand against this competition, and even our stall-fed stock, at 
least such of it as is available for export across the Atlantic, takes second place. We 
shall be obliged to greatly improve our method and manner of feeding before we can 
expect to secure a firm foothold on the British market. 

On the other hand, France and Italy will take and, in some respects, prefer Canadian 
beef. This is true whether the meat is intended for consumption by the civil population 
or for army supply. A comparatively lean quality of beef is demanded by the French 
and Italian people and for this trade our Canadian cattle are likely to find favour. 

Live Animals 

Live Stock in France — The situation in France needs to be explained. Owing-, 
to the elimination of the herds in Belgium and Northern France and the reduction of the- 
stock elsewhere in the country, the French market for Canadian cattle may be expected 
to continue for a considerable period after the war. At the beginning of the conflict,, 
during the period before the supply of frozen beef became available, it is stated that 
about one-fifth of the national herd was utilized to make good the requirements of the 
army. It may be noted, further, that, during the past eighteen months, the number of 
hogs in the country has been very greatly reduced. It was stated to me, on very 
reliable authority, that the reduction had amounted approximately to two-thirds of 
the normal stock. 

Live Feeding Cattle — The demand for frozen beef, present and prospective, has- 
already been referred to. In France a market exists, also, for live feeding cattle. As 
regards living animals, Canada is practically the only available source from which 
France, from the standpoint of bovine health, will consent to draw a supply. These 
would be placed on the rich pastures of Normandy and Britanny and other depart- 
ments and, when finished, would be slaughtered for domestic consumption. It is the 
intention of the Government, as well as the desire of the people, to preserve, as far as 
possible, the breeding cattle of the country. The French are anxious to maintain and 
develop their own stock rather than mix it with the blood of foreign breeds. For this 
reason, cattle for feeding purposes only will be required. It is altogether unlikely, for 
the same reason, that a market for Canadian breeding cattle will be realized. 

Prospective Market for Canada — It will now be apparent that, while certain 
complications exist as regards the sale of our beef on the European market, and while 
the prices that prevail do not suggest profits equivalent to those offered in other 
directions, there can be absolutely no reason to prevent us from finding a comprehensive 
export outlet in that direction for our product. In fact, many indications suggest that, 
as the war advances, and possibly for a very considerable period following the final 
declaration of peace, the price or market tendency will be upward rather than down- 
ward. From this it may be inferred that the development of an export beef trade with 
Europe rests upon a firm economic foundation. 

It is quite true that a careful policy will have to be pursued in the means taken to- 
effect this development. It is absolutely essential also that every contributing market 
movement should be watched with the greatest care, in order that, while all possible 
advantages from this trade may be fully assured, losses to our producers may be pro- 
vided against as resulting from the competition of other countries or the glutting of the 
market which, at any time, over-supply would create. For the present, Canada ought 
to be able to sell to advantage all her surplus product. If, later on, our farmers andi 

87 



packers may be content with lower prices and willing to secure their profits by operating 
on a narrower margin with a larger output, I am satisfied that a lucrative trade may be 
built up to last through a period of years. 

Cumberland Bacon, Hams and Pork Cuts 

Cumberland bacon is cured in practically the same manner as a Wiltshire side. 
It is, in effect, a side of bacon minus the ham. Cumberland cut bacon is usually 
made from lighter hogs than are used in making Wiltshire, and is, therefore, perhaps 
scarcely of as high standard as the latter product. It finds, however, ready sale on the 
British market. 

Cured hams are also selling freely both in the United Kingdom and in France, while 
cured pork cuts of other descriptions are being imported in quantity into the former 
^country. Fresh pork cuts, however, cannot enter British ports, entry being prohibited 
under the British sanitary regulations. Were it possible to have these regulations made 
less restrictive, or should a mutually satisfactory arrangement be worked out between 
the Canadian Sanitary Service and the Imperial authorities, a very useful market would 
;be opened up for grades of bacon, of which export sale is at present either restricted or 
^practically prohibited. In 1915, Great Britain imported hams to the value of £5,296,- 
689 as against £3,068,251 in 1913. Of this 1915 importation Canada furnished £434,485 
while the United States supplied £4,859,895, or more than ten times as much as the 
Dominion. 

Frozen Pork. — Owing to the high price of mutton and beef, the demand for 
fresh pork has increased very greatly during the past year. Large quantities of fresh 
pork are consumed, being supplied both locally by the United Kingdom and by import- 
ation from the Netherlands. The frozen article, is now, however, finding ready sale. 
Light pigs are preferred. Carcasses weighing as low as 90 lbs. each are popular. While 
the war lasts and possibly for some time afterward, large quantities of pork may be 
shipped to Great Britain in a frozen condition and disposed of at advantageous 
prices. In 1915, the importation of this commodity amounted to£435,908, of which 
the United States supplied £288,524. The total importation in 1913 amounted to 
only £43,255. 

Canned Goods 

Under this head may be enumerated, canned corned beef, pork and beans, army 
rations, canned fruits and vegetables, dried vegetables and fruit jams. Enormous 
quantities of these articles are being purchased by the British War Office and it is 
understood that the Canadian Department of Militia and Defence is also likely to take 
considerable orders for use overseas. From what I could learn, for such requirements 
as are needed, Canada will receive every consideration in the contracts placed, although 
of course she will be expected to parallel the price quoted in tenders offered by competing 
countries such as the United States and the Argentine. The importation of preserved 
and canned beef amounted in 1915 to £10,315,653 as against £2,692,443 in 1913. 

Miscellaneous 

Under this category are included frozen beef for mincing purposes, frozen beef cuts, 
"hearts, tongues, livers, tripe, etc. Meat for mincing has a special market and for 
such supply as is required reasonable returns are obtained. Offal of all descriptions can 
be sold to excellent advantage at Smithfield. The sale of the latter products, if put up 
carefully according to market requirements, may be made to yield such a revenue as 
to assist greatly in securing a remunerative return in the handling of carcass beef. It 
was freely stated, however, and was in fact very apparent, that from the condition in 
which material of these descriptions arrived from Canada, much improvement would 
have to be effected before anything better than mediocre prices could be expected. 

88 






II. Organization of the Export Trade 

The successful development of our export trade will be dependent primarily upon 
the following factors: Enterprise in seeking the market, efficient organization, uniform 
and high quality of the product, volume of supply, together with adequate transpor- 
tation facilities at reasonable rates. Other factors will, no doubt, contribute materially 
to the success of the undertaking, but achievement to the extent of our opportunity 
is definitely dependent upon these considerations. It must be recognized at once that 
unless Canada goes after this market, in a thorough-going, business-like way, she may 
expect to fall very far behind in the race. 

This is no place to discuss or to outline the measures that may be needed to promote 
the development of this trade. A few observations, however, respecting features in 
whidh improvement should be effected, may serve to bring about a better understanding 
of the situation. From a general point of view, it appeared to me that there is a lack 
of connection between our tradespeople here and the tradespeople in Great Britain, 
and a dearth of information in Canada with respect to all phases of market business in 
the United Kingdom. Full knowledge of market requirements is absolutely essential 
to successful trade. Viewing our commercial enterprise in comparison with the organ- 
izations already effected by other countries, I have no hesitation in saying that unless 
a very much closer connection is established by Canada and unless a similarly systematic 
programme is aggressively proceeded with, our methods, with certain notable exceptions, 
must continue to be classed as haphazard, futile and incomplete. 

Transportation 

During the period of the war, transportation will constitute one of the most difficult 
problems connected with our export business. Not only is there an insufficient supply 
of ships, but present rates are excessive, and in some instances almost prohibitive. 
The commandeering of such a considerable number of vessels for naval use, the changing 
of the routes of ships, together with the losses that have occurred in the mercantile 
marine, will make it very difficult to secure normal service to this or to other countries 
either during or after the war. Adequate transportation facilities, it may be taken at 
once for granted, furnish one of the most effective weapons in competing for and estab- 
lishing an export trade. With this understanding of the situation, the need for a co- 
ordination of interest between the shippers and the transportation and shipping com- 
panies, is easily apparent. To allow such an important matter as this undoubtedly is, 
to adjust itself under present circumstances as accident or caprice may dictate, is but 
to invite disappointment and defeat in the realization of our ambition to secure recog- 
nition and a national reputation in the development of a comprehensive commercial 
policy, in association with Great Britain, her allies, and our sister dominions. Neutral 
nations are taking up this problem, and ic is essential that we, at the very beginning, 
endeavour to secure for ourselves, the advantages in this direction which ihe exercise 
of foresight, careful judgment and aggressive action may so easily obtain. The problem 
involves a consideration of the volume of our supply, the extent of our market and the 
permanence of our trade. Producers, produce merchants and shipping companies 
have each wide interests at stake in the sale of our goods through an export channel. 
No apology is offered, therefore, for the recommendation that the interests of all be 
co-ordinated into a policy that shall permanently safeguard the future of our export 
market. 

Nationalization of the Trade 

As has already been intimated, the Dominion is now in a particularly favourable 
position in all our dealings with the Mother Country to trade upon the term "Canadian." 
If, however, Canada and Canadian shippers are content to have the product of the 
Dominion exported without such supervision or organization as shall secure uniformity 
and high quality in the material forwarded, we may expect to find the trade hampered 

89 



and restricted in every direction, not only by dishonourable dealing but, as well, by the 
inability of the British consuming public to depend upon the quality or grade of Can- 
adian goods. Danish bacon, Irish eggs, New Zealand butter and Canadian cheese 
have been able to set a standard on the British market, because of the organization 
established in these different countries to direct the manufacture, regulate the grade, 
improve the quality and control the export of these different commodities. An 
inspection of the display advertisements in the windows of wholesale and retail produce 
houses in Great Britain very clearly demonstrates the methods used to catch the attention 
of the British consuming public. They very definitely suggest, also, the enterprise and 
efficient organization in these countries, in that they have been able to secure for them- 
selves such a distinct national recognition for their product on the British market. 
"Finest Irish," "Best Danish," "Prime New Zealand," these are illustrations of the 
phrases that confront one on the display placards used by English grocers in selling 
their wares. It was not difficult or surprising to ascertain that such advertising was 
backed up by an organization in the respective countries which made trade under such 
a basis possible. 

If Canada sets herself to the task, we can secure the same national recognition for 
Canadian eggs, Canadian bacon, Canadian canned goods and Canadian meats. Can- 
adian produce should always be advertised by having trade brands, trade advertise- 
ments and display placards appear under the term "Canadian." This term should 
precede any firm brand and should be made to secure for itself a clearly defined recog- 
nition amongst the British public. So far as I was able to learn, the export produce 
business to Great Britain has never amounted to anything for any country nor for any 
product unless the article exported has been made to conform to a practically standard 
grade, both as regards uniformity and quality. The distinctive national designation 
under which such products can be sold, when this position is reached, very rapidly 
becomes a commercial asset which itself definitely tends to extend business and develop 
trade. How much more of an asset such a distinction might become to this country, 
through the reputation which has been made for Canada by our participation 
in the war, may easily be surmised. Granted volume of supply, it remains only to 
attain this end that we effect an organization that shall nationalize our product 
both in its production and in its sale. In my judgment, such a course as is here 
suggested may be made to apply to the development of an egg trade, a bacon trade and 
a chilled meat trade. 

Production 

Hitherto in this article, consideration has been given chiefly to the importance 
to this country of securing an export market and to the measures to be taken in the 
improvement or creation of facilities for the building up of our export trade. Action 
in this direction, however, presupposes a volume of supply which will make this trade 
worth while. Emphasis upon the one urges the importance of the other. Organization 
in marketing, therefore, should be paralleled by equally effective organization in 
production; and only by co-operation between these two great lines of effort will the 
future of our Canadian Live Stock Industry be assured. The aggressive attitude now 
being taken by the American people in connection with the development of all their 
industries is very generally recognized. To them the war has furnished opportunities 
for national commercial progress which they have not been slow to realize. Despite 
the difficulties and dangers of ocean transportation and high freight cost, their exports 
in several directions have increased enormously. A determined feeling is growing up 
amongst them to more fully and completely organize this business. In appreciation 
of this position, attention is conspicuously being given to the development and extension 
of agriculture. Unless as a country we apply ourselves earnestly and intensely to the 
business in hand, the United States will supplant us on the British market, realizing the 
advantages and maintaining the position that belongs to us as a national heritage 
through our relationship with the Mother Country. 

90 



With this message from the land to the south of us, what shall be our attitude 
toward this question in Canada? It is, in the opinion of many, so suggestive that we 
cannot afford to ignore it. We are still a young nation. Our problems as compared 
with the United States are not yet so unwieldy, our business interests not so varied, 
our economic difficulties not so acute. Our resources have as large a future, our home 
industries have more room for expansion, our foreign trade has a greater opportunity, 
through our relations with the mother country, to effectively win its way in the com- 
mercial markets of Europe. 

We have reason, then, to set our hands to this task in a more careful manner than 
that in which we have ever before entered upon any undertaking. We must lift pro- 
duction to a level that shall permanently secure for us a comprehensive surplus, avail- 
able for export. We must promote an organization that shall obtain for our produce 
such recognition as is now given to Argentine beef, Danish bacon, New Zealand butter, 
or Dutch cheese. 

To achieve this end, we must have a better understanding, a more complete co- 
operation, between the producer and the middleman. We must secure a co-ordination 
of interest between production and transportation. W'e must endeavour to link up the 
financial institutions in this movement in such a manner as shall secure their support 
to every phase of its development. The interests of these great industrial bodies must 
be clearly allied in attaining the end in view. Each unit has a particular and important 
part to play in the common programme, and each must recognize that, only as this 
function dovetails completely and satisfactorily into those of the others, may real and 
final success be achieved. Only thus may we hope to compete successfully in the 
great commercial war soon to be engaged in by all the important nations of the world. 
Only thus may we expect to build up a business in Canada commensurate with our 
natural resources and worthy of our national ambition. 



THE EMPIRE'S SHARE IN THE MEAT TRADE 

In Australia there are about forty freezing works to deal with the exportable 
surplus from 11,000,000 head of cattle and 80,500,000 sheep and lambs. 

There are in New Zealand no fewer than forty freezing works, in operation or in 
course of construction, to deal with the exportable surplus from 25,000,000 sheep and 
lambs and about 2,000,000 head of cattle. 

Australia and New Zealand are practically the only regular and reliable sources of 
supply within the Empire, and they together furnished only 284,056 tons of meat in 
1915, out of 664,508 tons imported into the United Kingdom. In addition, there was 
a small import from Canada, and a still smaller import from South Africa. The 
Over-seas Dominions should be equipped to furnish much more than one-half of the 
meat imports of Great Britain. 

It is in the interests of the Empire that everything possible should be done to 
foster the Canadian Live Stock industry. In Canada, the number of cattle is about 
6,000,000, besides 2,000,000 sheep — a total which, having regard to the population of 
the Dominion, does not at present leave a very large margin for export. With the 
probability of preferential trade in food within the Empire there are great possibilities 
in the expansion of Canadian live stock production. 

91 



IMPORTS BY THE UNITED KINGDOM 

1913 1914 1915 

Tons Tons Tons 

Beef, Mutton and Lamb — 

Importations into United King- 
dom from foreign countries. . . 447,433 407,856 374,534 
Importations into United King- 
dom within the British Empire 273,228 286,609 289,974 



720,661 694,465 664,508 
Beef only — 

Importations into United King- 
dom from foreign countries. . . 380,135 340,525 325,453 
Importations into United King- 
dom within the Empire 79,909 101,440 104,967 



460,044 441,965 430,420 



THE PRESENT OPPORTUNITY FOR CANADIAN STOCKMEN 

JOHN BRIGHT, Dominion Live Stock Commissioner. 

A study of the live stock situation of the world at the present time cannot fail to 
convince any practical person that Canadian stockmen will have, in the immediate 
future, an exceptional opportunity for profitable trade. The question as yet un- 
answered is whether they will realize the situation in time so to conduct their operations 
as to take the fullest advantage of it. This is a matter of the utmost importance, 
not only from the standpoint of the individual farmer but also from a national stand- 
point. 

While the national phase of the question may lie somewhat outside of the considera- 
tion of the average farmer, the matter of personal profit may be depended upon to 
make its own appeal. In considering the latter aspect of the case the stockman who 
is convinced that an unprecedented opportunity is presenting itself to develop the 
live stock business of Canada, should not lose sight of the essential factors that will 
make such development possible. The most important of these factors are: — 

(1) The laying of the foundation now by conserving breeding stock; 

(2) Improvement in the quality of live stock products by intelligent breeding — 
the use of good sires, the weeding out of all scrubs both male and female, consistent 
adherence to one breed, early castration of calves and of lambs; 

(3) Improvement in the care and feeding of young animals and improvement in 
the finishing of animals for market; 

(4) The providing of a steady volume of trade by remaining continuously in the 
ranks of the live stock producers despite temporary and sometimes discouraging fluc- 
tuations in price as governed by the world's demand for live stock products. 

Until the last two or three years, Canadian farmers have annually allowed useful 
female breeding stock, particularly cows and heifers, to go to market in large numbers. 
While the rising prices of meats have checked this movement of late years, it must be 
admitted that, even yet, at certain seasons of the year, there may be seen on any of 
our large markets females of good type and with many years of usefulness ahead of 
them. The country cannot afford to lose such animals at the present time and the pre- 
vention of their slaughter is one of the first and most important steps to be taken in 

92 



conserving our breeding stock. Similarly, for many years, the high prices ruling for 
veal resulted in annually increasing receipts for calves on the live stock markets. While 
male calves of dairy blood formed a considerable percentage of such receipts, unfor- 
tunately many excellent calves, both male and female, of good beef type, were slaugh- 
tered. The loss to the breeding herds and to the feeders' stalls was serious and we 
are even yet feeling the effects of this sacrifice of potential beef, despite the fact that 
during the last two or three years there has been a marked falling off in the offerings 
of good calves. The prevention of such sacrifices entirely will mark the second and 
supplementary step necessary to the conservation of our breeding stock. 

While it is true that in many parts of Canada our live stock shows the evidence 
of careful consistent breeding, there is a very considerable area both in newer sections 
of the West and in the rougher sections of the older provinces in which no improve- 
ment in quality has been effected in years. Further, it is unfortunately the case, that 
in some districts in the West the quality of the cattle is already showing signs of deterior- 
ation owing to the practice of foreign settlers of allowing scrub bulls and uncastrated 
yearlings to run with the herds. The importance of using only good sires is appreciated 
by a very large percentage of our farmers, but unfortunately, such sires are not always 
used intelligently. Even in sections in which associations have been formed for the 
purpose of improving the live stock of the district, the practice of breeding to a sire 
of one breed for two or three years and then changing to a sire of another breed has 
been followed, with the natural result that practically no progress has been made. It 
has been well said that the average Canadian farmer is less conservative on the question 
of the breed of the live stock raised on his farm than any other question relating to 
his operations. It is time the fact was more generally realized that real progress can 
be made only by consistently sticking to one breed, by using the best sires obtainable 
in that breed and by systematically discarding females that do not prove their useful- 
ness as breeders of animals of good type. Quality, which depends in the first place 
upon good blood, is one of the most important considerations in live stock breeding 
and has an important bearing on the price ultimately realized for the product when 
turned into meat. 

It does not require a very intimate knowledge of the methods followed in handling 
live stock on the farms of Canada to enable one to realize that too many farmers do 
not appreciate the importance of the first year or of the first few months, as the case 
may be, in the life of a young animal. It cannot be expected that a calf, no matter 
how well bred, is going to develop into a well grown breeding animal or into a profitable 
feeder if it has been allowed to practically raise itself during the first year of its life. 
In fact, in many of the more backward districts it would appear that money invested 
in well bred stock would be practically a total loss until the farmers are educated to 
feed and care for the offspring properly and to give them a chance to develop. There 
are many sections to which, of course, the foregoing remarks do not apply, but the 
improvement that would be effected in our total annual live stock receipts by the 
more general practice of properly feeding young animals would be remarkable. It 
may be added that even in some of our better districts the cattle sent to market lack 
finish, and only an exceedingly small precentage of our heavy steers would be suitable 
for the British market. In addition, the number of cattle sent out of the country in 
an unfinished condition as stockers and feeders last year was deplorable, particularly 
in view of the fact that never were larger quantities of feed available. Herein lies one 
of the most important questions to be solved in connection with the increase of our 
beef production. 

The importance of renewed exertion on the part of Canadian stockmen during 1916 
cannot be overestimated, and it is unnecessary to state that the Department of Agri- 
culture, through the Live Stock Branch, stands prepared to support such efforts both by 
policies at present in operation and by those that may later be inaugurated. 

93 



THE HORSE INDUSTRY 

JOHN BRIGHT, Dominion Live Stock Commissioner. 

The Canadian horse industry is now entering upon a new era in its history. How- 
ever, before taking up the existing situation, it would appear advisable to go back a 
couple of decades and review conditions that obtained during the closing years of the 
last century, and up to the outbreak of the war. 

The periods of so-called good and hard times seem to occur in cycles of years. The 
cause is the condition of the money market and its consequent effect upon all kinds of 
business. No industry is so quickly affected by a depression as that of the horse breeder 
and in probably no country does this statement apply with greater force than in Canada. 
Being a young country, large sums of money are needed to develop the latent resources 
of our farms, forests, mines and other industries. To this end it has been necessary 
to engage extensively in the building of railroad systems and other public works. How- 
ever, when conditions changed in the money market and the banks refused to loan as 
previously, a reaction necessarily followed. Manufacturers curtailed operations, while 
all great works ceased except those really necessary. A study of the horse census of 
Canada gives a fair idea of these fluctuations in the money market, or cycles of good 
and hard times. 

The Period from 1891 to 1901. — During this decade the horse population of 
Canada increased, in round numbers, 100,000 as against over 400,000 for the previous 
ten years. Toward the close of the period light horses became a drug on the market, 
while the demand for draughters was limited, and the price very low. The result was 
that in many sections of the country breeders became careless. They ceased patronizing 
pure bred sires, because of the service fee. In other sections they almost ceased breeding 
heavy horses for the time being. Others started raising light horses. As it was impos- 
sible to get rid of anything but the best, the practice of breeding mares that were old, 
unsound and of poor conformation became prevalent. This, coupled with the use of 
scrub sires in many parts of Canada, produced a retrograde movement. Fortunately 
for the country, however, many of the good districts continued to improve their horses 
and when conditions changed supplied much of the breeding stock with which to start 
anew. 

The outbreak of the South African War in 1899 had a beneficial effect upon horse 
breeding. While it lasted many thousands of horses were taken out of the country, 
and for the country's good. The exportation of the surplus, the brightening of 
conditions in the money market and the rush of immigration, had a far-reaching effect. 
People began breeding horses again. 

The Period from 1901 to 1913— Between 1901 and 1911 the horse population 
increased a little over 1,000,000, or almost ten times as many as during the previous ten 
years. During the next three years the increase amounted to over 250,000, a considerable 
falling off taking place duiing the years 1913 and 1914. 

The Cause — From 1901 to 1912 the country developed beyond the most sanguine 
expectations of the people, and the price of horses rose to the highest point in the 

94 



history of the country. The demand for horses made it possible for breeders to get rid 
of almost anything that might be given that name. Good animals, whether light or 
heavy, brought good prices. Comparatively speaking, the poorer animals brought 
higher prices than the better classes, and often very much more than they were worth. 

The Light Horse Period — From 1903 to 1908 the light horse came into his own. 
The good and the bad were in demand at fair prices, while the choice animals were 
eagerly sought after, and readily picked up at unheard-of figures. The amassing of 
wealth by many of our citizens, the desire to obtain publicity and to achieve fame in 
the show-ring and the scarcity of show-ring winners, together with the advent of the 
automobile, were factors that, in the end, proved the undoing of the light horse. During 
this period some of the best of our light sires were taken out of the breeding studs and 
gelded, in order to make show-ring winners of them. Wealthy men, after having achieved 
the successes which they had set their hearts upon, and, having no further interest in 
the horse industry, quickly disposed of their large stables and dropped out. Others, 
unable to secure the class of horse they desired turned to the automobile. It might 
further be explained that automobiles cost much less than it would to establish a first 
class stable of horses and properly equip it, particularly for city use. The stringent 
laws and restrictions, imposed by city health departments against the building of 
stables or the keeping of horses within certain areas, also had a detrimental effect. 
Thus the demand for, and the number of light horses, by which is meant particularly 
the carriage horse or high-stepper, also, but in a lesser degree, the saddler and hunter, 
has slowly but steadily lessened year by year, and it would appear that their day for city 
use has largely passed. Before they could again take their former place, it would take 
years of breeding to get a sufficient number, and years to train and fit an entirely new 
set of grooms and coachmen. Nevertheless, a number of people will continue to use 
these horses and there will always be a limited market for choice animals, at fair prices. 
However, as experienced breeders well know, but a small percentage come up to the 
standard. The everyday farmer should leave this field to the expert. 

The Heavy Horse Period — The demand for heavy horses grew with the increase in 
population and the consequent development of the country. The high water mark was 
reached in the years 1911 and 1912. Up to this time draught horses, of any kind, found 
a ready sale at good paying prices, while the good, big ones were eagerly sought for and 
quickly picked up at figures heretofore undreamed of. In the opinion of many, the 
middle class and poorer draughters brought a price much beyond their intrinsic value, 
but this was largely through the supply not being nearly equal to the demand and also 
to the fact that often the source of supply was far removed from the centres of 
demand. 

During these years heavy horse breeding took a decidedly onward and upward 
trend. The free circulation of money made it possible for the people to buy and use a 
better class of sire than heretofore. Consequently the importers were not only enabled 
butf compelled to bring a rather better class to the country. In certain sections the 
improvement that took place was truly wonderful. Unfortunately, however, this 
applies only to certain sections of our country. It was not uncommon to find that, 
while one district impVoved the conformation, quality and size of its horses very materi- 
ally, others adjoining went on using inferior sires and poor mares, just as they had done 
in previous decades. Nevertheless, there is in Canada to-day a great deal of high class 
foundation stock, both imported and home bred, which if properly handled will prove of 
inestimable value to the country. 

Conditions in Canada — The outbreak of the war found the country with a 
very considerable surplus for which there was little demand. Since that date 
practically the only demand had been for remounts. Up to the end of the Fiscal 
Year 1915-16 in the neighbourhood of 50,000 horses had been purchased. Of this 

95 



number the British War Office took close to 14,000 head, the Canadian Department 
of Militia, approximately, 26,000, while the contractors for the French Government 
purchased over 7,000 horses. The French contractors who are now buying in the 
country have still large contracts and are willing to buy every suitable horse that 
Canada has to offer. One firm writes saying that their contracts call for 10,000 a 
month while war lasts. 

The prices paid for war horses may seem to be low after the exceedingly high prices 
that prevailed for a number of years. It should be remembered, however, that the class 
of horse taken is one that, generally speaking, the country can well afford to do without, 
and, further, that, all things considered, the average price paid is an exceedingly good one 
for the average class of horse taken. 

Allied Countries — At the outbreak of the war practically all suitable horses 
were commandeered by the British and French for army service. It is true that they 
saved their best stallions, but, generally speaking, they were forced to send forward 
large numbers of their good breeding mares. It will be necessary, therefore, at the close 
of the war for those countries to import horses until they can re-establish breeding opera- 
tions. 

The horse industry of Belgium has been practically wiped out. A few of their 
good breeding animals were driven into France, but the Germans seized all the good 
horses and sold them by auction in Germany. This means that when peace is restored, 
the horse industry in that country will have to be completely re-organized. 

Future Demand — The good crop of the past year has enabled the Canadian 
farmers to go out and buy a part of the horse-power so badly needed, and, accordingly a 
good number of horses have gone into needy districts, with more to follow. Carload 
lots are being shipped quite commonly. Already the number of horses from east to 
west far exceeds the total number shipped during 1915. The increase in immigration, 
which is expected to follow the war and must of necessity go to the land, will create a still 
further market. 

What to Breed — The only safe advice that can be given to the farmer is to 
start now to breed good draught horses, sound, of good conformation, and as large as 
possible. These will undoubtedly be wanted in numbers both at home and abroad. 

The only light horse that bids fair to be wanted is the good, big roadster; a square 
trotter of good conformation and sound, weighing from 1050 pounds upwards. How- 
ever, the demand for this class of horse will not in any way compare with the demand 
for draughters. Nevertheless, there should be a steady market for good animals such 
as has been described. 

Commercial Breeding — During the past the attention of the farmer has been 
directed almost exclusively to the sire. True, nothing but pure-breds of good confor- 
mation and quality should be used. The time has arrived, however, when, in the 
best interests of the industry and in order to achieve the greatest success in breeding, 
particular attention should be given to the breeding mare. The best should be carefully 
preserved for breeding purposes. The good results from the use of high class stallions 
will be greatly minimized if the mares are poor specimens. Mares that are worn out, 
unsound, faulty in conformation or affected with any hereditary unsoundness should 
not be used for breeding purposes. Further, better feeding, care and management 
should be practised in raising the colt. A high percentage fail to develop normally 
through lack of proper care and sufficient nourishment. Horses are made or marred by 
the usage they receive when coming to maturity. Careful mating coupled with good 
feeding and management will result in the production of a high percentage of marketable 
horses. 

96 



In passing, it might be noted that, despite all the educational work that has been 
done and despite the various enactments that have been passed in aid of horse breeding, 
there still is to be found in the country a rather high percentage of horses that fail to 
pass the remount inspectors. "As you mate, so shall you breed," or, in other words, if 
you mate sires and dams that are of poor conformation and unsound, you may be sure 
that a high percentage of the progeny will possess these undesirable characteristics. 

Pure-Breds — The breeders of pure-breds are to-day at the parting of the ways. 
Heretofore, the magic word "IMPORTED" has carried much weight. There is much 
good imported stock in the country. The question arises, Is it necessary to go on 
importing year by year and paying high prices for imported stock when the breeders, 
by giving attention to mating and to the feeding, care and management, which is the 
other half of successful breeding, can produce a horse as good as if not better than a high 
percentage of the animals heretofore imported? The horsemen of Canada have an 
opportunity now such as never hitherto came their way. There are many good pure- 
bred mares in the country as well as good sires. Now is the time for the good horsemen, 
who have the interests of the industry and of the country at heart, to devote their atten- 
tion as never before to the production of more and better horses. Let them not only 
mate carefully but feed and develop the progeny, from birth to maturity, as do the 
breeders of the European countries. Let our importers prove title to their claim of 
being practical horsemen by breeding and developing high class animals. 

A Pure-Bred Market — During the past year the Dominion Live Stock Branch 
has had official inquiry from Australia regarding our horse industry. It was pointed 
out that, after the war, Australia would be in the market for good Clydesdales with which 
to improve the horse stock of the country. Particular attention was drawn to the fact 
that only good stallions were wanted. The distance from Canada being much less than 
rom Britain, it is felt that horses could be much more conveniently obtained here. 

LEGISLATION AFFECTING HORSE BREEDING 

During recent years much valuable educational work was done by the Breeders' 
Associations and the various farmers' organizations. Ultimately this work brought 
results. To-day in every province, except Quebec, stallion owners are compelled by 
Act of Legislature to enroll their stallions with the local Agricultural Department 
before standing them for service, and to publish in all advertisements a copy of the 
Enrolment Certificate. It is now possible for all interested to learn from the stallion 
poster whether a particular stallion is a pure-bred, grade or scrub. 

The Provinces of Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario and Nova Scotia have gone a 
step further. In Saskatchewan any district may prevent the use of unsound horses, 
grades and scrubs by a majority vote. In the Province of Manitoba only pure bred 
stallions are allowed to stand for service. In the Province of Ontario all unsound grades 
and scrubs must be retired; and in 1918 only pure bred stallions will be allowed to stand 
for breeding purposes. In Nova Scotia, as well as the three provinces above mentioned, 
all horses standing for service must be veterinary inspected, and all advertisements must 
give a copy of the license granted, which states, not only to what breed the horse belongs, 
but also whether he is sound or unsound. 

By persistent effort and the gradual process of educating the people to the necessity 
of using better sires, and the profits to be derived therefrom, these useful and beneficial 
laws have been secured. It will be necessary for the other provinces to immediately 
enact similar legislation. Otherwise, they will not only find themselves out-distanced, 
but they will also become market centres for the poorer animals. It would appear that a 
uniform Stallion Enrolment and Inspection Act for all provinces of the Dominion would 
be a still further step in aid of horse breeding. 

97 



THE NECESSITY FOR INCREASING OUR HERDS AND FLOCKS 

JAMES AUDLEY, Statistician, Meat and Canned Food Division, 
Health of Animals Branch, Ottawa. 

That production of live-stock in Canada is not keeping up with the great demands 
made on our meat supply for English and foreign requirements is quite evident from 
the following: 

Swine — The number of swine slaughtered at inspected establishments in Canada 
during the fiscal year ending March 31, 1915, was 2,598,338, an increase of more than 
40 percent, over the. previous year, the total for 1914 being 1,799,060. (Table I.) 

The high killings of 1915 were altogether due to increased production in our Western 
provinces. Up to the end of December, 1915, the number of hogs killed is in excess of 
the same period of the previous year by 20,000. Still, with this increase following a 
record slaughter, we have had to import from the United States during the past eight 
months 103,164 "singed" and "scalded" hogs as well as several millions of pounds of 
pork in the form of backs, bellies, hams, shoulders, etc. (See table III.) 

During the past twelve months, the prices of hogs were much higher in Canada 
than in the United States. This should have been an inducement to Canadian farmers 
to produce larger numbers of swine, more especially in Ontario and the Eastern provinces 
where the production does not seem to make much headway. 

The Western provinces excelled themselves during 1914 in their output of hogs, 
Winnipeg handling through her stockyards over 460,000. 

Owing to feed shortage and lower prices in the fall of 1914, large numbers of female 
stock were marketed, with the result, unfortunately, of a decrease in the numbers 
marketed through Winnipeg from Manitoba and Saskatchewan in the year 1915, the 
decrease of the two provinces being 37,000 head. 

Alberta, on the contrary, almost doubled her output in 1915, sending 123,000 to 
Winnipeg; the total number marketed there being 485,000 head. (Table II.) 

Out of this total, 299,000 were shipped to eastern packing plants for slaughter, and 
21,000 went to the U.S.A., the balance being used in the local establishments inWinnipeg. 

Cattle — Our cattle slaughterings tell the same tale as that of swine — the necessity 
of importing to meet demands. 

During the year ended December 31, 1915, 530,525 cattle were killed in inspected 
houses against 531,994 in 1914; while April to December 1915 killings show an increase 
of about 8,000 head over the same period of the previous year. (Table I.) 

It is interesting to note that of 138,000 cattle marketed in Winnipeg from January 
to December 1915, 63,783 went to United States points, of these 70H% were stockers 
and feeders and 29 Vi% butcher cattle. 

The Winnipeg receipts were 28,000 over those of 1914, the three Western provinces 
showing increases. 

Our exports of beef during 1915 were greatly in excess of 1914, large shipments being 
made to France and Italy as well as to England, and it is likely that these European 
countries will need a further supply for some years after the war is over owing to the 
depletion of their live-stock. 

That after peace is made there will be a demand for pure-bred cattle in Europe to 
fill up the losses from confiscation and slaughter for food purposes, goes without saying, 
also that Canada can supply a goodly portion of same provided our farmers raise the 
increase of their herds. Immigration also will be largely increased at the same time, 
and we must have the increase of live-stock to meet these demands without buying 
outside. 

Sheep — The sheep stock of Canada does not seem to be making any headway 
whatever, the last figures published by the Census Department showing that we had 
only 2,038,000 head in June of 1915, while the census of 1910 gave 2,200,000. 

98 



During the year ended March 31, 1915, there were slaughtered in inspected 
establishments 447,173 head, while for 1914 the slaughter was 499,284. This decrease 
is still being carried on, for our killings from April 1st to December 31st, 1915, are still 
about 52,000 head short of 1914; while our imports of mutton were nearly two million 
pounds in the eight months ended November 30th, 1915. 

Canada should have a much larger stock of sheep, for while the home consumption 
may not be any more than equal to our present production, yet there is always a 
market in the mother country for first class mutton and lamb. 

New Zealand with its 104,000 square miles and one million population supports a 
flock of, in round numbers, 24,000,000 head of which it exports in dressed carcass form, 
to England over 6,000,000 per year. » 

The Argentine Republic and Australia are also large producers and exporters of 
mutton and lamb to England. South Africa is also a coming competitor in this line. 
Why cannot Canada become a competitor for this lucrative trade? 

It will not be many years after the termination of this war that Russia will surprise 
us with the extent of her resources in agricultural products, wheat, beef, mutton, butter 
and cheese being among the principal items she will put on the English and European 
markets. 

Conclusions — To sum up, Canada should at once set about increasing her 
live-stock and be in a position to get into English and European markets at the first 
opening for pure-bred stock and meat products and not wait to see what the other fellow 
has for sale. 

While England will supply a proportion of the pure-bred stock, Canada and the 
United States will have to supply the greater proportion, for no other countries outside 
have any stock to spare. 

Table I. 
Livestock slaughtered at Inspected Establishments. 

Cattle Sheep Swine 

Year ended March 31, 1914 531,994 499,284 1,799,060 

Year ended March 31, 1915 530,525 447,173 2,598,338 

Eight months ended 

December 31, 1914 439,725 423,570 1,716,878 

December 31, 1915 447,276 371,049 1,736,965 



Table II. 
Live Stock Receipts 

Toronto 
Cattle Hogs 

Year 1913 367,977 346,367 

Year 1914 279,154 462,144 

Year 1915 301,948 484,162 

Montreal 

Year 1913 198,337 193,445 

Year 1914 178,782 204,125 

Year 1915 163,140 210,365 

Winnipeg 

Year 1913 111,163 179,830 

Year 1914 127,049 461,889 

Year 1915 138,534 484,997 

99 



Sheep 
204,777 
201,619 
212,986 



146,947 
142,456 
158,895 



54,912 
15,017 
13,801 



Calves 
53,854 
45,436 
41,350 



117,854 
98,182 
97,395 



Included 

in 

Cattle 



Table III. 



Imports and Exports of Meats 



Live stock years ended March 
Imports 
1914 1915 

Beef pounds 6,204,842 2,082,488 

Mutton pounds. . . 5,610,812 3,468,076 
Bacon and Pork. . . 19,215,273 10,052,502 
Dried, Smoked and 

other meats 4,007,851 3,197,687 

Lard pounds 5,705,895 735,816 

Cattle head 9,369 

Sheep head 209,779 110,663 

Swine head 

Eight months ended Nov. 30, 1915 

Imports 

Beef, pounds 2,534,803 

Mutton, pounds 1,668,856 

Bacon and Pork, pounds 12,870,824 

Dried, Smoked and other meats 

pounds 2,047,107 

Lard, pounds 3,085,274 

Cattle, head 

Sheep, pounds 52,944 

Swine, pounds 



31st, 1914, 1915. 

Exports 

1914 1915 

13,617,707 18,828,257 

65,167 1,064,963 

27,720,135 116,048,519 



2,850,642 

193,222 

219,848 

20,591 

28,207 



14,478,568 

2,689,036 

185,903 

42,832 

243,311 

Exports 
23,431,045 
38,093 
92,293,313 

8,584,111 

17,696 

216,733 

90,686 

9,796 



SPECIAL ASSISTANCE TO THE LIVE STOCK INDUSTRY 

JOHN BRIGHT, Dominion Live Stock Commissioner. 



Distribution of Animals for Breeding Purposes. 

The Dominion Department of Agriculture through the Live Stock Branch in 1913 
inaugurated a policy of loaning pure-bred sires to associations specially organized in 
accordance with regulations set forth by the Branch. The purchase price of all animals 
distributed is borne by the Branch and the freight is paid to the shipping point most 
convenient to the association. These sires are loaned for only one year at a time and 
an association is required to meet the cost of maintaining an animal as long as it remains 
in its hands. The right is reserved by the Branch to inspect the animals at any time and 
to withdraw assistance in the event of its being found that an association is not living 
up to its agreement. An association may renew its application for the loan of the same 
animal at the expiration of the term and, if all the requirements of the Branch have 
been complied with, such applications are promptly approved. When necessary, sires 
are exchanged but only for animals of the same breed. The latter is one of the most 
important features of the policy inasmuch as the mixing of breeds in a district and the 
resulting lack of progress in live stock improvement is thereby discouraged. 

Assistance under this policy is confined to newly settled districts or to districts in 
the older provinces in which pure-bred sires would not otherwise be available and in 
which the farmers are financially unable to purchase same for themselves. 

Only Canadian bred sires are purchased, and as far as possible, the animals placed 
in any Province are bought in that Province. In this way Canadian breeders are 

100 



receiving encouragement and their market is increased, not only directly but indirectly, 
through the emphasis given throughout the country to the value of pure-bred sires. At 
the same time, as already stated, no animals are placed in districts where privately 
owned pure-bred sires of the same class are already standing for service and interference 
with private enterprise is thus avoided. 

Up to December 31st, 1915, 146 stallions, 1014 bulls, 1069 rams and 416 boars 
had been placed in the hands of associations. 

The results attained by the introduction of sires of superior type into districts which 
formerly had to depend on scrub sires have been very gratifying. Reports received 
from inspectors and secretaries of associations during the past three seasons indicate 
that a marked improvement in the stock of the districts affected is becoming apparent and 
that the efforts of the Department are appreciated. 

Purchasing Breeding Stock in Car-load Lots 

In order to assist in effecting a more equal distribution of our live stock population 
the Minister of Agriculture, through the Live Stock Branch, has decided to grant assist- 
ance to farmers wishing to secure good breeding stock. Under this policy the Branch 
pays reasonable travelling expenses of the representative or individuals or associations 
from any section of Canada desiring to purchase one or more carloads of breeding stock 
in any part of the country. 

The expenses allowed cover railroad transportation and living expenses from the 
home of the purchaser to the point at which it is expected that the purchase will be made, 
also hotel expenses and livery expenses for the time which should be sufficient to pur- 
chase the consignment. 

No assistance in the payment of freight is rendered nor is any responsibility assumed 
by the Branch in connection with the purchase price of the consignment. It should 
also be definitely understood that no assistance under this policy is rendered if stock is 
purchased for speculative purposes. Should it be desired, a suitable person will be 
nominated by the Live Stock Commissioner to accompany the purchasing agent and 
assist him, as far as possible, in buying and shipping the consignment. 

It is expected that during the present season this plan will have an important 
influence in conserving the breeding stock of the country and in increasing our live stock 
production. 

Federal Grants to Fair Associations 

At the time of the outbreak of the war, it became apparent that with the resultant 
upsetting of normal economic conditions the holding of the annual Winter Fairs and the 
larger Exhibitions throughout the country would become a somewhat precarious 
enterprise. To allow such important institutions to suspend operations even tempor- 
arily would have meant the loss of one of the most important stimulating influences 
affecting the live stock industry. To offset the possibility of such a contingency the 
Minister at once authorized, through the Live Stock Branch, the offer of a federal grant 
annually to such fairs as have their prize lists open to the whole Dominion and to those 
that had paid out the previous year prize money amounting to at least five thousand 
dollars in the utility classes of horses, cattle, sheep, swine -and poultry. 

To fairs qualifying under the above two requirements, a grant equal to fifty per 
cent, of the total amount paid in prizes in the above mentioned classes is made, the 
maximum grant in any case not to exceed five thousand dollars. The amount of the 
grant allowed is determined by the audited statement of the sum actually paid in prizes. 
In applying for the grant, fair associations are required to submit their prize lists to the 
Live Stock Commissioner for approval. 

During the fiscal year of 1915-16, the total amount paid out by the Live Stock 
Branch in grants to fairs under this policy will be approximately $125,000. 

101 



• « 



Assistance to Horse Breeding 

To overcome the handicap to horse breeding that exists in many sections because 
of the lack of pure-bred sires, the government grants aid to clubs formed for the purpose 
of hiring such animals. Last year a number of districts took advantage of the offer, 
and from the appreciations already received, it is expected that a still larger number 
will do so this year. 

For particulars regarding the above, write the Dominion Live Stock Commissioner, 
Ottawa. 



THE SWINE INDUSTRY AND THE OPPORTUNITY 
PRESENTED BY THE BRITISH MARKET 

PROF. G. E. DAY, Ontario Agricultural College, Guelph. 

Economic Production — It would not be safe to advise all farmers to feed more 
hogs. Every farmer must be his own judge in this matter, and some farmers should 
probably not attempt to raise hogs, owing to the fact that either the man himself is 
not adapted to the business, or his conditions are unsuitable. Nevertheless, it is true 
that hogs might be kept profitably upon many farms where they do not find a place 
to-day. The hog is especially valuable for consuming the by-products of the farm, 
and the number of hogs carried to advantage on a farm is governed very largely by the 
quantity and the character of the by-products to be consumed. When carried in 
appropriate numbers, the hog is an exceptionally economical producer of meat, preventing 
waste, and giving cash returns for substances that are frequently wasted, or which have 
little market value. Trying to take advantage of fluctuating market prices by altern- 
ately over-stocking and under-stocking with hogs, is seldom a financial success. The 
man who consistently follows up the business upon conservative lines, is the man who 
is well suited with the hog as a source of profit. 

Market Outlook — At the present time we are facing an abnormal condition of 
affairs. Great Britain has, in the past, received large shipments of bacon from Denmark, 
but the war has very seriously crippled this trade, and Britain has had to look elsewhere 
for her supplies. As a result, we find that our exports of pork products have increased 
very largely indeed during the past two years, and so long as the war continues it would 
look as though prices for hogs are bound to keep at a high level. From the standpoint 
both of patriotism and profit, it would seem the part of wisdom to extend, to some 
extent at least, our production of hogs. While this advice is believed to be perfectly 
sound, it must be distinctly understood that no farmer is urged to do any plunging in 
regard to the matter. A farm that is distinctly over-stocked with any kind of animals, 
can seldom be run at a profit, but there are very few farms in Ontario that are over- 
stocked with hogs at the present time, and there are many farms where more hogs 
could be fed to advantage. 

The Type in Demand — Experiments with breeds of swine demonstrate the fact 
that breed and type have little or nothing to do with a hog's ability to make economical 
use of food. A healthy, thrifty, growthy hog will make cheap gains no matter what 
breed he belongs to, and no matter whether he is of a lard or bacon type. Though 
breed and type have little or nothing to do with economy of production, the question of 
type enters very largely into the very important question of marketing our hogs. A 
glance at the prices commanded by hogs on Canadian and American markets should 
convince us that there must be some radical distinction to bring about the difference in 
price that presents itself. We have already stated that Britain's supplies from Denmark 
have been greatly curtailed, and every person should know that the class of pork pro- 
ducts furnished by Denmark are the products of what we call the bacon hog, namely — 
Wiltshire sides. This being the case, Britain is naturally looking for a new source from 

102 



which to obtain the required number of Wiltshire sides. She cannot obtain this supply 
from the United States because the methods of feeding hogs, best suited to American 
conditions, are not suitable for producing hogs that will furnish Wiltshire sides, or in 
other words — bacon hogs. 

The United States has no export trade in Wiltshire sides; that is an important point 
to remember. That being the case, Britain must look to some other country for her 
supplies, and the most natural direction in which to look is towards Canada. It is this 
demand that has sent up our exports in bacon, and which is holding prices at the present 
high level. Surely the man who is able to read can easily form an opinion as to the 
character of the hogs that should prevail in Canada at the present time, in order to take 
advantage of the British market. 

Increase the Supply of Bacon Hogs — The lard type of hog answers very well for 
certain branches of our home market, but if the products of this hog are exported to 
Great Britain, they will receive no preference over the product sent from the United 
States, but the shortage in Britain being a shortage of Wiltshire sides, and the United 
States being unable to supply this demand, surely this is Canada's opportunity to 
demonstrate her ability to supply the British market with the class of bacon in demand 
in that country. 

In viewing the whole situation, it seems impossible to avoid the conclusion that 
if we are to increase our exports to Great Britain, we must increase our supply of bacon 
hogs. The mere fact that a hog is bred in Canada does not make it worth any more in 
Great Britain. Our exports must sell on their own merits in competition with those 
from other countries. 



LIVE STOCK IN MANITOBA 

F. S. JACOBS, B.S.A., 
Professor of Animal Husbandry, Manitoba Agricultural College. 

Manitoba farmers could well afford, now that prices, if not high, are at least firm, 
to dispose of as many of their surplus horses as possible. Horse feed sells readily for 
money, and to use it on idle horses is very obvious waste. A policy that would eliminate 
waste horse power and conserve valuable feed would be in the interests of agriculture 
as a whole. 

With respect to cattle, I think farmers would be well advised to continue (as now 
seems to be the general policy) in steadily increasing production, always, of course, with 
due regard to elimination of unprofitable types and the development of cattle possessing 
in the greatest degree the functions of meat and milk production. 

At the present time wool is a valuable commodity and sheep are in great demand. 
There seems to be a tendency on the part of a considerable number of men to increase 
the sheep supply, so that little needs to be said to urge further production of sheep. In 
view of this tendency, it would, I think, be a good policy on the part of those raising 
sheep to utilize every animal possible to further increase the supply. 

With respect to swine, it is difficult to make suggestions. As long as the war lasts 
we may expect to see grain at a substantial price, and, by the same token, hog feed a 
high price as compared with the market prices for swine. It would seem, however, 
quite possible to raise hogs at present prices, despite the high price of hog feed, but I 
doubt if it would be wise to urge those who are not thoroughly adept to go more exten- 
sively into the business. That is one phase of our farming to-day which requires maxi- 
mum skill in order that the feed used may be turned to the best possible advantage. 

The following statement of the receipts at and shipments from the Union Stock 
Yards, St. Boniface (adjoining Winnipeg), shows a steadily increasing amount of business 
and warrants the opinion that a good demand for live stock is likely to continue. 

103 



Cattle Sheep Hogs Horses 

1914 110,452 15,017 461,889 5,928 

1915 138,534 13,801 484,997 6,214 

The origin and disposition of these animals is shown as follows: — 

Origin of Stock Received at the Yards 







Man. 


Sask. 


Alta. 


B.C. 


East 


Total 


Cattle... 


..1914 


46,730 


54,010 


9,389 


206 


117 


110,452 


Cattle . . . 


..1915 


69,972 


60,378 


16,926 


425 


833 


138,534 


Sheep . . . 


..1914 


5,756 


5,226 


3,821 


214 




15,017 


Sheep . . . 


..1915 


8,169 


4,694 


586 




352 


13,801 


Hogs 


..1914 


131,637 


264,824 


62,891 


2,427 


110 


461,889 


Hogs 


..1915 


124,390 


237,403 


123,195 




9 


484,997 


Horses. . 


..1914 


1,069 


2,681 


902 


283 


993 


5,928 


Horses. . 


..1915 


2,770 


648 


1,510 


75 


1,211 


6,214 



Disposition of Stock from the Yards 

Local East West South to U.S. Total 

Cattle 1914 35,962 33,418 7,488 33,709 110,577 

Cattle 1915 47,466 17,425 9,796 63,783 138,470 

Sheep 1914 13,290 542 1,039 146 15,017 

Sheep 1915 12,710 93 688 300 13,791 

Hogs 1914 213,049 210,482 1,788 36,114 461,433 

Hogs 1915 161,687 299,184 883 21,685 485,439 

Horses 1914 839 3,722 , 1,347 21 5,928 

Horses 1915 383 4,033 1,588 211 6,214 

It will be seen that during the year 1915 almost one half of the cattle passing through 
these yards went south into the United States. Of these a very large number were 
exported during the latter half of the year, when Manitoba farmers had on hand 
great quantities both of roughage and of grain feed, and as 70% of these exported cattle 
were classed as stockers or feeders, it would seem as though a good opportunity to make 
profit by feeding cattle had been missed. It is quite possible that a repetition of the 
same process may recur during 1916, and, in view of this fact, it is pertinent to point 
to the opportunity open to every farmer of Manitoba in the way of securing some of 
these cattle for winter feeding. 

QUALITY IN LIVE STOCK 

Wm. A. Munro, Rosthern, Sask., Supt. Experimental Station. 

Much has been said relative to "Greater Production" and more remains to be said 
and still more must continue to be said until the war is over. But the greatest mistake 
that is being made everywhere is the emphasis laid on quantity with a corresponding 
disrespect for quality. 

Let us illustrate from our own personal experience during the past year as purchasers 
of live stock. Last spring we had occasion to buy eight horses for work on the Experi- 
mental Station. We could obtain horses that might do the work for one hundred and 
fifty to two hundred dollars, but the kind we wanted were such as carried both weight 
and quality. We could not get these for less than $250 to $325, because large transfer 
companies and others were after the same type and the supply was limited. The right 
kind was scarce. The under-sized, poor-constitutioned, ill-formed animals were plenty. 
The higher priced animals were more valuable for two reasons: they were bred from 
superior stock and they had been well nourished during their growing period. 

Again we set out to buy feeding steers. From one man we could obtain two-and-a- 
half year old steers at 4^c. per pound, which would net the owner about $40 per animal. 
From another man steers of the same age could be had at no less than 5^c, which 

104 



would net the owner $64 per steer. The first bunch of steers were not bought because 
they were of a wrong type. They were not wanted by the butcher nor the packer nor 
the feeder. They were up-standing, of poor constitution and the kind that never do 
well. Along with this they had been ill nourished during their growth. The second 
lot of steers was purchased because we knew that they "had the habit" of thrift and 
would respond to feed and would be in demand. We knew also that the first lot would 
not respond to feed and were not the kind to attract buyers. 

Again, we purchased some poultry for high class caterers. From one farmer we 
secured his spring chickens at 25c. each and from another the same aged birds at 12c. 
per lb. which netted 64c. per chicken. It was only as a favour that the first lot was 
taken off our hands. They were small, and thin and altogether undesirable. The 
others were sold at a little less than one dollar per bird and we were requested to obtain 
more of the same kind. 

Inferior stock is the first to respond when the market takes a downward trend from 
normal. In a slump it will not sell at all. High class stock is the first to respond when 
the market takes a rise from normal, and is always saleable even in time of a slump. 

There is more need than ever for "Greater Production" but the greatest need is 
"Good Stuff." There is more need than ever for quality in everything we produce and 
particularly in live stock of every kind from horses to poultry. We are the gainers and 
our confreres in Europe are the gainers if we breed well and feed well, and exert all the 
power that is in us in these two directions — increased quantity, better quality. 



REDUCING COST OF PRODUCTION; GRAIN CROPS— PORK 

G. H. Hutton, B.S.A., Superintendent Experimental Station, Lacombe, Alta. 

One sure way to increase production is to demonstrate how production may be 
made more profitable. If increased profit can be shown, increased production will 
follow. 

It is equally certain that if we reduce cost, increased profit will at once result. 
This statement applies to all lines of farm production. Since costs may readily be 
reduced, we have here a source of present and immediate increased profit. 

To illustrate the variation possible in the cost of producing a bushel of grain, I might 
use the figures from the different rotations now being compared at this Station. In 
one of these rotations wheat is disced in on wheat stubble — a practice followed on some 
farms and adopted by us for comparison as to cost per bushel. In 1915 it cost 77.8 cents 
to produce a bushel of wheat under this system, while under another rotation the cost 
per bushel was reduced to 21.1 cents. Hence we submit that the adoption of the best 
methods of farm practice would result in a much larger volume of food-stuffs available 
for export, and in tremendously increased profits for the farmers of Canada. Any 
reduction in cost of production is a profit that may at once be realized. It is not merely 
a hope of what the future may bring, but is a means at hand under our own control for 
increasing profits now. 

While large increases in pork production cannot now be arranged for in 1916, yet 
figures illustrating how cost of pork may be reduced should enable many growers to 
make additional profits with the usual volume of business, and should lead to increased 
production in 1917, when food products in abundance will still be required by the 
Empire. 

Data as to the cost of producing pork on different pastures and in a dry feed lot has 
been secured at the Lacombe Experimental Station during the past season. Seven 
groups of hogs were used, the pastures being composed of wheat, oats and barley 
sown in equal parts by weight; oats, barley and wheat singly; alfalfa, and rape. The 
pigs in the dry feed lot had a small run, but at no time during the season were they 
given any green feed. The pigs were put on pasture at about 10 weeks old when weaned, 

105 



and were carried on shorts and skim milk for the first 30 days, after which they were 
fed a three per cent, ration of ground wheat until the conclusion of the experiment. In 
figuring these costs, the following prices were used; shorts, $1.65 per 100 pounds, 
ground wheat, $1.00 per 100 pounds; skim milk 20 cents per 100 pounds. The total 
amount of grain consumed is shown in the table. If these prices vary from those pre- 
vailing in any district, the necessary adjustments can be made in estimating cost in that 
district. Taking all the pastures together, the average cost of gains for the period shown 
is $3.54 per 100 pounds, while the cost of producing pork without pasture is $5.30, a 
saving of $1.76 per 100 pounds. These figures do not include labour nor do they place 
a value on pasture. The hogs were placed on pasture at the rate of 15 to the acre and 
since this number was insufficient, particularly at the beginning of the test to keep the 
pasture down, it is believed that an acre will average from 10 to 15 head according to 
the class of pasture used for the entire season. If further experiments prove the hog 
carrying power of different pastures to be within these limits, then the per acre return of 
land that will carry from 10 to 15 hogs until they reach a weight of 200 pounds will 
compare favourably with the return from any other farm crop. Surely such a saving in 
the grain cost of pork production should be an inducement for farmers to use pasture 
more freely in the production of pork in 1916, and to increase in future the number of 
hogs kept. 



THE SWINE INDUSTRY IN QUEBEC 

H. Nagant, Editor, Journal of Agriculture. 

Out of the large revenue that Canada derives from the swine raising industry only 
a small portion goes to the Province of Quebec. This is in spite of the fact that Montreal 
is one of the most important markets for hog products in America. Its packing houses 
are capable of handling 20,000 hogs per week. Quebec furnishes but a small proportion 
of the required amount, most of the supplies coming from Western points. In dairying, 
Quebec takes a leading place. With the by-products of cheese factories and creameries 
available for the production of exactly the quality of hog the export trade requires, and 
with a market of large capacity at its door for hogs on the hoof of the right type and 
quality, it would appear that the industry is capable of great local development. With 
the aid of the Federal funds provided by the Agricultural Instruction Act, active measures 
are being taken at the present time by the province's department of agriculture to develop 
the industry. / 

The main factors to consider in any attempt to develop hog raising in the province 
may be briefly stated as follows: 

1. Improvement of type — The prevailing type of hogs has already improved a 
great deal, but there still is a lot of improvement to be done. 

2. The number of pigs is on the increase in the province, but there are reasons to 
think that a much larger quantity of these animals could be profitably reared and sent 
to the trade. The splendid development of the dairy industry in Quebec, with the 
quantity of by-products that are derived from it, make a magnificent basis for a pros- 
perous swine industry. 

3. The great defect, at the present time, is the fact that too many light, thin and 
poorly finished hogs are put on the market. A bacon hog should weigh from 175 to 
225 pounds. 

4. Too many sows are sent to the market after their first litter. These sows will 
never produce a first class meat. Farmers would get far more profit out of them if they 
kept breeding them after the first or even the second litter. 

5. In order to get the best and most profitable markets, hogs must be sold on the 
hoof, that is alive, instead of selling after slaughtering to^meet the limited local demand 
for fresh pork as is the prevailing custom. 

106 



THE PRODUCTION OF VEAL 

H. Nagant, Editor, Journal of Agriculture. 

The feeding of calves for veal has perhaps been more neglected in Quebec than 
any other branch of agriculture. Drastic laws had to be adopted prohibiting, under the 
penalty of a fine, the sale of meat unfit for consumption, and providing for the seizure of 
any animal not old enough to be sent to the market. Every year, a large number of 
calves are sent to the reduction tank, to the great detriment of the farmers and to the 
loss of the trade. 

How often do we hear people say: "It does not pay to fatten a calf; better get rid 
at once of the calf not wanted for breeding purposes. The milk that it would use brings 
an immediate profit at the end of the month when sold to the factory." They overlook 
the fact that at calving time, in the spring, the price of milk is at its lowest, while veal 
of good quality sells at a high price. Experience has shown that the production of 
veal at that time brings at least one third more than the sale of milk to factories. Calves 
not fit for breeding should, as a general rule, be fed for veal. 

The feeding of calves includes two periods — the preparatory and the finishing 
period. 

In the first period no feed can take the place of the mother's milk. It alone is 
sufficient to finish the animal and produces meat of the best quality. The exclusive 
use of the mother's milk for a minimum of fifteen days (a month is better), appears to be 
essential for the calf that is to be fed for veal, as well as for the calf that is kept for 
breeding purposes. Afterwards, the best mixture to take the place of whole milk is: 
One part flax seed, two parts ground oats, and two parts corn. This may be stirred into 
milk, or, better still, given in a dry condition after the calf has drunk its milk. Regular 
feeding is important. 

The fattening of calves may be hastened by inducing them to eat as much food as 
possible. To do so, the following mixture should be given in the shape of small balls, 
after the milk is consumed: Equal parts of ground corn, barley, oats, flax seed and shorts, 
soaked in milk, making the balls about the size of an egg. The quantity will depend on 
age and appetite. Under this treatment, the calves make rapid gains and weigh on an 
average one hundred and fifty pounds at the age of two months. 



MUTUAL CONFIDENCE AS A FACTOR IN INCREASED 
PRODUCTION OF LIVE STOCK 

A. P. Westervelt, Live Stock Branch, Department of Agriculture. 

In marketing live stock the producer does not come into direct contact with the 
consumer for the reason that the only outlet for the product is through meat handling 
plants. The only way in which the manufacturer is able to get his raw material is from 
the producer. It follows, therefore, that a very close relationship exists between the 
producer and the manufacturer. 

The transaction may be looked at either as a straight sale in which the producer has 
no further concern, or he may regard it as to his interest that the consumer should be 
supplied with an article of good quality and in the greatest quantity that the market 
can take care of. Considering the dependence of the producer upon the manufacturer, 
and the manufacturer upon the producer, the latter would appear to be the reasonable 
view to take. Sympathy and co-operation are required between the two. Business 
should be so conducted that outside of the reasonable profits of the manufacturer, the 
proceeds should go to the producer. The success of both depends upon the success of 
each. There must be recognition of the principle that what is best for the live stock busi- 
ness as a whole, is best for all individuals concerned. 

Mutual confidence is the key note to the situation. Misunderstandings should be 
swept away. The manufacturer and the producer should feel that each one has certain 

107 



interests in the general business which entitle him to all reasonable details of that 
business. All business should be transacted in such a way as to encourage this confidence 
and every effort made to understand the various problems of each end of the business and 
to endeavour to solve these problems. 

To get the maximum trade it is essential that the manufacturer should be 
given what he needs in the way of raw material, both as to quantity and quality 
and with regularity. On the other hand, it is just as essential that the manufacturer, 
acting as agent, should satisfy the producer that his product has been handled in a 
business-like way, that the business has been run having in view the welfare of the 
whole trade, and that the producer is receiving a reasonable share of the profits for the 
product he supplies. It should be generally recognized, though it may perhaps 
differ from the usually accepted theory, that the interests of the manufacturing industry 
are best served by the payment of high prices for live stock, thus encouraging increased 
production. It would appear that the greater the volume of business done by the 
manufacturer the smaller the margin required to operate his plant and profitably conduct 
his business. The two factors affecting this volume, without regard to ordinary com- 
petition of trade, are the price charged the consumer by the manufacturer and the price 
paid by the manufacturer to the producer. The lower the price paid by the consumer the 
greater the consumption. The higher the price paid the producer the greater the 
production. 

It therefore follows that as the profit of the manufacturer depends upon the volume 
of business, it is in his interest to reserve the smallest possible margin on the turnover of 
his business, so that the highest price possible may be paid to the producer and the 
lowest price possible may be paid by the consumer. With lessened production and less 
raw material for the manufacturer the cost of manufacturing will be increased and the 
margin retained by the manufacturer will be greater, as the lessened supply cannot be 
manufactured into dressed meats with the same economy as when the plants are running 
at capacity. An increased price to the consumer will naturally follow. At the time 
of the greatest consumption and of greatest supply of raw material, the price of live 
stock should come nearest to corresponding relatively with the retail price of meat; 
the manufacturers will be receiving the greatest aggregate profit but will be operating 
on the smallest margin. 

The interests of the manufacturers will warrant preserving the balance of prices 
between that received by the producer and that paid by the consumer, where it will 
encourage the greatest production. So far as the producer is concerned, that price 
must be sufficiently high to insure a profit on his breeding and feeding operations. This 
is certainly common ground for establishing confidential relations. Confidence in each 
other will generate a confidence in the live stock business, and will encourage the live 
stock man to feed live stock to the full capacity of his farm and will enable the manu- 
facturer to take care of the maximum amount of trade in dressed meats. 



BIG FALLING OFF IN BEEF CATTLE 

1910 1914 

Prince Edward Island 57,648 61,048 

Nova Scotia 180,189 148,269 

New Brunswick 110,389 99,256 

Quebec 600,277 625,958 

Ontario 1,629,364 970,445 

Manitoba 314,995 251,996 

Saskatchewan 431,164 474,436 

Alberta 926,937 633,032 

British Columbia 1911 105,230 99,091 



Totals for Canada 4,356,193 3,363,531 

108 



LIVE STOCK ON ONTARIO FARMS 

Numbers of live stock on farms in Ontario on July 1, 1915, compared with the two 
previous years, were as follows: — 

1913 1914 1915 

Horses 902,628 904,975 903,527 

Milch Cows 1,141,071 1,085,843 1,077,808 

Other Cattle 1,460,015 970,445 935,606 

Sheep 705,848 640,416 611,789 

Swine 1,652,440 1,553,624 1,469,573 



WESTERN HOLDINGS OF STOCK 

In the past year supplies of live stock have withstood the draining effect of the 
demands from the United States very well. Swine have decreased markedly in every 
Province, but in all other departments an increase is shown over the figures of 1914. 
According to the Dominion Government figures, the following table shows the holdings 
of live stock in the three middle western Provinces since 1911: — 

Manitoba — 1911 

Horses 280,374 

Milch Cows 155,337 

Other Cattle 279,776 

Sheep 37,322 

Swine 188,416 

Saskatchewan — 

Horses 507,400 

Milch Cows 181,146 

Other Cattle 452,466 

Sheep 114,216 

Swine 286,295 

Alberta — 

Horses 407,153 

Milch Cows 147,687 

Other Cattle 592,163 

Sheep 133,592 

Swine 237,510 



1912 


1913 


1914 


1915 


293,776 


304,088 


316,707 


317,847 


148,471 


152,792 


156,306 


157,494 


267,130 


256,926 


251,996 


246,603 


40,800 


42,840 


45,303 


50,880 


183,370 


184,745 


186,276 


163,308 


551,645 


580,386 


609,521 


630,062 


184,896 


194,843 


204,624 


211,684 


461,244 


468,255 


474,436 


543,609 


114,810 


115,568 


126,027 


133,311 


344,298 


386,784 


454,703 


411,324 


451,573 


484,809 


519,424 


544,772 


157,922 


168,376 


179,068 


183,974 


587,307 


610,917 


633,032 


660,000 


135,075 


178,015 


211,001 


238,579 


278,747 


350,692 


397,123 


229,696 



MORE LIVE STOCK IN SASKATCHEWAN 

There is an increase in Saskatchewan's live stock returns. According to the pro- 
vince's statistics, in the south-west and west-central crop districts there is an increase 
of 7 per cent, in milch cows, and a total increase for the province of 6 per cent, over 
last year. Hogs show a decrease, but hogs so easily rise or fall in numbers that they 
reflect the state of the market more quickly than any other branch of the live stock 
industry. Horses have held their own in numbers, although the market has not been 
encouraging. A good omen is the increase in the number of sheep. Sheep will play 
an important part in checking weeds, and the province needs their aid. Thetotals ,of 
live stock for the years 1914 and 1915 are as below: — 



Year Horses 

1914 640,035 

1915 667,443 



Milch 


Other 








Cows 


Cattle 


Sheep 


Swine 


Poultry 


338,994 


541,504 


177,752 


477,360 


5,000,000 


358,540 


573,021 
109 


192,024 


329,246 


5,049,612 



MIXED FARMING IN THE WEST 

Those who have persistently preached mixed farming to the western farmer 
undoubtedly will see a wide adoption of that gospel throughout the West this year. 
The present world-wide need for beef and dairy stuffs will stimulate a rapid increase 
of the production of those commodities. Up till now the West has replied to the 
adviser of mixed farming that as the grower of grain required money and the means of 
caring for animals he could not delay in engaging in the live stock industry. The 
returns from the crop of the past season will enable many a western grain-grower to 
purchase his first few head of beef or dairy cattle. 

SASKATCHEWAN BEEF IN CHICAGO 

The following particulars are given regarding a shipment of Hereford steers from 
Saskatchewan (Matador Ranch) to Chicago packing houses in October, 1915: — 

Number of head shipped 2,037 

Total Weight 2,450,830 lbs. 

Average Weight 1,203 " 

Average price $7 . 77 

Dressing percentage. . 61 

Remarks: "Beef very firm." 



ALBERTA BEEF FOR THE STATES 

Gleichen, Alta., Dec. 1915 — D. P. McDaniels of Calgary recently purchased 600 
head of beef cattle from the W. P. Trend ranch at this place, price $6.25 per 100, total 
purchase money about $55,000. They were taken to Calgary by the "hoof route" and 
there embarked on special train for Seattle, for which market they were bought. 

A shipment of 185 head of Range cattle was made by A. E. Cross, of Nanton, 
Alberta, in November, 1915. The cattle were shipped to Chicago and were handicapped 
by a 30 hour delay at Portal. They weighed in all 250,900 lbs. The freight charges 
were $2,183.70, other charges $322.80, leaving net receipts $17,409.98. Average 
weight 1,356 lbs., average net value $94.10 or 6.94 cents per pound live weight 
delivered at Chicago. 

BREEDING AND BEEF PROFITS 

The following table shows weight of a cross-bred Hereford-Shorthorn steer in the 
junior yearling class, compared with the weight of a common steer, at the Ontario 
Provincial Winter Fair, 1915. 

Prime Common 

Steer Steer 

Live Weight 1,320 pounds. 1,130 pounds. 

Dressed Weight 856 " 620 " 

Dressing Percentage 64.9% 54.8% 

Weight of Side 430 pounds. 315 pounds. 

Hind Quarter, round 105 " 85 

Long Loin 84 " 50 

Kidney Suet 12 " 5 

Flank 24 " 12 

Front Quarter Prime Ribs 48 " 31 

Chuck 88 " 77 

Plate 55 " 35 

Shin 10 " 10 



110 



"Wee McGregor" of Brandon, Man., grand champion at the Ontario Provincial 
Winter Fair Guelph, 1915, weighed alive 1,500 pounds, dressed 1,040 lbs. (69.3 per 
cent.) 



"The tremendous losses that have been suffered by agriculture in Europe since 
August, 1914, baffle imagination," states Mr. Victor Fortier, of the Ottawa Experimental 
Farm. "In France alone, in the part invaded by Germany, it is estimated that 610,000 
horses, 1,500,000 head of cattle, 1,600,000 sheep, 700,000 pigs and 3,000,000 fowls have 
been destroyed. In Belgium, the damages to agriculture amount to over $280,000,000, 
including about $130,000,000 for cattle and other domestic animals slaughtered." 



A 

\ 



111 



THE DAIRYING INDUSTRY 

J. A. RUDDICK, Dominion Dairy Commissioner. 

1. The total number of milch cows in Canada in 1911, as given in the Fifth Census, 
was 2,594,179. The following table shows how they were distributed by provinces as 
compared with 1901. 

2. TABLE I. 

Milch Cows in Canada 

1901 1911 

Ontario 1,065,763 1,032,979 

Quebec 767,825 753,134 

New Brunswick 111,084 108,532 

Nova Scotia 138,817 129,302 

P.E. Island 56,437 52,109 

Manitoba 141,481 155,337 

British Columbia 24,535 33,953 

Saskatchewan 56,634 181,146 

Alberta -. . . 46,101 147,687 

Totals for Canada 2,408,677 2,594,179 

Increase in 10 years 185,502 

3. TABLE II. 

Total Value of Dairy Products by Provinces in 1910 as compared with 1900 

1900 1910 Increase 

Ontario $34,776,330 $43,332,047 $ 8,555,717 

Quebec 20,207,826 31,663,220 11,455,394 

New Brunswick 2,260,537 3,998,742 1,738,205 

Nova Scotia 2,885,997 4,618,108 1,732,111 

P.E. Island 1,111,614 1,607,672 496,058 

Manitoba 2,792,606 6,077,982 3,285,376 

British Columbia... 1,159,993 2,620,495 1,460,502 

Saskatchewan 729,574 7,566,007 6,836,433 

Alberta 546,476 7,855,751 7,309,275 

Totals for Canada. . . $66,470,953 $109,340,024 $42,868,981 

4. Increase in number of cows 7 per cent. 

5. Increase in value of total products (butter, cheese, condensed milk, and milk 
and cream consumed) 60 per cent. 

6. In 1900 the value of the total product per cow was $27. In 1910 it was $42, 
due partly to higher prices. The figures for 1914, if known, would be still higher. 

112 



Per cent, of 


Census 


Increase or 


1911 


Decrease 


7,204,838 


+34.13 


Lbs. 




9,871,178,103 


+43.75 


2,236,663,687 


—11.05 


39,871,207 


+ 14.28 


7,674,385,623 


+74.92 


1,065.17 


+30.41 


2,594,179 


+ 7.70 


3,805 


+33.50 



7. TABLE III 

Comparative Statistics of the Dairying Industry expressed in Terms of Milk, 
showing Production, Exports, Imports, and Total and Per Capita 
Consumption in the Census Years 1901 and 1911 



Census 
1901 
Population of Canada 5,371,315 

Lbs. 

Total Production of Milk 6,866,834,000 

Exports of Dairy Products as Milk . 2,514,596,967 

Imports of Dairy Products as Milk 34,886,346 

Total Consumption as Milk 4,387,123,379 

Per Capita Consumption as Milk 816.76 



No. Milch Cows in Canada 2,408,677 

Average pounds Milk per Cow 2,850 

Note — As milk production was not included in the 1901 Census the quantity 
shown in the 1901 column was arrived at as follows: The total value of all dairy 
products in 1900 was $66,470,953, which included the manufactured value of cheese 
and butter made in factories, and the average gross value of the milk supplied to 
factories was 96.8 cents per hundred lbs. Taking this figure as a basis, the above 
total value represents a total milk production of 6,866,834,000 lbs. 

8. TABLE IV. 

Value of Different Products in 1910 

Factory Cheese $21,587,124 

Home made Cheese 153,036 

Creamery Butter 15,645,845 

Home Made Butter 39,889,953 

Condensed Milk. 1,813,971 

Milk and Cream consumed and used for Ice Cream . . . 30,250,005 

Total $109,339,934 

9. The average annual yield per cow increased in 10 years from 2,850 pounds 
to 3,805 pounds. It would have required 3,463,571 cows at the average production 
of 1900 to have produced the quantity of milk shown in the Census for 1910 — an increase 
of 1,054,894 instead of the actual increase of 185,502. This increase in yield represents 
at least $25,000,000 a year for the number of cows milked in 1910, and it is safe to say 
that the sum would be larger if it were known for 1914. 

The Export Trade 

10. The export of cheese reached the maximum of 233,980,716 pounds in 1904. 
This high water mark was followed by a steady annual decline until in 1914 the total 
exports were only 137,601,661 pounds. The figures for the year 1915 show a large 
and gratifying increase. The total quantity exported in that year amounted to 
160,659,808 pounds, or an increase of over 16% for the year. 

113 



11. The export of butter reached the maximum of 34,128,944 pounds in 1903 
and then declined until 1912, the total quantity exported for that year being only 
828,323 pounds. Since that year there has been a gradual increase and during the 
calendar year 1915 the quantity exported was 3,592,791 pounds. 

Quantity Value 

lbs. $ 

Butter— calendar year 1915 3,592,791 1,059,764 

Butter— 9 months to Dec. 1915 3,151,075 940,003 

Cheese— calendar year 1915 160,659,808 25,112,854 

" —9 months to Dec. 1915 157,166,196 24,536,994 



12. TABLE V. 

Detailed Exports of Dairy Products for year ended March 31, 1915 

Value 

To all Countries Quantity $ 

Cheese Lb. 137,601,661 19,213,501 

Butter " 2,724,913 639,625 

Cream Gal. 1,895,575 1,836,006 

Condensed milk Lb. 18,355,975 1,181,300 

Casein Lb. 230,045 13,923 

Fresh Milk Gal. 477,692 68,205 



Total value 22,952,560 

13. The export of cream to the United States has attracted some attention since 
the reduction of duty from 20 cents to 5 cents per gallon under the Payne- Aldrich tariff 
of August 5, 1909. It was expected that the reduction of the U.S. duty on butter to 
2^2 cents per pound and of cheese to 20 per cent, with cream on the free list on October 
3, 1913, would have the effect of greatly increasing the shipments of these articles to 
that market but these expectations have not been realized. 

14. TABLE VI. 

Exports of Cheese and Butter 
Butter 

Year Quantity Value 

Year ended June 30 : Lbs. $ 

1880 18,535,362 3,058,069 

1890 1,951,585 340,131 

1900 25,259,737 5,122,156 

1903 34,128,944 6,954,618 

Year ended March 31: 

1910 4,615,380 1,010,274 

1911 3,142,682 744,288 

1912 8,844,402 2,077,916 

1913 828,323 223,578 

1914 1,228,753 309,046 

1915 2,724,913 639,625 

114 



Cheese 

Year Quantity Value 

Year ended June 30: Lb. $ 

1880 40,368,678 3,893,366 

1890 94,260,187 9,372,212 

1900 185,984,430 19,856,324 

1904. . . . . 233,980,716 24,184,566 

Year ended Mar. 31: 

1910 180,859,886 21,607,692 

1911 181,895,724 20,739,507 

1912 163,450,684 20,888,818 

1913. . . 155,216,392 20,697,144 

1914 144,478,340 18,868,785 

1915 137,601,661 19,213,501 

Markets for Canadian Dairy Produce 

15. During the past ten years Canada has exported dairy products to some 30 
different countries, but the quantities are very small outside of the United States, 
the West Indies and Newfoundland. The United Kingdom is still and will continue 
to be our chief market. 

16. In 1913 the imports of butter into the United Kingdom were 463,570,464 
pounds. The imports of cheese of all kinds during the same period were 257,328,848 
pounds, of which Canada supplied 56 per cent. 

17. The decrease in shipments of cheese from Canada since 1904 has been met by 
a corresponding increase in the exports from New Zealand, the only other country 
which supplies the United Kingdom with cheese of the same class as Canadian. 

18. New Zealand cheese has not driven Canadian cheese out of the market. 
New Zealand is simply supplying the quantity which Canada has been unable to supply. 

19. Canadian cheese easily holds the premier place in the importations of the 
United Kingdom, both in point of quantity and quality. Importers complain only 
that they cannot get more of it. 

20. It would be quite possible to repeat the increase of 1915 in the shipments 
of cheese to the United Kingdom, as Canadian cheese would receive the preference over 
the New Zealand. 

21. While the export trade has always attracted most attention it must not be 
forgotten that the home trade is by far the most important, and {hat it is five times as 
large. The total value of milk and its products consumed in Canada is over $100,000,000 
annually. 

Probabilities for Enlarged Markets 

22. During the year ended March 31, 1915, Canada imported 6,959,409 pounds 
of butter, chiefly from New Zealand. There is no reason why all this butter should not 
be produced in Canada, as it will be in the near future. 

23. As stated in 20, the United Kingdom is prepared to receive a larger quantity 
of butter and cheese from Canada than is now being sent. 

24. The home market has increased enormously during the past 10 years (see 
Table III.) 

Three factors have contributed to this increase, namely — 1. Increase of population. 
2. Improvement in quality of products. 3. Increased purchasing power. 

Another factor should be added by judicious advertisement of the higher food 
value of milk and its products as compared with other foods now much more extensively 
used. 

115 



Possibilities of Increased Production 

25. The production of milk in Canada, while amounting to a large quantity in 
the aggregate, is comparatively small per acre or for the area devoted to dairy or mixed 
farming. 

26. It is claimed that more cheese is produced within a radius of 40 miles of 
Whitchurch, Shropshire, England, than is exported from the whole of Canada. 

27. Holland, the area of which is only equal to that part of Ontario lying south- 
west of a line drawn from Southampton on Lake Huron to the city of Hamilton, produces 
over 180,000,000 pounds of cheese and 140,000,000 pounds of butter annually. 

28. There is more cheese produced in England and Scotland than in the whole 
of Canada, and the bulk of it comes from a half dozen counties. 

29. In parts of Switzerland as many as 263 dairy cattle are maintained per square 
mile. 

30. The average yield of milk per cow is still very low in Canada and might easily 
be increased 25 or even 50 per cent. The records of the Cow Testing Associations and 
Dairy Record Centres show that many farmers have, by judicious selection, following 
systematic testing, increased the yield from their herds as much as 25 and 30 per cent, 
in three years. 

31. The farmers of Canada as a class have not yet learned how important it is to 
keep cows in good condition. If their feed is scarce the cows get short rations. In 
older dairying countries the farmers take the view that they cannot afford to allow the 
cows to get into poor condition. 

32. The growth of our towns and cities, with an increasing demand for winter 
milk and cream, together with the shortage of butter, gives a new importance to winter 
dairying. Following the inauguration of the winter dairying movement about 20 
years ago there came a period of low prices which discouraged many who were inclined 
to produce winter milk. Moreover, at that time the farmers were not generally so 
well equipped as they are now — there were not so many silos for one thing. The winter 
market is now a high one and is likely to be so in future. 

33. A very important factor in keeping up winter prices is the demand for milk and 
cream which comes from the New England centres of population. If one looks at the 
map it -will be seen that this great manufacturing district has only a limited territory 
within the United States from which to draw supplies, and much of that territory is 
very unproductive., If they look to the southward they compete with New York 
City. As a result these cities are looking to southern Quebec for a portion of their 
supplies. 

34. A more regular production throughout the year makes it easier to retain good 
customers, simplifies some of the labour problems, both on the farm and in the factory, 
by affording yearly employment. 

35. Percentage of cattle compared with population in different countries (No. of 
cattle to every 100 of population). 

New Zealand 197 per cent. 

Denmark 83 per cent. 

United States 69 per cent. 

Sweden 48 per cent. 

Switzerland 38 per cent. 

Canada 36 per cent. 

France 36 per cent. 

Austria 32 per cent. 

Germany 31 per cent. 

United Kingdom : 27 per cent. 

¥ For a country without a large industrial population Canada takes a very low place 
in the foregoing list. 

116 



CHEESE PRICES 



Montreal, July 1914 to Feb. 1916 

Finest Western 

July 1914 12% to 13H cents per 

August " lSy 8 " 14% " " 

September " 14% M 15% " 

October " 15 " 15% " " 

November " 15 " 15% " " 

December " 15 " 15% " " 

January 1915 15% " 17 

February " 16% " 17^ " " 

March " 17 " 173^ " * 

April " 16% " 17K " " 

May " 17K " 19% " " 

June " 15% " 18% " " 

July • " 13% " 17% " " 

August " 12^ M 14 

September M 13% " 15H " " 

October .' " 14% " 16% ". " 

November " 16 " 17% " 

December " 17% " 18% " " 

January 1916 18% " 183^ " " 

February '..... " 18^ " 18% " '* 



pound. 



MARKET PRICES OF FINEST WESTERN CREAMERY BUTTER 
Montreal, July 3rd, 1914, to January 27th, 1916 



July 1914 

August " 

September " 

October " 

November " 

December " 

January 1915 

February " 

March " 

April " 

May " 

June " 

July " 

August " 

September " 

October " 

November " 

December " 

January 1916 

117 



22 to 243^ cents per 

24 " 26% 

26K " 28 

22 " 28 

22 " 23 

22 " 27 

24 " 28% 
283^ " 31K 

30 " 33 

31 " 34 
28 " 29M 
26% " 28 
26 " 28 

25 " 27% 
26% " 29 
303^ " 32 
303^ " 313^ 
30% " 32H 

32 " 33 



pound. 



A MESSAGE TO ONTARIO DAIRYMEN 

H. H. DEAN, Professor of Dairy Husbandry, O.A.C., Guelph. 

The year 1915 will be known in dairy history as one of the best ever experienced 
by Ontario dairymen. The causes contributing to this year of success were plenty 
of rain in nearly all parts of the Province, which made grass and all other kinds of 
feed grow abundantly; good prices, due to the great demand for milk and its products 
caused chiefly by the call for cheese as a part of the army rations; and also to the extra 
efforts put forth by dairymen to increase their production. But the dairy business 
cannot exist on past performances. The present and the future are of more importance 
than the past. What of the future? What about 1916? These are the questions 
anxiously asked at the opening of another dairy season. 

Grow more Feed than ever During 1916 

Some one has said, "We can judge of the future only by the past." If this be true, 
we may be reasonably sure that so far as demand for dairy products is concerned, the 
present year will be fully as good as last year. We may also expect that the dairymen 
and cows will do their part, but the part the weather will play cannot be foreseen. 
Farmers are peculiarly subject to adverse weather conditions. The dairy farmer, can, 
to a certain extent, outwit the "weather-man" by growing a variety of crops, so that if 
one fails another is likely to be successful. A season unfavourable for grass is usually 
a favourable one for corn, hence the dairyman should grow plenty of both grass and 
corn, so that a crop of feed may be assured for his cows. 

Keeping hungry cows on a farm is one of the biggest losing games in the whole 
dairy business. A hungry cow is a discontented cow; a discontented cow is a poor 
milker because her nervous energy is dissipated while longing for, or hunting for, feed 
to satisfy her appetite, instead of being utilized for the secretion of milk. 

Weigh and Test each Cow's Milk 

The weighing and testing of milk from individual cows in the herd should receive 
more attention than ever during the present year, in order that owners of dairy cows may 
intelligently breed and weed out their stock. It would not be a wise policy for all 
dairymen to discard at once all cows that fall below a standard of 6,000 lbs. of milk or 
250 lbs. of butter in a year. Cheese factories and creameries, milk-condensing and 
city milk plants would close their doors in many cases, if this plan were adopted immedi- 
ately. But the method of weeding out all cows that do not reach a certain standard 
should be systematically followed until the dairy cow owner is able to place in his stable 
the following notice: 

"Every cow that enters here 
Must give 10,000 lbs. a year." 

The Record of Performance and the Record of Merit are two organizations that 
assist the owners of pure-bred dairy cattle to breed, own, and sell registered stock of 
merit. The Cow-Testing Association is for the purpose of assisting the man who owns 
grade or pure-bred stock to know his cows individually, as determined by the scales 
and Babcock test. But the owner of cows need not wait for any of these to help him. 
He should act on his own initiative and purchase a milk scale and tester, or arrange to 
have samples from each cow tested two or three times during the lactation period. 
Record milk sheets are furnished free by both the Ontario and Dominion Departments 
of Agriculture. The time required to weigh the milk from each cow and record the 
same is very short. No one can afford not to do this. It is good business to know how 
much milk each cow is giving daily and what her milk tests, but there is an added 
advantage, not commonly reckoned by cow owners, namely, that the records indicate the 

118 



approach of disease or ill-health. If the milker finds that a cow has dropped suddenly 
in her milk-yield, he should at once look for the cause, as indigestion or some other of 
many troubles to which cows are subject is indicated. 

Cleanliness and Cooling 

Cleanliness and proper cooling of milk and cream are topics worn thread-bare 
at dairy conventions and in the dairy press, but those who are in the dairy business 
know the need there is for continually calling attention to these matters. Milk and its 
products are human foods. The consuming public is becoming more critical each year 
with reference to food. Many of the ills of mankind, particularly those afflicting 
children, are caused by impure milk. The unclean cow and the unclean man or woman 
handling milk should not be tolerated. It might not be out of place to require such 
persons to utter the cry, as required in olden times of certain persons: "Unclean." 
"Unclean." 

The time is not, I hope, far distant when the man who produces a clean, wholesome, 
standard product will receive a much higher price for it than will the man who produces 
goods of inferior quality. Too long has continued the plan of paying practically the 
same price for all qualities and conditions of milk and cream. The dairyman who has 
clean cows in a clean stable, who milks in a cleanly manner and cools the milk, 
immediately after milking or separating, to a safe temperature for transportation or 
manufacturing, should receive a greater reward than the man who disregards these 
principles. How to bring into actual practice this admittedly desirable state of affairs 
is puzzling the brains of leading dairymen at the present time, but a solution must be 
found somehow, somewhere. 

Milk and its products, particularly cheese, are among the cheapest foods for human 
consumption that the family buyer can purchase. The British Government showed 
wisdom in selecting cheese for the men at the front, thereby giving the world at large a 
lesson on the value of cheese as a food which will not soon be forgotten; hence we may 
expect a continued increased demand for Ontario cheese not only during 1916, but for 
many years to come. 



NOTES ON DAIRYING IN EASTERN ONTARIO 

G. G. PUBLOW, Chief Dairy Inspector. 

Never before was so much cheese made in Eastern Ontario as during the season 
just closed. Never before was it produced at so little cost. Never before were prices 
so high. Never have farmers, particularly dairy farmers, made so much money out of 
their herds. All this was due to a most unusual combination of circumstances — 
phenomenal production and high prices. At the beginning of the season a special 
appeal was made for the "biggest ever" in production. The dairymen responded to 
the call, and Providence helped them out with one of the best seasons for pasture we 
have ever had. i 

Cheese prices averaged 153^ cents for the year as compared with 133^ cents for 
the year previous. The 1915 price constitutes a record. Circumstances justify 
continued high prices for this season at least. I look for a permanent benefit to our cheese 
industry as a result of the war. 

In Eastern Ontario in 1915 there was an increase in output of 15 to 20 per cent, 
over the year previous. Given a reasonably fair season for pasture in 1916, there 
ought to be an increase in output over 1915. 

This year with abundance of feed and high prices for products there is practically 
no selling of grade dairy cattle and the number of milkers has increased. Not only are 
the herds increasing in size, but they are improving in quality. Aside from the 

119 



unusually favourable season there was an increase in the average milk production 
last year of between 400 and 500 lbs. — due to better breeding and better feeding. 

In the syndicate dairy districts of Eastern Ontario, 400 additional silos were erected 
last year. 

The dairy industry meant an income of nearly $15,000,000 to Eastern Ontario last 
year aside from the whole milk and home-made butter trade. Dairying is a big thing for 
Ontario — it is one of Canada's big things. 

DAIRYING IN ONTARIO IN 1915 

FRANK HERNS, Secretary, London, Ont. 

Prices for Dairy Products — The average price for cheese during the past season 
was the highest ever received in Canada. A considerable amount of American cheese 
was, we understand, exported to England during the past winter and early part of 
the spring season. Had this cheese not been available prices would probably have 
reached an even higher level. It is a source of gratification to know that the Canadian 
cheese and butter industry is in a position to supply a large quantity of such excellent 
food products for the soldiers of the Empire. 

The butter market assumed a high level early in the season and has been active 
most of the year resulting in good prices to cream producers. 

The statistical position of both cheese and butter is strong and prospects for 1916 
are encouraging. 

We trust that the increased price of rennet may not tend to induce some makers to 
"skimp" the proper quantity; it would be a very shortsighted policy to risk the quality 
of the cheese through a misguided sense of economy. Insufficient rennet means slow 
and imperfect coagulation, loss in yield and possibly coarse textured cheese. 

After the war is over there may possibly be a temporary drop in the prices for dairy 
products, especially during the readjustment period, but the hope is expressed that, 
should prices decline for the time being, this may not to any extent influence milk 
producers to decrease their herds but rather continue to make dairying a permanent 
feature of their farming operations. Past experience has proven that there is no other 
line of agriculture that will, over a period of years, pay better than dairy farming. 

There has never been a time when the prospects seemed better for a steady demand 
for live stock. We do not know how long this world war is going to last, but when 
hostilities cease, there is every evidence that a great demand for dairy products, live 
stock and meat products will follow. Depleted European herds must be replenished 
and our country is one of the natural sources from which to draw for this purpose. 

MANITOBA DAIRY PRODUCTS 

F. S. JACOBS, B.S.A., Professor of Animal Husbandry, Manitoba 
Agricultural College. 

Notwithstanding the great increase in grain production in Manitoba during 1915, 
the dairy industry did not suffer therefrom, but rather expanded considerably. The 
prices for creamery butter, dairy butter and cheese all showed an improvement, and in 
every case the quantities made were increased. The result was that the value of our 
dairy products was increased by over 12}^ per cent, as compared with the year before. 
During 1915 Manitoba exported between 50 and 55 carloads of creamery butter, part of 
it going eastward and part of it to British Columbia. The fact that Manitoba is capable 
of winning and holding a place as an exporter of butter is now becoming well recognized. 

During the past year, too, our rather small cheesemaking industry made encourag- 
ing growth, and the big demand for eastern cheese caused by the war affords us a good 
opening for our products. 

Professor J. W. Mitchell, Dairy Commissioner for Manitoba, says: — 

"During 1915 the dairymen of the Province made their contribution towards 
increased production. We made over 1,000,000 pounds more creamery butter and 

120 



over 25,000 pounds more cheese than in 1914. We could, and with a little care would, 
have made even a better showing. An analysis of our output by months shows that 
83% of our total make of creamery butter wr.s made during the six summer months 
(the first of May to the end of October) and 17% during the other six months of the 
year. Careful attention should be given to the growing of suitable fall and winter foods 
and to the proper housing of the cows during th° f all months. This, in itself, would 
enhance production very considerably. A very strong effort should and will be made 
to increase the quantity and improve the quality of our dairy products during 1916." 



CANADIAN DAIRY RECORDS 

Production Increased by Testing 

CHAS. F. WHITLEY, Dairy Branch, Department of Agriculture, Ottawa. 
Average Yields in Canada 

While the increase in the number of cows in Canada between 1900 and 1910 was 
only seven per cent, the total production of milk during the same period increased 
forty-three per cent. The census figures for 1910 give the average yield per cow as 
3,805 pounds of milk. In 1914 the average yield per cow of 14,559 cows on the register 
of the cow-testing associations was 5,121 pounds of milk, 3.6 test, 189.4 pounds of 
fat. Probably the explanation of the forty-three per cent, increase in milk yield is to 
be found in the fact that the cow-testing movement as carried on by the dairy division 
of the Dominion Department of Agriculture is exerting a powerful influence not only on 
its immediate membership but on the thought and practice of many dairy farmers in 
Canada. 

The value of cow-testing lies in the fact that definite, exact knowledge is obtained 
of each individual cow; her actual production, her profitable response to more feed, 
her likelihood of improvement. One point is strongly insisted upon and constantly 
reiterated — a knowledge of the individual, not the average or total yield. This is 
essential if cows are to be handled intelligently. What a disappointment it must be to 
any novice in cow-testing to find that though his herd of 12 cows may average 4,160 
pounds of milk, an analysis of the work of each individual for the year discloses the fact 
that five mature cows, kept under precisely similar conditions as the rest of the herd, 
failed to pay for their $35.00 worth of feed, each one of the five incurring an average loss 
of over five dollars. If five, or if only three, in a herd of twenty average cows are found 
to be unprofitable, the loss of time, feed and energy spent in handling is very great. 

Cow-testing aims at making every hour, every pound of feed, every unit of power, 
every acre fit for cows not only profitable, but increasingly so. 

The World's Records for Breeds. 

It may be interesting to note what individual pure-bred cows have done. The 
latest available yields are: 

Lbs. Per Lbs. 

Breed Name of Cow Age of Cent. of 

Milk Fat Fat 

Holstein Duchess Skylark Ormsby Mature 27,761 4.3 1,205.09 

Holstein Tilly Alcarta Mature 30,452 3.1 951 . 30 

Jersey Sophy 19th of Hood Farm Mature 17,557 5.6 999.2 

Guernsey Murne Cowan Mature 24,008 4.5 1,098.1 

Ayrshire Auchenbrain Brown Kate 

4th Mature 23,022 3.9 917.60 

French-Canadian.. Fille Mature 10,767 4.2 453. 

All the above records are held in the United States, except that of the French- 
Canadian. 

121 



There are several grade cows in Canada giving from 9,000 to 18,000 pounds of milk, 
and from 300 to 500 pounds of fat in the year. These have been discovered through 
cow-testing. 

Records of a Few Canadian Herds 

The record of a pure-bred herd in Western Ontario for 1915 was, 22 cows averaged 
8,357 pounds of milk, 4.2 test, 354 pounds of fat; 344 days in milk. Included in the 
22 cows are no fewer than 9 two-year-olds. One two-year-old gave over 10,700 pounds 
of milk and 478 pounds of fat, while a seven-year-old gave only 6,053 pounds of milk 
and 266 pounds of fat. 

The following is a sample record of a herd in Western Ontario. The average yield 
of 16 cows (only one, a two-year-old pure-bred) was 9,519 pounds of milk and 305 
pounds of fat. One six-year-old bought at a sale gave 5,965 lb. milk, 197 lb. fat; the 
best yield was from a seven-year-old, 12,773 lb. milk, 401 lb. fat. This owner, in two 
years, has increased his average yield by over two thousand pounds of milk and sixty 
pounds of fat per cow. 

In a herd of 8 grade cows near St. Hyacinthe, Que., the average, including a two- 
year-old and 2 three-year-olds, was 4,354 lb. milk and 154.8 lb. fat, showing an average 
net profit, above the $33.50 feed cost, of $15.85 per cow. 

At St. Joseph, New Brunswick, the average yield of 19 grade cows, including 3 
two-year-olds and 4 three-year-olds, was 5,976 lb. milk and 221 lb. fat. With a feed 
cost of $48.00 the average net profit was $18.36 per cow. One cow made $40.80 clear 
profit. 

The following analysis of a herd at Avonmore, Ont., where the owner weighs the 
milk daily, indicates upon what a good working basis cows may be put; but even here 
are several contrasts in yields and net profit. 

Age 



Average . 



Total 1 


field 


Value 


Cost 


Net 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


of Milk, 


of 


Profii 


Milk 


Fat 


at $1.36 per 
100 lbs. 


Feed 




6,828 


261.6 


$ 92.86 


$58.06 


$34.80 


7,428 


271.0 


101.02 


57.67 


43.35 


6,551 


190.5 


89.09 


57.50 


31.59 


7,041 


252.9 


95.76 


57.55 


38.21 


7,690 


281.8 


104.58 


58.83 


45.75 


5,767 


213.3 


78.31 


43.75 


34.56 


5,389 


176.4 


73.29 


45.00 


28.29 


4,637 


175.4 


63.06 


52.63 


10.43 


6,450 


231.9 


87.71 


53.94 


33.78 



Increased Production 



Wherever cow-testing is taken up intelligently, more careful feeding, breeding with 
a purpose, and thorough crop cultivation to insure abundant suitable feed are results 
that may confidently be expected to follow. These results follow just because the scale 
and sample indicate that it pays. Poor cows need not be kept simply to fill up the stable, 
deception as to the real merit of any one cow cannot be practised on the man who 
studies milk and feed records. 

The efficient modern dairyman will know how much his protein costs per pound, 
whether he gets 200 or 1,400 pounds of milk per acre, whether the feed cost of milk is 
62 or 82 cents per 100 lbs., whether each cow makes two, or twenty, or sixty dollars clear 

122 



profit in a year above the cost of her feed. Thus the possibilities of increased production, 
more economical production, are difficult to limit. Certain it is, the best herd, the best 
individual cow, the best factory return, the best district average is yet ahead of us. 
In one creamery in Nova Scotia the average yield in 1909 was only sixty-three 
pounds of fat per cow from 445 cows. In 1915 there were 2,739 cows supporting the 
creamery with an average of ninety-two pounds of fat. 

The following table relating to Ontario cows is full of significance. 

Some Sample Increases in Three Years' Cow-Testing, Both in Number of Cows and 
Yields of Milk. 

Last Year 3 Years Ago Increase Percentage 

No. of Average No. of Average Per Cow Increase 

Cows Lb. Milk Cows Lb. Milk Lbs. Milk Lbs. No. of 
Herd 

A 9 7,225 5 

B 14 7,574 8 

C 8 6,404 5 

D 11 7,255 8 

E 7 4,844 . 2 

F 8 10,935 5 7,689 3,246 42 60 

G 16 7,259 12 4,572 2,687 58 33 

Average... 73 7,392 45 5,405 1,987 36 62 

So much better was the general average of the cows kept, that the total milk 
yield was more than doubled. 







Milk Cows 


6,287 


938 


14% 80% 


5,894 


1,680 


28 75 


4,704 


1,700 


36 60 


5,266 


1,989 


38 37 


2,811 


2,033 


72 350 



ASSISTANCE IN COW TESTING 

The assistance from the Dairy Division of the Department of Agriculture at 
Ottawa, in regard to cow testing, is just as liberal as in former years. Where a cow 
testing association is organized and a thoroughly competent person will do the testing 
of milk samples from individual cows once a month, supplies of preservative tablets 
and sulphuric acid will be sent free of charge, together with the necessary blank forms; 
beyond this, a payment of five cents per sample tested will be made. Factory owners, 
cheese and butter makers will do well to note these facts and act promptly. 



WHAT ONE FARMER HAS DONE IN BUILDING UP A DAIRY HERD 

William Pollock, of Harold, Ont., reports that in eight years, 1908 to 1915, he 
increased the output from the same number of cows from $800 to $1,726. This was 
accomplished by breeding better, keeping records, culling out, raising his calves and 
feeding a little better. 

He states: — "Every dairyman should use a pure-bred sire — the best he can afford. 
Three years ago I milked 12 heifers, two years old at freshening. Eight of them were 
sired by pure-bred sires and four by a mongrel, but from as good cows as we had in 
Plum Grove Factory. The eight all proved good but one. The other four were only 
boarders and I ruled them out the first year. The mature cow that will not give me 
9,000 lbs. of milk in ten months must go. My average per cow in 1915 was 9,293 lbs. 
I consider it time well spent to weigh every milking and keep records." 

123 



A GREAT CHEESE YEAR 

The cheese exports from Montreal during a period of five years, the average price 
per box, and the approximate value were as follows: 

Quantity, Price per 

boxes box Value 

1915 1,851,731 $13.44 $24,887,264 

1914 1,482,538 11.07 18,493,179 

1913 1,571,165 10.25 16,104,441 

1912 1,723,021 10.04 17,299,130 

1911 1,810,666 9.84 17,816,953 



The production of cheese and butter has been somewhat handicapped in Holland 
by the breaking of the North Sea waters through the dykes. Immense areas have been 
flooded with salt waters, human lives have been lost, cattle drowned and great damage 
done to farm homes. In some places only the church towers are to be seen above the 
flood. It will take years to reconstruct the dykes, pump out the water and restore 
the land to its former condition. 



Owing to German demand, Danish shippers have raised their quotations to the 
extraordinary price of 208s. per cwt., and it is thought that this action will unfavour- 
ably affect the future popularity of Danish butter in Great Britain. 



Commenting upon the butter situation, the London Standard states in its issue of 
October 14: — 

"The high price of butter, created apparently through the advance of butter prices 
at Copenhagen, where the Germans are bidding high figures to secure it for their own 
consumption, has caused some of the best families in all parts of the United Kingdom 
to purchase margarine rather than pay such high prices for butter. All the leading 
wholesale merchants have been seriously pressed since the last advance in butter 
prices for supplies of margarine, and the supply is inadequate to meet the demand. 
The cheapest Danish butter has now an average price of Is. 9d. per pound, whereas the 
best class of wholesome margarine can be obtained at Is. 



124 



THE POULTRY INDUSTRY 



THE EGG AND POULTRY SITUATION IN CANADA 

W. A. BROWN, Live Stock Branch, Ottawa. 

The Egg and Poultry situation in Canada might be summed up in the form of a 
simple equation. On the one side the fact that Great Britain requires all the surplus 
eggs and poultry Canada can produce; on the other, the fact that, although Canada 
has all the facilities for the production of a quantity far in excess of her own requirements, 
the present magnitude of the industry is but a mere fraction of what it might be if 
advantage were taken of our present opportunities. 

According to the last census, there were almost as many poultry in the state 
of Iowa, as in the whole of the Dominion of Canada. There is no reason why this 
record cannot be equalled and even excelled by each or all of the three great Western 
Provinces, Manitoba, Alberta, and Saskatchewan, to say nothing of the greatly increased 
production possible in Eastern Canada. 

In the Maritime Provinces, Prince Edward Island is the only province that is 
anywhere near doing its duty in the production of eggs and poultry. Still, with the 
relatively high prices prevailing, there is no reason why it could not do more. Nova 
Scotia and New Brunswick both import eggs in quantities, the cities of St. John and 
Halifax alone securing 50% and 60% respectively of their supplies from Prince Edward 
Island. It is said that the main reason for this limited production is the lack of 
home grown grain. If so, the remedy is simple. 

The Province of Quebec imports eggs from both east and west. The poultry 
industry is well developed in the eastern townships, but the whole agricultural region 
east, west, and south from the city of Quebec fails to supply sufficient eggs for the 
requirements of that market. 

The Province of Ontario is the banner province in the Dominion insofar as the 
production of eggs and poultry is concerned. According to the last census, over 
13,000,000 of the 29,000,000 head of poultry in Canada were found in Ontario, and of the 
123,000,000 dozen eggs produced, Ontario produced 58,888,614 dozen. 

Ordinarily, a large part of Ontario's surplus goes to supply Montreal and the chief 
consuming centres of the Province of Quebec. During the past year, however, with 
increasing production elsewhere, a large part of this surplus has been shipped to Great 
Britain. 

The poultry industry in the Western Provinces is still in its infancy. According 
to the last census the total poultry population of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta 
was only 8,012,634, as against 13,414,318 head in the province of Ontario. This number, 
however, represented an increase over the number in 1900 of nearly 400%.. and in the 
year 1915, for the first time in the history of the Dominion, fresh-gathered eggs in car 
lots were shipped from the Western to the Eastern Provinces of the Dominion. 

The Western Provinces offer great possibilities for the further development of the 
poultry industry. It has been amply demonstrated that not only is high summer egg 
production possible, but if properly housed, tended, and cared for, even the more tender 
varieties of poultry give profitable returns in the winter season. The Western Provinces, 
too, have an asset in the remarkable effect that the long summer days and the wealth of 
vegetable and insect life have upon the early maturity of the stock. 

125 



British Columbia, although far-famed as being the home of the largest poultry 
ranches in Canada, still remains an importing province, and much development is 
required before supply will be equal to demand. 

Canada should have a surplus of eggs for export, and except for a period of six 
years between 1908 and 1913 inclusive, has consistently followed this course. During 
the time that supply was less than demand, prices ruled high. High prices resulted in 
increased production, and during the past two years Canada has again been in a position 
to export. 

Great Britain is Canada's logical market for eggs, but under normal conditions 
Canadian dealers — not having made a special study of the requirements of the British 
market and suddenly being obliged to find a market for a surplus of several million dozen 
— would have met with most strenuous competition. The emergency of the hour has, 
however, given Canada access to the British market in a way and to an extent which, 
under normal conditions, would have been difficult to obtain. 

Fifteen years ago, when Canada was shipping to the British market, Canadian eggs 
compared favourably in the matter of quality with eggs from other countries. In the 
interval, however, on account of the strenuous competition they had to meet, marked 
improvement was made in the quality of the Danish, Irish, Dutch, and other nearby 
fresh receipts, while in Canada, with such prosperous conditions at hand, it is only 
recently that any decided improvement has occurred. 

To this improvement the educational campaign carried on by the Live Stock Branch 
of the Dominion Department of Agriculture during the past few years has largely con- 
tributed.. Some important results have been achieved; the trade in bad eggs has been 
checked, quality payment has been inaugurated in many parts, and co-operative market- 
ing on the part of the producers encouraged. Tentative standards for eggs have been 
suggested, and these have been adopted by the trade. These standards provide for 
three classes for eggs, namely, "Fresh-Gathered," "Storage," and "Cracked and Dirties." 
In the Fresh-Gathered class, there are four grades: — "Specials," "Extras," "No. l's," 
and "No. 2's;" in the Storage class there are three grades, "Extras," "No. l's," and 
"No. 2's;" and in the third class, "Cracked and Dirties," there are two grades, "No. l's" 
and "No. 2's." For deterioration in transit an allowance of 10% is made; that is, eggs 
should grade at point of delivery 90% of the grade named at the point of shipment. 

The various grades are defined as follows: — 

Specials — Eggs of uniform size weighing over 24 ozs. to the dozen, or over 45 lbs. 
net to the 30 doz. case; absolutely clean, strong and sound in shell; air cell small, not 
over 3-16 of an inch in depth; white of egg to be firm and clear, and yolk dimly visible; 
free from blood clots. 

Extras — Eggs of good size, weighing at least 24 ozs. to the dozen, or 45 lbs. net to 
the 30 doz. case; clean; sound in shell; air cell less than % inch in depth; white of egg to 
be firm and yolk slightly visible. 

No. l's — Eggs weighing at least 23 ozs. to the dozen, or 45 lbs. net to the 30 doz. 
case; clean; sound in shell; air cell less than M inch in depth; white of egg to be reason- 
ably firm; yolk may be quite visible but mobile, not stuck to the shell or seriously out 
of place; air cell not necessarily stationary. 

No. 2's — Eggs clean; sound in shell; may contain weak watery eggs, and eggs with 
heavy yolks, and all other eggs sound in shell and fit for food. 

These regulations have been well received by the produce trade, particularly so in 
the Western Provinces. Several of the large produce associations have strongly 
commended the Department for its activities along this line, and have recommended 
that not only should the standards above mentioned be legalized, but that inspectors 
should be appointed to supervise the egg trade of the Dominion, particularly the grading 
of that portion of the product intended for export, in order to insure the terni "Canadian 
Eggs" becoming synonimous with quality in the export markets. 

126 



That the work among producers is also appreciated is evidenced by the observations 
of an egg circle secretary in one of the older settled portions of the Eastern Provinces: — 

"The forming of the Circle has, in my opinion, made the people more careful in the 
quality of the article offered for sale. Cash sales meet with greater approval than trade 
or barter. The circle is bound to grow. Our products are meeting with the warmest 
commendation from the Central Association." 

The expansion of the Canadian egg trade along progressive lines is a matter of the 
greatest economic importance to the whole country. It is not in the interest of Canadian 
producers to compete on the British or any other of the world's markets with Russia, 
Austria-Hungary, Rumania, Egypt, or other countries supplying eggs of only very 
ordinary quality. If the poultry industry in Canada is to be a profitable undertaking, 
it is evident that steps must be taken to place Canadian eggs on the British market in 
such quantities and of such a high quality as will command the highest possible price. 

The war is affording Canada an exceptional opportunity, at a most opportune time, 
to become permanently established on the British market. Every effort should be put 
forth to take the greatest possible advantage of this opportunity. Each producer, 
each produce man, each exporter in Canada has a duty to perform, and it is not only 
necessary to produce more and better eggs this year than before, but also to take such 
steps as may be necessary to insure that the quality of the eggs exported is such as will 
provide a fitting advertisement for Canadian eggs when times of strenuous competition 
again prevail. 



THE PROFIT-MAKING HEN 

The World's Best Layer — What is the world's egg-laying record? So far as we 
have authentic records of yield the honour must go to Lady Englantine, a White Leghorn 
hen owned by the Delaware Agricultural College. Shfe laid 314 eggs in 365 days. 

In the British Columbia egg-laying contest, the average number of eggs laid in the 
year by 240 birds was 165. In the winning pen the average per bird was 223. When we 
consider that the yield per hen on Canadian farms was only 46 (1911 census) a wide field 
for practical poultry improvement opens up. It is obvious that like the average cow 
the average hen is a poor and unprofitable producer. The principles that are being 
applied in milk production must also be applied to egg production. The hen that 
does not come up to the standard of profitable performance must be rigidly discarded. 
Write to the Dominion or Provincial Poultryman for information as to "bred-to-lay" 
poultry. Your time, chicken food, and eggs are all worth money. 



In 1911 the poultry and eggs sold off Canadian farms were worth between 
$31,000,000 and $32,000,000. It is estimated that the egg production alone in Canada 
for 1915 was worth $30,000,000. This is two and a half times the value of the whole 
fruit crop of Canada, six times the value of all the sheep, and half the value of all the 
cattle produced. — W. A. Brown. 



IMPROVING ONTARIO'S EGG PRODUCTION 

PROF. GRAHAM, O.A.C., Guelph. 

We chose Barred Rocks for our experimental work simply because our corres- 
pondents in the last six years have demanded more Barred Rock stock than all other 
breeds and varieties put together. The people had them before we started to improve 
this breed, and they wanted more. It was easier to improve them with the aid of the 

127 



Ontario poultrymen than to start with a new variety. Even before the bred-to-lay 
bird was produced, Barred Rocks were fairly satisfactory. However, ultimately it is 
the strain, not the breed, that counts. 

Last year we distributed 16,000 eggs, principally through the schools. There will 
be so many roosters raised that the effect will be felt all over the Province. It is the 
male that controls the egg-laying characteristics. Mate a rooster from an egg-laying 
strain to a hen that scarcely lays a dozen a year, and the pullets of the first generation 
produced will be good layers. Therefore, if we can distribute roosters through the 
country every spring the improvement in Ontario's egg production will be very 
marked. 

How do we propose to do this? The average District Representative takes 100 
dozen eggs to distribute through the schools in his county. These eggs are hatched by 
the children, who raise the chicks, show the best at the rural fairs, sell the surplus roosters 
and generally get the whole community interested. 

We are establishing breeding stations, where it is possible, in every school section. 
To accomplish this we get a farmer who is interested in chickens, clean out his old stock, 
and supply him with eggs. We never let him use his own males, but supply him from 
the college. We give him three and a half cents apiece for all the eggs he can produce 
during the first month of the breeding season. The farmer gets a good price for his 
hatching eggs, besides having the advantage of high-laying hens. The best cockerels 
are usually bought by us, sorted out, and the choicest ones used. 

In this manner we shall be able to produce an enormous number of hatchable 
eggs each year to supply the whole Province with birds bred for utility, pullets to lay 
eggs, and cockerels to make a dinner. 



QUEBEC'S OPPORTUNITY IN POULTRY RAISING 

M. A. JULL, Poultry Department, Macdonald College, Que. 

Eggs and dressed poultry are in constant and increasing demand by the consuming 
public of Quebec. This is partly due to improvement in the quality of the products 
marketed, which is largely responsible for an increased popularity of eggs. They 
are received with greater favour and are enjoyed with more relish than heretofore, and of 
course there is no substitute for such a unique commodity as eggs. An annual increase 
in the population of the Province and an increase in consumption per capita are 
responsible for the increased demand. Increased production has not nearly kept 
pace with the increased demand, with the result that Quebec is importing eggs and 
poultry in large quantities. The farmers of Iowa, Missouri, Kansas and Ontario are 
supplying the. people of Montreal, Quebec, Sherbrooke and other cities with many of 
their eggs. The farmers of Quebec thus lose a good share of the profits in their own 
market. 

The farm flock has to supply the market requirements of the people in towns and 
cities, as well as the farmer's own needs. The cost of living in farm homes would be 
reduced if more eggs and poultry were used on the table, since these products are 
produced more cheaply than other farm products. The number of poultry kept on the 
average farm is surprisingly small, indeed, some farms are not producing enough eggs 
and poultry for their own use. 

To furnish the demand for eggs and poultry due to the increase of city dwellers, 
the Province imported quantities of eggs as shown hereunder: — 

1913—812,201 doz. at 19c. per doz., value $156,740. 

1914—1,103,118 doz. at 25c. per doz., value $280,429. 

The value of exports of eggs and poultry from Quebec in 1914 amounted to $396 
for eggs, $6,113 for live poultry, and $17,112 for dressed poultry, a total of $23,621. 

128 



The farmers of Quebec are favoured with one of the best markets on the continent. 
The average annual wholesale price for eggs in Montreal is slightly higher than in 
Toronto or Winnipeg, whilst in these three cities the wholesale prices average higher 
than New York and Chicago markets. For the better quality of poultry produce 
Montreal offers, in many cases, better prices than any other market on the continent. 

Notwithstanding an increased annual importation, there has been a substantial 
increase in production. In 1901 there were 3,066,304 fowls on the farms of Quebec, 
and in 1911 there were 4,833,013. In 1911, the value of poultry on the farms amounted 
to $2,422,568; the egg products were valued at $3,812,838; live poultry at $662,343— 
a total of $6,897,749. 

The number and value of poultry in Quebec is low compared with Canada as a 
whole. In 1911 the average number of fowls per farm in Canada was 44.5, while the 
average number of fowls per farm in Quebec was only 32.3. The number and quality 
of the stock can be increased considerably and would mean an increased production. 
In 1911, the average value, per family, of poultry for all Canada was $9.84, while in 
Quebec it was only $6.53. 

The most reliable information places the average annual production per hen in 
Quebec at 50 eggs. This is abnormally low and can be raised to 100 eggs per hen 
with proper care and management. This increase would almost double the value of 
the industry, and would more than double the profits of the producers. It takes about 
80 eggs to pay for a hen's keep for one year, so that many hens in Quebec are being kept 
at a loss. Another very significant fact is that over 50 per cent, of the eggs are produced 
in the months of March, April, May and June, and these are the least profitable months 
in which to produce eggs. More eggs should be produced between November and 
March, when prices are highest and profits are greatest. 

Notwithstanding existing undesirable conditions relative to poultry production 
in Quebec, the Province is afforded a great opportunity to become one of the foremost 
poultry producing provinces of the Dominion. Conditions brought about by the great 
war have altered the market situation in Canada to such an extent that Quebec is placed 
in a very advantageous position. The enormous supplies of eggs from Russia and 
other countries which went to supply a good share of the requirements of the British 
market have been greatly reduced since August 1914, and Great Britain has looked to 
the United States and Canada to replace the deficiency. A number of shipments of 
eggs have been made from Canada, most of these shipments being supplied by Ontario 
and the Western Provinces. The significant fact in regard to Canadian exportations 
of eggs is that practically none were obtained in Quebec, although most of the shipments 
have gone through Quebec shipping points. 



SELECTING POULTRY FOR EFFICIENCY 

M. A. JULL, Poultry Dept., Macdonald College, Quebec. 

A feature of great importance in connection with the poultry industry has been 
developed as a result of the war. It is that poultry keepers throughout the 
country must practise greater economy. It is common knowledge that prices of 
poultry feeds have risen considerably although prices of poultry and eggs have not 
risen in the same proportion, consequently, it must be admitted that poultry keepers 
today are not making the profits they were before the war broke out. This condition 
of affairs will probably last as long as the war lasts and for sometime after. Every 
economy should be practised. This applies to the feeding of poultry, and along this 
line I should like to mention two things to which farmers and poultrymen should 
give greater attention in order to eliminate, as far as possible, all unnecessary expense. 

129 



The first is the selection of the yearling stock. No one should keep birds on hand 
that are over one year old, except where, under special circumstances, two year-old 
birds are considered of a special breeding value. The selection of the yearling stock 
should be very rigid, and everyone should aim to keep over only the birds that will lay 
well during the winter. Select out the drones and discard them. The late moulters 
are often the best layers. Keep only birds that are in good health and have plenty of 
constitutional vigour. 

The second point is the selection of the pullets. Usually pullets are more profitable 
than yearling hens as winter layers, and consequently the farmers should keep the 
minimum number of yearlings and the maximum number of pullets. At the same time 
a very careful selection should be practised in culling out late hatched and poorly 
developed pullets. Early hatched birds are the more profitable, particularly among 
the general purpose breeds. Select the early hatched birds and mark them with leg 
bands or by some other means so that when they are placed in the laying pens you will 
be able to discard all unprofitable birds. 

Conditions at present indicate that prices of eggs in future will be good and all 
poultrymen should endeavour to secure as large an egg production as possible in order 
to make good profits. The greatest hope of increasing the fresh egg supply during 
the early months of the winter, lies in the proper handling of the pullets during the 
growing season. Select your stock for the highest possible efficiency and thus increase 
your profits. 



PROSPECTS FOR POULTRY IN MANITOBA 

F. S. JACOBS, B.S.A., Professor of Animal Husbandry. 

The market for both live and dressed poultry was a great deal more satis- 
factory during 1915 than in 1914, and the present outlook is for good poultry 
prices during the year 1916. The report of the Manitoba Department of Agriculture 
shows the following figures as to Manitoba's poultry production for market: 

Poultry Disposed of by Farmers 

1915 1914 

Turkeys 154,969 184,236 

Geese 83,961 81,720 

Chickens 881,335 815,852 

During the late fall and early winter of 1915, Manitoba Agricultural College 
undertook to receive chickens from the farmers of the province, fatten them according 
to the best method and market them on a co-operative basis. There is good reason to 
hope that in the matter of marketing poultry the College and the Department of 
Agriculture can give considerable assistance. 

Professor Herner, head of the Poultry Division at the Manitoba Agricultural 
College, says: "There was a shortage of eggs and diessed poultry in 1915. I would 
advise uniform production, distribution of marketing over a longer period of time and 
improvement of the product through education, organization and co-operation. 
Many farmers expect high prices for a comparatively inferior product, both in 
eggs and dressed poultry. Much of the produce is not of the highest order, and the 
best prices cannot be paid for such products." 

With the encouragement now being given to marketing eggs by the egg circle 
system, it seems certain that the returns from poultry keeping will be considerably 
improved. 

130 



POULTRY IN WESTERN CANADA 

The British market is bound to require enormous quantities of eggs this year, and 
Canadian eggs should be the ones to meet this demand. 

Thus far the West has produced little more than sufficient to supply its own needs. 
Before the West can look forward to competing in the larger markets, we must improve 
the quality of the poultry products. Improvement can be effected, first, by keeping 
a better class of poultry on the farms, thereby improving the egg and meat producing 
qualities. Second, by proper care and management of the farm flocks and by better 
methods of handling and marketing the outpout. This is what we are seeking to 
accomplish by educational methods. — M. C. Herner, Poultry Department, Manitoba 
Agricultural College. 



B.C. LAYING CONTEST 

J. R. Terry, Director of Poultry W T ork for the British Columbia Department 
of Agriculture, gives the following summary of results obtained in the fourth International 
Egg-laying contest for the year ending October 22, 1915: 

Duration of contest (months) 12 

Number of pens 40 

Number of birds 240 

Number of eggs laid 39,757 

Value of eggs laid $1,076.75 

Cost of feeding •. 527.38 

Profit over cost of feeding 549 . 37 

Average price of eggs per dozen 32. 5 

Average cost to produce dozen e^gs 15.9 

Average number of eggs laid per pen 993 . 9 

Average number of eggs laid per bird 165.6 

Average cost of food per pen (six birds) 13.18.4 

Average cost of food per bird 2.19 

Profit over cost of feed per pen 13 . 73 

Profit over cost of feed per bird 2 . 28 

Eggs laid by winning pen (class one) 1,341 

Average per bird winning pen (class one) ~ . . . . 223 . 5 

Eggs laid by winning pen (class two) 1,342 

Average per bird winning pen (class two) " 223 . 6 



Shortage of Eggs 

Commenting upon the egg shortage, the London, England, Standard of the 
17th of November says: — 

"There is a great shortage of eggs, and whatever may be the popular opinion, there 
has been no increase in home production since the war, despite the fact that our imports 
of eggs are for the first ten months of this year less by 75,000 tons than those received 
in the same period of the year before the war. Many people may be keeping poultry 
who did not do so before the war, but, on the other hand the high price of food stuffs has 
led to poultry keepers in a large way of business reducing their stocks. 

"The hospital demand is another important factor in the situation. I should place 
the eggs required for the hospitals in the London districts alone at about 250,000 a 
week, and this demand, which is, of course, not peculiar to London, naturally leads to 
the diversion of supplies from the ordinary public." 

131 



EGGS ARE DEAR 

To the British housewife to whom eggs and bacon are something of a fetish the price 
of both articles is becoming an alarming problem — that of the egg more than the bacon. 
Before the war they preserved an even ratio; and the new laid egg at 4 cents matched 
the rasher at the same price. But now they have become divorced, for with bacon at 
36 cents a pound (and the rasher 6 cents), the new laid egg has soared even beyond 
that, and some suburban tradesmen in well-to-do neighbourhoods have tried to extract 
7 to 8 cents for an alleged new laid egg. 

The middle-class British housewife will not pay more than 80 cents a dozen for 
eggs, and if dealers still try to force the price up they will find that they have lost their 
market, and, to paraphrase the old saying, their only customers will be the goose that 
buys the golden eggs. * 

NOTES 

The rooster is the direct cause of a loss to Missouri farmers and poultry raisers 
of fully $3,000,000 every summer, says an agricultural journal — a loss that could be 
prevented by the simple expedient of getting rid of the adult male birds as soon as the 
hatching season is over. It is the fertile egg that spoils in hot weather. An infertile 
egg will keep for weeks, even when subjected to a high temperature. A general 
observance of "rooster day" throughout the State is expected to make Missouri eggs 
sought after in the fancy egg markets of the world, and add millions to the income of 
poultry raisers. Other states have heard the battle-cry and are arranging similar 
"rooster" days. 



132 



SPECIAL CROPS 



SUGAR AND THE SUGAR BEET— HONEY- 
MAPLE PRODUCTS— FLAX— FRUIT AND VEGETABLES. 



Canadian Sugar Statistics. 

Annual consumption (approx.) 700,000,000 lbs. 

Consumption per capita (approx.) 100 lbs. 

Quantity of sugar imported— average of years 1912-13-14 643,318,862 lbs. 

Value of sugar imported — average of years 1912-13-14 $16,051,436 

Note. — Canadian imports of cane sugar come chiefly from the West Indies, includ- 
ing San Domingo, Cuba and the British West Indies; also from British Guiana, Fiji 
and Peru. San Domingo, the coloured republic, figures largely, while importations 
from Fiji and Peru are quite important. 

1914 1915 

Number of beet sugar factories operating in Canada (Berlin and 

Wallaceburg, Ont.) 2 2 

Area of sugar beets (acres) 13,000 17,000 

Production of beets (tons) 150.188 

Production of refined sugar (lbs.) 29,000,000 37,000,000 

Number of growers 4,000 

Amount paid growers $873,150 

Average production per acre (tons) 9 

Amount received per ton $5 . 82 

Average received per acre $52 . 00 

United States Beet Sugar in 1915 

Area of beets harvested 624,000 acres 

Production of beets (approx.) 6,462,000 short tons 

Production of refined sugar 862,800 short tons 

Note — The crop of 1915 was the largest ever harvested. 



FROM SUGAR BEET TO WHITE GRANULATED SUGAR 

DR. MICHAEL POTVLIET, Sugar Expert from Holland. 

The history of the sugar beet goes back as far as 1747, when Marggraff tested for 
the first time the wild growing beets from Southern Germany and Northern Italy. 
The percentage of sugar found in the pressed beet juice amounted to from 2 to 4 per 
cent. It took Marggraff many years to improve the quality of the beets by proper 
selection and at the end of the 18th Century the sugar content was as high as 10%. 

Continuing the work of his teacher, Achard in 1801 started to operate the first 
sugar factory in Kunern, Schlesien, Germany. Every one acquainted with the technical 
side of beet sugar manufacturing can understand the tremendous difficulties Achard 
had to fight. The way to sugar manufacturing was open, however, and it took a 
genius, like Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor of France, to continue and improve the success 
of his German neighbour. 

133 



In 1803 England declared war on France and blockaded the coast of the French 
Empire so thoroughly that France could not import any more sugar from her colonies. 
Napoleon saw the necessity of home production, and, therefore, induced the French 
Government to pay large premiums to the farmers and manufacturers, in order to improve 
and help this new industry. Since then the sugar content in the beets as well as the 
method of purifying the beet juices in the beet factories improved very rapidly. Sugar 
beets with from 15% to 20% sugar, are very common now, and even as high as 25% to 
28% sugar in Calif ornian beets is a yearly recurring fact. 

The yield of a beet crop differs according to climatical conditions, and the work 
done in the field. The average for California is 12 tons; Colorado, 11 tons, and for 
Michigan and Canada 10 tons per acre. As a rule, the more work that is done in the 
beet field, and with the proper quality of beet seed, the higher the yield. Even in 
Canada, yields of 18 tons to the acre are not uncommon. 

The beet seed proposition is a very important one, especially now during the 
war. Before the war the price was about $10.00 per 100 lbs.; if you are able to buy it at 
present for $25.00 and higher, you are lucky. Home-grown beet seed is still very scarce. 
In Utah, U.S.A., experiments are being made to raise beet seed on a large scale, and 
apparently with some success. The Dominion Sugar Company is experimenting in 
this line in the vicinity of Berlin, Ont., and last year was able to raise quite a number 
of bags of good quality beet seed. 

Growing beet seed is rather expensive to start with. Planted with imported beet 
seed for the first year, the grown beets are very carefully tested, and the beets with the 
highest sugar selected and separated. After being siloed, these selected beets, stecklings, 
are planted out in the second year. The seed raised from these mother beets in the 
second year, is planted out again, the harvested beets are selected and, after siloing 
again, planted, etc. The seed crop in the fourth year will net about 1,200 lbs. per acre. 
During the following selection special care is taken not only as to the amount of sugar 
but also as to the weight of the root. A factory slicing the beets from 8,000 acres would 
require 100 acres planted for beet seed. This would mean that if the Dominion Sugar 
Company was going to raise the amount of beet seed necessary for its three factories, 
(225 tons) 375 acres planted with stecklings would be required. Considering the 
yearly rotation of crops, from 2,000 to 2,400 acres would be necessary. If the war 
continues for another year or so, something will have to be done or the sugar industry 
will be seriously affected. 

As to beet sugar vs. cane sugar: there is no difference between a good quality beet 
sugar and a good quality cane sugar. There is no difference of taste, odor or from any 
other physical, chemical or technical standpoint, between the two kinds of sugar. 
The discussion of this question in 1907 led the Agricultural Experimental Station of the 
University of California to a very interesting experiment. About 2,000 cans containing 
different kinds of fruit were preserved, half of them with refined cane sugar and half of 
them with beet sugar. After being stored in a rather unfavourable location for two 
years the cans were opened. Seven of the cans from the cane sugar lot and six of the 
cans from the beet sugar lot were spoiled, in all probability due to imperfect sealing. 
The quality of the fruit in the remaining cans was perfect; not the slightest difference 
could be noticed in the fruit or in the preserving syrup. This proves, in my opinion, 
that any argument against the use of beet sugar cannot be taken as serious. 



SUGAR, A CANADIAN PRODUCT 

C. H. HOUSON, Wallaceburg, Ont m Secretary, Dominion Sugar Co. 

The use of the sugar beet for the production of sugar has during the past 100 years, 
but more especially during the past 50 years, developed in Europe to such an extent 
that it is now one of the most important economic factors, employing a large percentage 
of the population of the European countries. 

134 



Each of the following European countries produces all the sugar that its people 
consume, and previous to the war, all but four of these countries were exporters of 
sugar, viz.: — Germany, Russia, Italy, Denmark, Austria, Holland, Norway, Rumania, 
France, Spain, Sweden, Bulgaria, Serbia. There are over 1,500 sugar refineries located 
in the above countries, which, before the war, exported over 2,500,000 tons of sugar. 

In Canada and the United States the industry has been making very favourable 
strides, and it is expected that in the coming year sufficient acreage will be sown to 
beets in the United States to insure a beet root crop sufficient to produce 1,000,000 
tons of refined sugar. The above figures we are sure could easily have been reached in 
the season just ended had tariff matters been settled earlier in the United States. How- 
ever, a decision favourable to the beet sugar industry has been made public since, and 
confidence is again restored. We therefore predict a very heavy increase of the beet 
sugar production in the United States for many years to come. 

For the year 1914 Canada cultivated 13,000 acres of sugar beets, and produced 
29,000,000 lbs. of refined sugar; for the year just ended we cultivated 17,000 acres of sugar 
beets and produced 37,000,000 lbs. of refined sugar, an increase of over 30 per cent. A 
much larger increase is anticipated for the coming year. With the large beet sugar 
refinery that is in the course of erection at Chatham, Ont., which alone will have 
sufficient capacity to take care of 15,000 acres of beets, it is expected that at least 
30,000 acres will be cultivated in Canada. This should indicate a production of at 
least 70,000,000 lbs. of the very finest quality of refined sugar that can be manufac- 
tured anywhere. 

The progress of the sugar beet industry, which in 100 years' time has outgrown 
the production of the cane sugar, is largely due to the following causes: — 

1st. Intelligent legislation for the home beet sugar industry. 

2nd. Scientific culture of the sugar beet, which has doubled the sugar content. 

3rd. The failure of science to perceptibly increase the sugar content of cane, or 
in other words, the sugar cane has a long time since reached the limit of its perfection. 

4th. The sugar beet, being a plant that grows in a moderate climate, that is in 
the most highly civilized portions of the world, has concentrated the efforts of the most 
scientific investigation and achievement which results in the agricultural improvement 
of the beet root, as well as in technical invention and scientific discovery, reducing the 
cost of its manufacture. 

Wherever the sugar beet has been grown in Canada, soils have become richer in 
fertility. There are several reasons for this; the two main causes are, that to success- 
fully produce sugar beets, the soil must not only be put in fine tilth, but must be culti- 
vated during a portion of the growing period, and this further work has nearly as much 
effect on the succeeding crop as it has on the beet crop. The second reason is that, as 
a rule, the roots of crops reach only as deep as the land is ploughed, the soil under- 
neath being hard and infertile. With the introduction of the beet, it is necessary to 
gradually prepare and plough the soil a little deeper, so that the aerated part of the soil 
gradually gets from the conventional six or seven inches, to from ten to twelve inches, 
thus gaining a soil that is well aerated and full of humus to a greater depth than here- 
tofore, and creating chance for the development of bacterial life, which seems, according 
to our latest researches, to be the indisputable medium for healthy and thrifty plant 
growth. The changes thus created in the soil are also the main reasons why the sugar 
beet as a rotative crop has so greatly increased the production of other soil crops per 
acre. 

The best teacher in the world is Experience, and since we have now grown sugar 
beets in Canada for the past fourteen years on a commercial basis, most growers are 
familiar with the routine work which the cultivation of the crop demands. Each spring 
the Dominion Sugar Company circularizes all growers, giving them full instructions as 
to the proper cultivation of the crop, and most of the old growers are just as familiar 
with methods as we are, and work jointly with us to obtain the highest results the sugar 
beet can give, both in a direct financial way and also as a soil improver. 

135 



The most important feature of the beet sugar industry in Canada to-day is the 
fact that we are absolutely independent of foreign countries, as it has been demonstrated 
that the seed can be grown in Canada to equal advantage. 

The production of seed is of necessity an essential part of the industry, and the 
growing of it demands extraordinary care. A large amount of work and scientific 
study of the root is necessary. The Dominion Sugar Company has a seed farm located 
in Western Ontario, and has been experimenting with the growing of sugar beet 
seed for the past five years, with very fair success. The results obtained from the home 
grown seed have been quite as satisfactory as those obtained from the imported seed. 
The cost, which is practically all attributable to labour, has been greater owing to the 
fact that we have a much higher wage scale here than in Germany. 

Canadian consumers are now alive to the "Made in Canada" spirit, and as the 
refined sugar from beets is made every bit in Canada, direct from the soil, there is no 
good reason why it should not have the preference in all Canadian homes. We are glad 
to be able to state that it is securing the preference. 

Refined sugars, whether they are manufactured from the beet or the cane, are 
identical. Sugar is sugar no matter from whence it is derived, provided it is manu- 
i a ~tured properly. No chemist in the world can detect the difference — therefore, our 
own home-made Canadian sugar is equal to any that the world produces. 

Note by Editor — The Dominion Sugar Co. has two factories or refineries; one at 
Waliaceburg, Kent County, and the other at Berlin, Waterloo Co. A third is being 
erected at Chatham. It is worthy of note that this company, which was the only 
company handling Canadian-grown sugar in 1915, paid the Ontario farmers last year 
$75,000 as bonus over and above contract agreements. 



SUGAR PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION 

The following table, prepared by William J. Showalter, assistant editor of the 
National Geographic Magazine, shows' the production, exportation, importation, and 
total and per capita consumption of sugar in the leading countries of the world. 

Per Capita 
Total Con- 
Country Production Exports Imports Consumption sumption 
(Pounds) (Pounds) (Pounds) (Pounds) (Pounds) 

Canada 26,880,000 651,000,000 677,880,000 94.1 

United Kingdom 3,693,000,000 3,693,000,000 80.8 

France 1,904,000,000 373,000,000 672,000,000 2,203,000,000 55.8 

Germany 5,945,000,000 953,000,000 4,992,000,000 76. 9 

Denmark 298,000,000 31,000,000 329,000,000 118.7 

Norway 99,000,000 99,000,000 43.0 

Sweden 291,300,000 291,300,000 53.3 

Russia 2,687,000,000 830,000,000 1,857,000,000 10.9 

Austria-Hungary 4,185,000,000 1,540,000,000 2,645,000,000 52.9 

Italy 470,500,000 16,000,000 486,500,000 13.8 

Turkey 445,000,000 445,000,000 20.9 

Japan (including 

Formosa)... 313,500,000 303,000,000 616,500,000 2.03 

Spain 291,200,000 291,200,000 14.9 

Argentina 324,500,000 67,000,000 391,500,000 43.5 

Brazil 456,500,000 10,000,000 446,500,000 18.6 

United States... 3,764,202,826 66,569,033 4,536,843,342 8,234,477,235 85.04 

Australia 445,600,000 220,000,000 665,600,000 151 . 1 

136 



HONEY PRODUCTION 

F. W. L. SLADEN, Apiarist, Dominion Experimental Farms 

The statistics of honey production on farms during the year 1910, given in the 
Fifth Census of Canada, amount to 713,250 pounds for the whole of Canada. Following 
is the production in pounds by provinces: 

Ontario, 516,658; Quebec, 169,507; Manitoba, 8,958; British Columbia, 6,460; 
New Brunswick, 6,004; Nova Scotia, 3,857; Alberta, 931; Saskatchewan, 520; Prince 
Edward Island, 355. 

These figures, however, are much below the actual production of honey in Canada, 
and this in turn is only a small fraction of what could be produced. Honey in paying 
quantities may be obtained over the greater part of this vast country, and thousands 
of tons are going to waste annually for want of bees to gather them. 

With the reduction in the young manhood of the country during the war, our 
occupations should be productive and profitable in the highest degree. Bee-keeping is 
such an occupation if the bees are well managed, and are kept in a place where, within 
one or two miles of the apiary, the principal honey producing plants are plentiful. 
Chief among these, in the farming sections, are white Dutch clover and alsike clover, 
and, in the timber lands, willow herb or fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium), which 
often springs up in abundance after forest fires. The honey from alsike and white 
clover, and also that from fireweed, is of the best quality, being light in colour and mild 
in flavour. Such honey is worth from 10 to 113^ cents per pound wholesale in Ontario. 
As the outlay and working expenses in bee-keeping are small, it pays well to obtain 
eighty pounds or so of honey per colony in an average season. This amount can be 
obtained from clover and other sources in most farming sections in Eastern Canada 
with proper management of the bees, and places may be selected where 100 pounds or 
more can be got. The expert apiarist needs to examine his bees only once a week 
during the active season, and can thus easily keep as many as 200 colonies without 
help. Bee-keeping, however, is an occupation that has to be learned. 

Many bee-keepers are not giving their bees proper attention, and the adoption of 
progressive and systematic methods by all would enormously increase the output of 
honey and add considerably to the wealth of the country. A somewhat careful estimate 
of the number of bee-keepers in Ontario has been made by Mr. Morley Pettit, Provincial 
Apiarist, and he considers that there are about 10,000 in this province alone. Those 
bee-keepers who are succeeding would find it highly profitable to increase their stock 
by breeding or purchasing bees, especially queens, and, if the neighbourhood of the 
home apiary is already well stocked, to establish an out-apiary in a place not less than 
two or three miles from the home apiary where the above-mentioned plants are plentiful. 

Weather, especially during the period of honey flow, very largely affects the yield 
of honey, as it also does most farm crops. In a season that is very wet or cold, or very 
dry, the honey crop may be a failure, but such years are rare, especially in the interior 
of Canada. In a good year heavy yields may be got in favourable localities by experi- 
enced men. Taking one year with another, in a favourable locality as large an annual 
income may be obtained from bee-keeping as from any branch of farming. For keeping 
an apiary, it is not necessary to occupy more than an acre or so of land, and half an 
acre often proves sufficient. 

It is usually more profitable to produce extracted-honey than comb-honey, because 
about double the amount of honey is thus obtained and less skill is required, and the 
demand for comb-honey, which is a luxury, is limited. Under present conditions the 
advantages of extracted-honey production over comb-honey production are becoming 
greater. A popular retail package for extracted-honey is the tin pail in sizes holding 
2Yi pounds, 5 pounds and 10 pounds of honey. Economical considerations should 
tend to develop the demand for this package at the expense of the various styles of 
glass jars which, though they show the honey well, hold less and cost more for the 

137 



receptacle in proportion to the value of the honey it contains. It cannot be too widely 
known that honey can be kept without deterioration for months, or from year to year 
if necessary, if stored in a dry place. The producer is, therefore, not compelled to 
part with his crop immediately, as in the case of perishable produce. 

Prices for honey in Canada are as high as, or higher than, in nearly all countries 
that take Canadian produce; consequently, practically no Canadian honey is exported. 
It may here be remarked, however, that the members of the Ontario Bee-keepers' 
Association have generously presented to our soldiers in France a considerable quantity 
of Canadian honey which has been highly appreciated. Honey has also been supplied 
by the Germans to their troops in the field, and, being a valuable fuel-food which is 
much relished, it makes a very satisfactory ration. 

To keep up and improve the home demand for honey in competition with imported 
and inferior sweets, such as cheap molasses and corn syrup, it is essential that the 
supply should be large and increasing so that Canadian honey may be extensively 
displayed for sale, causing its superior merits to be more widely known. At present 
the greater part of the season's supply is sold soon after the crop is harvested, but it 
might well be produced in larger quantities, so that it could be displayed in the stores 
in quantity and sold steadily until spring. The industry cannot be said to be well 
developed until not only this has been done, but an export trade has been established. 
Extensive producers of honey sometimes deprecate attempts to increase the number 
of bee-keepers in Canada for fear of over-production, but the lack of foundation for 
this fear is shown by the fact that they usually sell their honey quickly at a satisfactory 
price. Over-stocking a neighbourhood with bees has occurred in a few instances, but 
apiaries are unevenly distributed, and for one over-stocked neighbourhood there are 
thousands of first-rate locations that are without bees. 

The price of honey in 1915 has averaged a little lower than in 1914. This drop in 
price has been brought about more by sympathy with the lowered American market 
and the reduced buying power of the people than by an abundant supply, the crop 
having been about an average one in the chief producing centres. However, the prices 
are very firm, the good grain harvest in the west having helped to steady them. The 
slight fall from the high price of 1914 is not discouraging, and will have its influence in 
making Canadian honey more of a staple. 

Bee-keeping is a very healthful occupation, involving outdoor exercise in fine and 
warm weather only — most of it in no sense laborious. Soldiers returning home in 
broken health or partially disabled will find it a restorative and profitable vocation, 
but those who have no knowledge of the business should not embark on it extensively 
until experience has been gained. After the war many who formerly spent their lives 
in offices or stores, having learned the benefits of fresh air, will respond to the cry of 
"back to the land" and, doubtless, some will take up bee-keeping. 



THE MAPLE SUGAR INDUSTRY 

JOS. H. LEFEBVRE, Waterloo, Que., Secy., Maple Sugar and Syrup Association 

The maple sugar and syrup industry of Canada has shown a marked falling off in 
production during the last twenty years. This was due to several causes, but chiefly to 
the variability in the quality of the product, the difficulty in obtaining a pure unadulter- 
ated article, and the lack of organization for marketing the output. The low prices 
realized led, in some cases, to the cutting down of groves and the abandonment of the 
industry. 

The Province of Quebec makes a specialty of this industry. The output of that 
province in 1910, according to the Census, was 9,427,694 pounds of sugar and 984,282 
gallons of syrup, valued at $1,680,000; while the Ontario output was valued at $831,480. 

138 



The first steps looking towards improvement in conditions in Quebec were taken 
in 1913, with the organization of the Maple Sugar and Syrup Co-operative Association 
of Waterloo, Quebec. This was followed by a Dominion Act to prevent the adulter- 
ation of maple sugar and syrup or the marketing of any substitute therefor under the 
term "maple." 

It was estimated that not more than fifteen per cent, of the producers were good 
sugar makers. To instruct growers in improved methods of manufacture, four sugar- 
making schools were opened on farms in different parts of Quebec. At these schools 
anyone desiring to learn the art of making fine maple goods may obtain free instruction. 
These schools, while under the direction of the provincial agricultural department, are 
financed through federal grants provided under the Agricultural Instruction Act, and 
information as to their work will be found in the report on this Act issued by the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, Ottawa. 

The Association referred to has made arrangements for the marketing of its products 
and those of other similar organizations in the Province, by the Quebec Cheese-Makers' 
Co-operative Association of Montreal. These efforts are expected to result in improved 
quality, greater profit to the farmers and an increased output, so far as Quebec is 
concerned. Doubtless similar action in Ontario and the Maritime Provinces would 
lead to similar results. For such action the time would appear to be opportune. Not 
only is the home market capable of great development, but the removal of the United 
States duty should lead to a greatly increased export demand. 



PROSPECTS OF THE MAPLE INDUSTRY 

The outlook for the maple syrup and sugar market was never brighter than this 
year. Last season's harvest was so small that 1 the stock has been completely cleared 
out. High prices have prevailed and are practically certain to continue this year, 
however great the production. The United States duty on syrup and sugar is to come 
off on May 1st, thus opening to our makers the greatest market in the world for their 
products. The demand from England and France during the past year was considerable. 

— "The Journal of Agriculture." 

SUGAR FOR SOLDIERS 

"The chief pride of the Italian Bersaglieri is their marching powers. During the 
war between Russia and Japan the distances covered by the infantry of the latter 
Power were regarded as almost incredible, and it was asserted in several quarters that 
no European troops could vie with them in powers of endurance. The Italian Light 
Infantry accepted the implied challenge, and speedily showed that not only could they 
cover the same amount of ground with comparative ease, but that they could go one 
better and yet finish fresh. They give rather a curious explanation of their powers — 
that when the men are marching they are supplied with a large amount of ordinary 
loaf sugar, which sustains them better than anything else could do, and at the same 
time does not need a halt to be called for them to consume it. During the manoeuvres 
of the French army some four or five years ago the commanding officer of one of the foot 
regiments decided to carry out a similar experience with his men, and received the 
necessary permission from his superiors. He had them paraded early one morning, 
served them with a substantial ration of sugar, not a little to their surprise, and sent 
them off on their way. The result was extraordinary. Examination showed that they 
had covered a greater distance, with fewer mishaps, than had previously been accom- 
plished in the same time by any French troops on the march. Therefore sugar now 
forms a very important part of the dietary of the French army. 

— "Manchester Guardian." 

139 



THE FLAX SHORTAGE 

JAMES A. McCRACKEN, Secretary, The Canadian Flax Growers' Assn., 

St. Mary's, Ont. 

A call for flax straw in baled form has come from Belfast and Dundee flax-spinning 
companies. They have actually tried to buy great quantities of green flax straw in 
Ontario with the intention of transporting it across the Atlantic and extracting the 
fibre. For every ten tons of such straw they would get only about one ton of usable 
fibre. The cost of transportation alone would amount to several times the normal 
price of the fibre. 

We do not export wheat in the sheaf, why should we export flax straw in bulk? 

The flax stringency, which arises chiefly from the fact that Russia's flax production 
is reduced by 40% and Belgium flax cannot be had, is aggravated by the high rates of 
transport. The second factor is little less potent than the first in creating a demand for 
more flax. 

As a result of the shortage Irish flaxes have risen in price to between $700 and $850 
a ton, and Canadian fibre to about $450 a ton — these figures being double those obtaining 
in pre-war times. Though all grades of flax are eagerly picked up, the most crying need 
is for the finer grades, largely because the ability to substitute jute and hemp for flax 
decreases as the spinning material advances in quality and purpose. 

Need of more Exports — Though the Empire in this hour can do without flax 
better than without bread, we face the fact that there are several nations (e.g. Argentina 
and the United States) outside the zone of warfare which are ready and able to increase 
the production of wheat, while there is none, except Canada and Japan (both in a limited 
degree), ready to increase the supply of flax fibre for spinning. Neither Canada nor 
Japan, it may be stated, ordinarily exports enough flax fibre to be placed in international 
trade statistics. 

Canada can do a good deal more in this direction than she is doing. The urgency 
grows stronger when we appreciate that every acre of flax devoted to fibre purposes 
means from $75 to $100 in exports. Whatever flax we export gees mainly to the New 
England mills and to Ireland, thereby assisting in restoring our trade balance and 
relieving, directly or indirectly, the needs of the hour. 

Cultural Practices in Canada — Wherever the usual Canadian practice of farming 
is followed, it is customary for the flax grower to work in co-operation with a flax mill. 
About 25 of these mills (several reopened) are now bargaining for land rentals in 
S.W. Ontario. It is usual for the millman to rent fields from the farmers in the district at 
from $10 to $14 an acre. The farmer tills the land, and in some cases hauls in the 
crop. The farmer undertakes the tasks of sowing, weeding and harvesting. Though 
the custom hitherto has been to restrict rentals to distances within team-haul of the 
mill, there is a growing tendency for mill men to buy flax or rent land at points upwards 
of fifty miles, and transport the flax in baled form by rail to the central mill. For such 
straw delivered at a siding, from $13 to $15 a ton, seed on, is paid. 

Various considerations, purely agricultural, sometimes make flax the best crop a 
farmer can sow. Some of these factors are: 

1. The presence of wire worm- (Flax immune to the pest.) 

2. Excessively rich soil. (Too rank for grain.) 

3. Unevenness of soil surface. (New breaking stump-strewn.) 

4. Shortage of labour. (Indians or other outsiders harvest the crop.) 

5. The need of a longer rotation. 

6. Need of early cash returns. 

How to Cultivate — In Southern Canada flax does well on fertile loams and clays 
when deep-ploughed, underdrained and well pulverized. The seed is sowrt broadcast 
by hand or with a flax drill, usually at the rate of 84 lbs. of (90% germinating) seed to 

140 



the acre. Blue Blossom Dutch Child or White Blossom Dutch Child gives the best 
results. White Blossom yields several bushels more seed, grows several inches longer 
and matures about two weeks later than Blue Blossom. Pulling takes place when 
for about 6 inches up from the root the stem leaves have withered away. The 
importance of timely harvesting is so great and this year's outlook for harvesting help 
so uncertain that Canadian flax growers are keyed to the need of a pulling machine. 
Some sort of contest, in which half a dozen makes of machines are likely to compete, 
will probably be arranged for this harvest time. The most satisfactory machine yet 
produced pulls and binds about 4 acres of flax a day, thus doing the work of a dozen 
men. Other alternatives in times of labour shortage are the common mower and self- 
binder. 

The Fibre of Seed Flax — To turn to account in the fibre market the vast quanti- 
ties of seed flax straw produced in the Western provinces, the methods of cultivation 
need to be changed. Heavier sowing than the customary half-bushel per acre would 
improve the quality of the straw, and probably yield more seed as well. A sowing at 
the rate of from 40 lbs. to 50 lbs. per acre, especially on new lands, is suggested if growers 
aim to dispose of the fibre. Earlier harvesting, closer shoring, and more careful thresh- 
ing of such flax would be required to make the fibre at all suitable for coarse yarns. 
Elaborate attempts to use the ordinary straw for making satisfactory binder twine 
have so far failed, in a commercial sense. The fault seems to have been in poor straw. 
Linen rugs, however, are being successfully made from the better grades of flax straw 
obtained from seed flax in the North-western States, and great quantities of such 
straw go to tow mills and insulation-board factories in those States. 

The chief obstacle to using our Western flax straw in the present emergency lies in 
its distance from available textile markets. Without radical departures in cultivation 
and handling, cheaper transportation, and large plants for preparing the flax, it does 
not seem feasible for us to place Western flax straw or its fibre on the European market. 

Over 30,000,000 bushels of flax seed are consumed in North American oil mills 
annually in the manufacture of linseed oil, oil cake, etc. The demand is increasing. 
During 1915, 13,000,000 bushels of seed were imported from Argentina, and the price 
in Winnipeg went to two dollars a bushel. 

Statistics 

Fibre acreage in Ontario — 1913 — 2, 500 acres 

1914— 1,400 acres 

1915 — 4,000 acres 

1916— 5,500 acres (estimated) 
Fibre production in Russia — 1913 — 600,000 tons 

1914—324,000 tons 

1915— 487,000 tons 

Average annual export of fibre from Russia (1911-1913)— 288,133 tons 
Fibre available for export from Russia (1915) — 140,000 tons 



PRODUCTION OF FLAX IN ONTARIO 

According to information furnished by Mr. James A. McCracken, Secretary, 
Canadian Flax Growers, the area under flax grown for fibre in southern Ontario 
during 1915 was about 4,000 acres. From this area the production of flax fibre 
was about 800 tons, which at the average price of approximately 20 cents per 
lb., or $400 per ton, was of the total value of $320,000. In addition, 80 tons of tow at 
$35 per ton realised $2,800. The same crop also produced seed at the average rate of 
nearly 12 bushels per acre, or a total yield of 48,000 bushels, the value of which at the 

141 



average rate of $1.60 per bushel, was $76,800. About 30 per cent, of the total pro- 
duction of fibre is shipped to Ireland, the rest being exported to New England States. 

Under the straight rental system, the farmer always performs the cultivation, 
and in some cases hauls in the crop when harvested. The mill operator arranges 
for the seeding, weeding and harvesting. The mills manufacture the retted straw into 
flax fibre ready for the hackles of the spinner. Retting in Canada has heretofore been 
done almost exclusively by the dew retting or meadow system. 

"I look to see a large increase in the acreage of flax as well as sugar beets and beans. 
Flax is no harder on the land than an ordinary grain crop, but it must be used in rotation, 
the same as any other crop." 

— Prof. C. A. Zavitz. 



Flax Investigations in Great Britain 

The British Flax and Hemp Growers' Society, Ltd., has just published its first 
report. This society was formed to administer a grant from the development fund for 
the purpose of conducting experiments in the cultivation and separation of flax and hemp 
in order to ascertain the commercial possibilities of these industries in Great Britain. 

A hopeful view is taken of the prospects of the enterprise, more particularly in 
view of the great prominence which the products of flax and hemp have received as a 
result of the war. 



Bulletin No. 669 of the United States Department of Agriculture, entitled "Fibre 
Flax," by F. C. Miles, was reprinted in No. 12, Vol. 5, of the Bulletin of Foreign Agri- 
cultural Intelligence, issued by the Department of Agriculture, Ottawa. 



FLAXSEED OR LINSEED 

Linseed, the seed of the flax plant, yields a drying oil which is used in the manu- 
facture of paints, varnishes and linoleum. 

The following table shows the source of the imports of linseed to the United King- 
dom in 1913 and 1914: 

1913 1914 

From Quarters Quarters 

India 682,948 1,108,430 

Canada 1,277,673 113,372 

Other British 413 367 

Total British 1,961,034 1,222,169 

Argentina 1,126,866 1,027,617 

Russia 99,247 114,278 

United States 42,936 12,339 

China 7,709 5,404 

Netherlands 13,587 14,285 

Germany 9,652 616 

Belgium „ . . . . 5,325 11,750 

Morocco 1,538 17,424 

Other Foreign 6,168 25,896 

Total 3,274,062 2,451,778 

142 



IMPORTS 



AND EXPORTS OF 

Imports 

Year 

1914 



Year 
1913 



Bushels Bushels 



Countries 1st 10 

Months 

1915 
Bushels 
Great Britain and 

Ireland 13,521,000 18,213,000 24,321,000 

United States 11,688,000 9,247,000 6,580,000 

Canada 77,000 5,000 



FLAXSEED 

Exports 

Year 

1914 



1st 10 
Months 

1915 
Bushels 



Year 
1913 





5,000 

1,322,000 



Bushels Bushels 





24,000 




283,000 



7,953,000 22,949,000 



The quantity of oil obtained from a bushel of flax seed varies from 14 to 19 lbs., 
according to the quality and cleanness of the seed. 



For the year ending March 31, 1914, Canada imported 293,512 lbs. of Linseed Oil, 
valued at $25,705. 

Germany needs Fats 

Germany could not exist without fats; no country can, least of all a country at 
war. Glycerine is derived from fats, and explosives largely from glycerine. 

British gentlemanliness has been permitting tremendous quantities of fat to enter 
Germany by the smugglers way from neutral countries, and even from our own Empire! 
"That must not happen again!" says Mr. E. S. Grew writing in the London Graphic. 
"Several other kinds of supplies which have been carried in British ships, and have 
leaked through neutral countries to Germany, will also not happen again. For the whole 
range of vegetable fats grow outside Germany, and for the most part must cross the 
North Sea to get to her. Apart from tallow and a small quantity of linseed, Germany 
produces no other fat. Imagine, then, with what greed she ponders on the oils and 
fats which come from the colonies she has lost and by the ocean highways from which 
her ships are shut off. Cocoanut, or copra, cocoanut oil, palm oil, palm-kernel oil (a 
rising Germany industry that was), other oleaginous seeds and kernels, linseed oil, soya 
bean (for cattle food and oil), olive oil, sesame seed and moura seed — here are riches 
which, properly prized, would yield Germany all the fats she wants. From linseed oil 
can be obtained glycerine, and from glycerine can be got nitroglycerine, food for the 
guns as well as for the men behind them. Lard, too, will give glycerine, though we 
cannot imagine that Germany's fat-hunger would yield this precious stuff even for 
that purpose. She wants fat to eat; and that is the real reason why the linseed oil, 
the oil seed, the oleaginous nuts and kernels, the cocoa-nut oil and the cotton-seed 
oil — all of which left this country in double, or even treble, the normal quantity during 
the first year of war — must be decisively shut off from Germany and put out of her 
reach." 

Copra, dried cocoanut kernel, is rich in glycerine and fats, and makes a food for 
mortals, and in its waste-products a ration for pigs. Germany has still 20,000,000 pigs 
left out of her usual 50,000,000. —From "Montreal Herald." 



FRUIT PRODUCTION DURING THE WAR 

F. H. GRINDLEY, Fruits Branch, Dept. of Agriculture, Ottawa. 

After eighteen months of war in which men and money have been almost incal- 
culably sacrificed, in which homes have been destroyed and the wheels of commerce and 

143 



industry put to the most supreme tests, we cannot yet see the end nor predict its dur- 
ation. We only know that Great Britain and her Allies are steadfast in their determ- 
ination to continue the sacrifice, to fight to a successful end regardless of the cost. 
Under such conditions what message can we give to the fruit producers that will be 
helpful to them? Only one, and that one seems both timely and necessary. Do not 
be disheartened. Do not abandon the methods you have adopted during a progressive 
decade in the belief that so long as the war continues there is little likelihood that any 
demand will exist for your product. 

Has there in the past season been any indication of a falling off in the demand, for 
strictly high class fruit? We think not. But there has been a falling off in the quality 
of fruit which Canadian growers have put upon the home and British markets. 

We in the Fruit Branch are not directly concerned with production, but in our 
endeavour to develop the commerical end of the fruit industry, we must have the support 
and co-operation of the growers; and so we feel it necessary to assure them that we believe 
the demand for strictly high class fruit will continue and not be affected by the Empire's 
struggle. 

What has caused the falling off in the quality of Canadian fruit? Simply the fact 
that many growers have abandoned the thorough care of their orchards pending the 
arrival of what they believe will be more prosperous times. Efficient cultivation and 
careful spraying have not been as consistently carried on during the past year as formerly. 
The result is that in the season now closing at least 75% of the apple crop was too 
seriously affected with scab to grade No. 1, and No. 3 fruit has been a drug upon the 
market. 

It must be apparent that if our work in this Branch is to meet with the success we 
hope for, if methods of distribution and marketing are to be perfected, then the quality 
of the fruit must also approach perfection — and quality rests with the growers. 

Quite apart from that, however, it seems obvious that any grower who hopes to 
economize temporarily by allowing his spraying machines and orchard implements to 
be idle, will be the ultimate loser, for when times become more prosperous and he 
considers it safe to again adopt the methods he has neglected, he will have to combat 
the accumulated strength of insects and fungus diseases, and it will probably be 
years before his orchard will be again free of these pests. 

Reports from our Canadian markets during the past few months, and from the 
markets of Great Britain, show that prices for No. 1 fruit of all varieties have been 
excellent. There has, however, been so much fruit of poor quality placed before the 
public that, in some cases, it had to be withdrawn on account of the poor prices offered. 

There is no reason why the Canadian growers should not produce fruit equal in 
quality to that grown in any part of the world. That has already been proven at the 
Panama Pacific International Exhibition now closing at San Francisco. From all 
sources comes the undeniable report that the Canadian fruit exhibit not only equalled 
but surpassed that from any other section. 

And so we send this message to the growers, not as a complaint but because it is 
timely advice. We realize that it does not apply to all growers. There are many who 
have continued their thorough methods and realize now that they have done right. 
But we feel that if Canadian fruit growers will join hands in an effort to keep up the 
reputation which their product has heretofore gained for itself, they will have years of 
prosperity, with the added compensation of knowing that they are doing their share 
towards a common end — the sustenance of an Empire fighting for its existence. 



FRUIT LOSSES FROM INSECTS IN ONTARIO 

As a rule the great mass of people who have small orchards seldom get anything 
worth speaking of for their fruit. This is as much because they do not know how to 
sell it, even if it were clean, as because of insect injuries. Three years ago I passed 

144 



through the county of Oxford, when there were at least ten thousand barrels of good 
fruit lying on the ground. This was because the people did not know how to reach 
the markets with it, and there were no buyers sufficiently interested to think it worth 
while to purchase it. 

The great mass of our best fruit is put on the market by men who are spraying 
their orchards, cultivating and giving them the necessary care. In these orchards, 
in many cases, not more than 5 per cent, of the apples are injured by insects. I know 
of many an orchard in Ontario where the insect injury is not even 5 per cent. 

The probability is that in unsprayed orchards, taking the Province as a whole, 
50 per cent, of the fruit would be rendered culls by insects. There are, of course, a 
number of orchards that are sprayed and in which the insects are not at all satisfactorily 
controlled, because the owners do not know how to spray thoroughly and do not take 
the necessary pains to learn how. Such orchards might be classed among the unsprayed. 
Fruit is made unsaleable both by insects and by disease ; in fact, Apple Scab is 
probably a much greater foe to the apple grower than any of our insects, that is, taking 
the Province as a whole. — L. Caesar, in the "Canadian Horticulturist." 



BEANS 

J. O. LAIRD, Blenheim 

The fact that beans have been a good price for a number of years, and also that they 
are of very great food value, should encourage every person who can to grow as large a 
crop as possible this coming season. 

Beans have been most extensively grown in a loamy soil, but of late years it has 
been found that they will do well even on a fairly heavy clay soil, providing the land is 
well drained. The heavier land that is intended for beans should be fall ploughed, 
but land that is of a more loamy nature is as well not ploughed until spring. Sod land 
with a coating of ten or twelve loads of farmyard manure has been most frequently 
used for beans. The use of manure just before the bean crop may, however, continue 
or produce a disease, and, if so, some other system should be practised. 

Bean ground that has been fall ploughed should be kept in a fine state of tilth 
during April and May, in order to kill as many weeds as possible and to retain the soil 
moisture. If ploughed in the spring, the land should be rolled soon after ploughing, 
then disked and harrowed, and kept in good condition until planting. The seed should 
be even in size and free from disease. The amount used is from three pecks to one 
bushel per acre. The planting may take place between May 28 and June 15. The 
ground is usually rolled before planting, and the seed planted with the ordinary grain 
drill, letting only three tubes run on an eleven-tube drill, making the rows 28 inches 
apart. 

The Pea Bean is the standard variety and commands the most uniform price. 
There are a number of fancy varieties grown, such as the Yellow Eye, Turtle Soup, 
and Marrow Fat. 

Cultivation of the bean crop is, of course, very important. It is a good practice 
to harrow the beans before they are up. Beans germinate quickly and, under favourable 
conditions, will be up in four or five days. The weeder is often used before they are 
large enough to cultivate. Whether the weeder is used or not, the shields on the two 
horse cultivator should be raised just slightly off the ground, so that the earth will 
cover any small weeds near the plants. The beans shculd be cultivated about every 
ten days, or after each rain. When the blcssoir.s come out it is best to cease cultivation, 
as the cultivator will knock off a great many blossoms. If the cultivation has been 
thorough, n<)t much hand hoeing will be required. 

Beans are usually ripe the first or second week of September. A bean-pulling 
attachment can be placed on the two-horse cultivator which will cut two rows at once. 

145 



The knives are placed V-shaped, and so put two rows into one. After pulling they are 
bunched up by hand in some cases, but more frequently a side delivery rake is used. 
This will rake three or four rows into one. The beans are left to dry for a few days and 
then turned over, and after another day's drying they are usually ready to take into 
the barn. A great deal depends on the weather. If the weather is wet, the only way 
to save the crop is to turn them often, as care must be taken not to draw them in when 
damp. Each sling load should be mowed when it is put into the mow. It is a good 
plan to place a big pole across the mow, so that the sling load will drop on it and be 
broken up, thus making it much easier to mow away. 

As soon as the beans are harvested, it requires but a small amount of work to make 
the land ready for fall wheat. 

As a rule, the yield varies greatly, some yields being as high as 35 bushels an acre 
and others as low as 12 bushels. The threshing is not done with an ordinary threshing 
machine, but with a machine specially constructed, having two cylinders, a slow- 
moving one and one that runs quickly. The bean straw is very good feed for cattle or 
sheep, and should be kept in the barn if possible. 

Western market prices will not be influenced- this year by foreign beans, and for 
that reason we should produce a bumper crop. The world will need them. 

Prices of Beans at Blenheim, Ont. 
Each Month Since July, 1915 

1914 1915 1916 



January $2 . 50 

February 3.00 

March 3.10 

April 3.00 

May.... 2.75 

June 3.00 

July $1.70 3.00 

August 2.25 3.00 

September 2.75 3.00 

October 2.25 3.00 

November 2.25 3.00 

December 2.25 3.75 



$3.50 
3.50 



British Imports of Beans 

The import of beans (not fresh) other than haricot beans, to the United Kingdom 
in 1913 and 1914 were: 

From 1913 1914 

Cwt. Cwt. 

India 43,121 32,650 

New Zealand 15,880 4,650 

Other British 5,690 12,137 

Total British 64,691 49,437 

China 1,291,980 1,254,684 

Germany 49,450 19,750 

Russia 67,635 8,890 

Other Foreign 66,649 108,798 

Total 1,540,405 1,441,559 

146 



Beans as a Cash Crop 

The New Hampshire Department of Agronomy has sent out a leaflet calling 
attention to the possibility of adding field beans to the limited number of cash crops 
of that state. The reasons given are: 

Beans work into the rotation as a cultivated crop. 

They are legumes, and therefore do not exhaust the soil of its nitrogen. 

They will always sell for cash. 

They can be harvested, stored, and threshed out to be sold in winter when there 
is little profitable work to do on the farm. 

While beans will sometimes make a crop on pretty poor land, they will do better 
on good land. Where an old field is foul with twitch grass, the sod should be subdued 
and got rid of its weeds before planting it to beans. 

On soils that are rather infertile, an application of barnyard manure will help 
make the crop. If commercial fertilizers are used, most or all of the nitrogen may be 
left outt 

In a general way, beans will do well on soils that are not quite rich enough for a 
good crop of corn. They thrive well on sandy loams, loams, and clay loams. The 
straw is a better roughage than most hays. It is better than corn stover, but not quite 
as good as clover hay. Those who throw away bean straw or burn it are overlooking 
a good source of gains for live stock. 



SHORTAGE OF PEAS 

Wholesale houses report a scarcity of blue peas in the United Kingdom. The 
price of peas is advancing, and there does not appear to be any relief in sight. Some 
idea of the increase can be ascertained by comparing the quantities and values of 
imports during the first nine months of 1914 and 1915, respectively. Imports during 
the former period were 837,831 cwts., valued at £443,933, and during the latter period 
719,920 cwts., valued at £536,933, an advance of $1.04 per cwt. 

British imports are chiefly from the following sources: 

Peas (not fresh) other than split peas 1913-14 1914-15 

Russia £ 56,589 £ 62,904 

Germany 149,721 63,818 

Netherlands 145,804 55,711 

Japan (including Formosa and Japanese leased territories 

in China) 114,347 100,390 

British India 342,144 76,432 

Australia 2,898 18,087 

New Zealand 114,656 92,911 

Canada's contribution was valued at £5,932 in 1914 and at £7,599 in 1915. 



ONIONS 

By S. C. JOHNSTON, Vegetable Specialist, Ontario Dept. of Agriculture 

The onion ranks high in commercial importance among the vegetables grown 
in Ontario. Next to the potato it is the commonest vegetable in the home. Average 
prices afford excellent returns for the production of the crop, and, in spite of the fact 
that Ontario annually produces many thousands of bushels, the imports are very heavy. 
For this reason an increased production in this crop is warranted. 

147 



Soil — The onion is successfully grown in many soils, and a soil that is not originally 
conducive to its growth may readily be made productive by the application of manure. 
Sandy and sandy loam soils are excellent. Black mucks, properly handled, are probably 
the most favourable soils for onion growing in Ontario. The soil should be rich in 
vegetable matter, fairly level, well drained and as free as possible from stones. A 
soil of this nature will produce onions possessing large bulbs of excellent quality. 

Manuring and Fertilizing — Land to produce good crops of onions should be 
manured heavily, excepting in the case of black mucks. It is a good practice to apply 
well rotted manure, but this cannot always be secured handily. A sand or sandy 
loam soil should receive annual applications of from 35 to 50 tons of manure per acre. 
Black muck soils can be handled satisfactorily with the aid of commercial fertilizers 
One Consisting of 2% nitrogen, 8% phosphoric acid, 10% potash at rate of from 
500 lbs. to 1 ton per acre, supplemented with applications of nitrate of soda used as a top 
dressing, gives good results. Nitrate should be applied during the growing season at 
the rate of 150-200 lbs. per acre, spreading it between the rows. Applications should 
be made several weeks apart. 

In some cases, onions are grown on the same soil for many years in succession. 
Where this is practised, liming the soil once in three years is advisable. From 1,000 lbs. 
to a ton of lime should be applied to the acre either in spring or fall. This applies 
particularly to muck soils. 

Planting — In Ontario, onions are usually grown from seed. This seed should 
be of unquestionable quality and germinating value. Seed should be planted in rows 
12 to 15 inches apart. Sufficient seed should be used to produce 8 to 10 plants per foot. 
Extensive growers use from 43^ to 6 lbs. per acre, depending on quality of seed and 
soil. Seeds should be covered by half an inch of soil in fairly heavy soils and by one 
inch in light soils. It is imperative that the seed drill be accurately set to sow the 
seeds as directed. 

Cultivation — If onions are properly drilled in, thinning is unnecessary. Weeds 
should be kept down by constant cultivation by means of a wheel hoe. Hand weeding 
will be necessary at least once a season and oftener if the onion land is very weedy. 
This is an expensive operation, and the freer the soil is from weeds, the cheaper the cost 
of production. Commence cultivation as soon as the top can be seen. 

Harvesting — Maturity of the crop is indicated by a drying and falling over of 
the tops. The roots die off at the same time as the tops, and the onion should be 
pulled when the roots are almost entirely dead. If left in the soil after this period, 
the onion sends out fresh roots and also starts young growth of the stem inside the 
bulb, which causes considerable loss during storage. Onions are usually pulled by 
hand, four rows being laid in one windrow butt to butt. They should be allowed to 
dry for from three to six days in this position. After this, it is advisable to take them 
in slat boxes to a shed. Topping can commence at once, and this should be done by 
cutting off the top one inch from the bulb, using a sharp knife or a regular onion topping 
machine, which will handle many bushels per day. The latter machine is recommended 
where a large acreage is grown. 

The onions should then be placed in open slat boxes or on shelves in a building 
which allows free access of air on all sides. After two or three weeks of curing they 
are ready for market. 

Marketing — Ontario onions are marketed from Vancouver to Halifax. They 
are shipped in bags weighing 75 lbs. and holding one bushel and a half. Small quantities 
are handled on local markets. Grading is necessary. to command the top market 
price. Only by careful topping, grading and shipping will the onion grower build up 
a business that will net him satisfactory returns. Too often low prices are realized 
not because of over-production, but owing to immense quantities of inferior quality 
and grading being dumped on the market. 

148 



The following gives approximate yields and prices received at Leamington for 
last 5 years : 

Aver, price 
Yield per acre per 75 lb. 

sack. 

1914—300 sacks, 450 bushels 75c. 

1913—350 sacks, 520 bushels $1.25 

1912—400 sacks, 600 bushels 25c.-60c.* 

1911—300 sacks, 450 bushels 90c.-$1.50 

1910—375 sacks, 560 bushels ' 90c. 

*Market glutted by U.S. onions. 

Storing — Onions should not be stored for winter keeping in. bags or in bulk. 
They should be kept on shelves or in open slat boxes so that there will be plenty of 
space for air circulation. If placed on shelves, the layers should not be more than 10 
to 12 inches deep. The cellar of the home can be used satisfactorily if it is kept cool. 
When the crop is large, they should be stored in cool, dry, well ventilated buildings and 
the temperature should remain as close to freezing as possible. Freezing and thawing 
will cause the onion to rot. 

Cost of Production — One grower in the Leamington district produces a first 
class crop at less than $60 per acre, while for others the cost averages about $100 per 
acre. Much depends on the management of the crop and the machinery and buildings 
used for harvesting and storing. 

Varieties — From Seed: Southport Yellow Globe — rapidly becoming a favourite; 
good yielder and shipper. Danvers Yellow Globe — a standard variety, but inclined 
to break in shape; good yielder and shipper. Red Wethersfield — a standard flat red 
onion, grown particularly for French markets; excellent yielder and shipper. Red 
Globe — coming more into favour; good shipper. 

Sets — Yellow Strasburg — solid sets; good keepers. 



Small Pickling Onions 

Over $6,000,000 worth of onions are imported annually by the United Kingdom, 
among which are large quantities of small onions used by picklers. Consignments have 
arrived from Canada in past years, and sales could be considerably augmented if the 
smaller onions were selected for this market. The sizes in common demand range from 
one to two inches in diameter, and they are preferred, unpeeled, in bags containing 100 
pounds. 



TOBACCO CROP IN 1915 

In 1910 the total production of tobacco in Canada, as returned by the census of 
1911, was 17,632,342 lbs. from 18,928 acres. Since this date no definite statistics of 
the area and yield of tobacco in Canada have been published. The following figures of 
the acreage and yield of tobacco in Quebec and Ontario in 1913, 1914 and 1915 are 
rough estimates put forth under all reserve. 

Provinces 1913 1914 1915 1913 1914 1915 

acres acres acres lb. lb. lb. 

Quebec 5,000 4,750 4,500 4,500,000 5,000,000 4,050,000 

Ontario 6,000 5,000 4,500 8,000,000 6,000,000 4,950,000 

Total 11,000 9,750 9,000 12,500,000 11,000,000 9,000,000 

149 



DRIED VEGETABLES 

One line to which special attention was given last year was the encouragement of 
increased production of vegetables, mainly for home use. This resulted in the pro- 
duction of very large quantities on vacant lots in towns and cities, which, of course, 
materially assisted in domestic consumption. 

Apart from this, extra efforts were made in some of the provinces for increased 
field production of vegetables. In Ontario, through unfavourable weather, a shortage 
occurred, particularly in potatoes. In Alberta, but especially in British Columbia, 
enormous quantities of vegetables were available in the fall of 1915. Just when the 
growers were somewhat perplexed as to the disposal of the same, contracts for dried 
vegetables were placed by the British and French War Departments with the Graham 
Company, Limited, of Belleville, Ont. These orders amounted to over ten million 
pounds, in fact the contracts were and are limited only to the possibilities of production. 
The result is that this company has handled the big surplus of British Columbia, and 
has even drawn large supplies from the adjoining Western States and also from New 
York State. 

The following table shows the reduction of the vegetables, which are dried separately 
and then mixed. 

Fresh Dried 

Potatoes 200 lbs. 32 lbs. 

Turnips 200 " 22 « 

Carrots 200 " 24 « 

Cabbage 150 " 10^ " 

Onions 100 " 6 " 

Celery y 50 " 33^ " 

900 lbs. 98 lbs. 
Peameal 2 * 



100 lbs. 



The above indicates that 900 lbs. of vegetables are dried to 98, to which is added 
a small quantity of peameal. This dried mixture is shipped to Belleville, Ontario, 
where it is put up in packages of 15 lbs. The daily production in January was 90,000 
lbs., which was sufficient for the making of 180,000 gallons of vegetable soup. The 
material thus obtained is marketable at from 20 to 25 cents a pound. Two ounces with 
a pint of stock will make a quart of soup. 

The practice at the Front is to soak the dried material for one hour in cold water; 
then it is boiled, some stock being added, flavoured to taste, and served hot. Meat 
scraps and cheap cuts may be added if available and desirable, thus producing a com- 
plete army ration. In this shape it forms the breakfast for the French troops who much, 
relish it. Its possibilities in the hands of a good cook need not be enlarged upon. 

Vegetables in this form will keep indefinitely. Although reduced to one-tenth their 
original weight, their flavours and food values are retained, while the reduction in bulk 
renders storage and transportation easy and inexpensive. The increase in Apartment 
House life should help to create a home demand, and the possibilities of building up a 
domestic trade for this product and thus promoting a new industry would appear to 
be worthy of serious attention. * 

150 



O. P. V. SILAGE FOR THE MARITIME PROVINCES 

OATS, PEAS AND VETCHES 

In the Maritime Provinces and other parts of Canada where corn will not as a rule 
mature sufficiently for silage, the question of a reliable source of winter feed is one of 
vital importance, particularly to farmers engaged in dairying. A reliable fodder crop 
is wanted that will be of equal value to corn for feeding purposes, and at the same time 
make good silage. 

Prof. John M. Trueman, of the Agricultural College, Truro, N.S., appears to have 
satisfactorily solved the problem, so far at least as that province is concerned. A 
mixture of oats, peas and vetches will meet the requirements. All these plants, he 
declares, are vigorous and hardy, and certain to produce a good crop every year. With 
proper cultural methods their yields are very large. 

In 1914, on 5.7 acres he produced 65 tons of green feed, which is at the rate of 11.4 
tons per acre. Three acres of this yielded at the rate of 15 tons per acre; the remainder 
of the land was wet and reduced the average. On good land in proper condition it is 
an easy matter, he states, to raise 12 tons or more per acre. 

The crop is cut just as the oats are ready to enter the dough stage, and put through 
the regular silage cutter. In the silo it cures well and comes out in excellent condition 
for feeding, so that young stock eat it readily and there is no waste. 

O.P.V. silage is a complete food, and, pound for pound, has a higher food value 
than corn. The great advantage in its favour, as Prof. Trueman points out, is the 
certainty of its producing a good yield in the great majority of seasons. Being suited 
to the climate, it will grow when other crops would be an almost certain failure. 
Furthermore, it can be grown with less labour than either roots or corn. 

Farmers have asked whether this mixture cannot be cured mto hay. The difficulty 
is that a heavy crop will lodge before it is ripe enough to cut and cure. The necessary 
week or two of continuous sunshine cannot be depended upon. By putting it into the 
silo, the farmer is practically independent of the weather. 

The method followed in 1914 was: Clover hay sod was ploughed the fall previous, and 
the land well harrowed in the spring after a light dressing of barnyard manure had been 
applied. The seed was sown with a grain drill at the rate of 2% bushels per acre in the 
proportion oi \ x /i bushels of oats, % bushel of peas and Yi bushel of vetch. 



ROOT HOUSE CONSTRUCTION IN ALBERTA 

S. G. CARLYLE, Supt. Demonstration Farms, Edmonton, Alta. 

There are two kinds of root house used in Alberta, one built above ground and 
the other below. The one below ground may be more correctly called a root cellar and 
is made by excavating to a depth of about seven feet, a width of twelve feet and to any 
length required. 

The best material for the walls of a root cellar is cedar posts standing close together, 
and set in the ground to a depth of at least six inches. The tops of the posts should be 
even and a 2 x 6 plate should be laid on them and spiked to each post. The top of the 
wall should be even with the ground level and the space behind the posts should be 
filled with earth, which should be carefully tamped down to keep the walls from 
spreading. 

151 



The roof is likewise made of posts. It is a double pitch roof. A piece 
of timber 6x6 should be run along the centre eighteen inches higher than the 
plates. It should be supported on posts eight or ten feet apart. This, timber 
supports the end of the posts at the peak of the cellar. Openings two feet 
square should be made in the roof for the filling of the cellar. The roof should first be 
covered with a layer of straw extending on the ground beyond the walls. This should 
be covered with earth and a second layer of both straw and earth should be put above 
this. The top layer should be smooth and firm so as to shed the rain. If the cellar 
is built up to the side of a barn or stable, steps can be made inside to form an entrance 
to the stable. This insures both warmth and convenience. 

Another plan is to build a wooden structure above ground with one end attached 
to the stable. The walls should be about 7 feet high, and the building may be any 
width and length desired. Use 2 x 4 or preferably 2x6 studding boarded up on the 
outside with shiplap, covered with heavy building paper and drop-siding. The inside 
should be two thicknesses of shiplap with heavy building paper between. The ceiling 
should also be ceiled with shiplap. A couple of openings in the wall, 2x3 feet, 3 feet 
from the ground, may be used for filling, the openings being fitted with double doors to 
keep out frost. A couple of ventilators made from 1x2 inch slats extending from the 
ground to an opening in the peak of the building should be constructed to let out the 
heat during the sweating process when the roots are first stored. 

The advantage of this house over the other is that the floor is almost level with the 
floor of the stable, thus saving considerable labour when feeding. The disadvantage 
is that in extreme cold weather, the frost is liable to come through the wall and freeze 
the roots. This building is also more expensive than the root cellar and is therefore not 
so well suited to people of small means. 



152 



WHEAT AND THE WAR 



THE COURSE OF EVENTS— OCEAN FREIGHTS AND PRICES— 
THE STATISTICAL POSITION— FUTURE PROSPECTS 

T. K. DOHERTY, LL.B., Commissioner International Institute of 
Agriculture, Ottawa. 



The Course of Events 

After the declaration of war, Europe offered the unique spectacle in the world's 
history of tens of millions of men turned from the processes of production to be consumers 
and devastators of crops. Men, horses, and motive power were devoted to destruction. 
Russia, one of the great sources of supply, was cut off from the rest of Europe by the 
central allies. The Entente Allies and neutrals, anxiously concerned with the uncertain- 
ties of the future, promptly proceeded to accumulate supplies, and notwithstanding the 
enemies' submarine campaign, effectively drew upon the cereal stores of the western 
world. • Sl 

Immediately after the declaration, the Entente Allies and the neutrals protected 
themselves by the prohibition of the export of cereals and the abolition of customs 
duties on imports. The removal of 37 cents a bushel in France and 40 cents in Italy 
was a particularly effective stimulus to imports. Owing to the world's abundant 
crops in 1913, together with the low prices and low freights prevalent at that time, 
the year end stocks in the importing countries were large and exporting countries were 
also reputed to have carried over larger supplies than usual. But 1914 produced a 
world's total which the International Institute of Agriculture estimated to be 8% smaller 
than that of the preceding year and, unfortunately, Canada and Australia furnished a 
substantial proportion of that percentage. However, owing to the abundant harvests 
in Russia, United States, Argentina, and India, the supplies would have been nearly 
equal to the average requirements had there been no war. 

In October last, 1915, Sir James Wilson, K.C.S.I., Delegate for the United Kingdom 
and the British Dominions on the Permanent Committee of the International Institute, 
in the course of an interesting analysis of the situation quoted figures to establish that 
fact. It appears from them that the exporting countries taken together, including 
Russia, could have spared 692,000,000 bushels of wheat to meet a total estimated 
demand of 697,000,000 bushels. He compares the actual trade for the grain year 
1914-1915 with the five year average of 1909-1914. Dealing for imports with those of 
the United Kingdom, Italy, France, Switzerland, Holland, Sweden, and Spain, and for 
exports with those of the United States, Canada, Argentina, India, Algeria, Russia, 
Rumania, and Australia, Sir James' analysis may be summarized and tabulated 
approximately as follows: 

153 



Imports (7 countries) 

Wheat Flour Wheat and Flour 

Bushels Bushels Bushels 

1914-15 367,000,000 36,000,000 403,000,000 

1909-1U4 337,000,000 49,000,000 386,000,000 

Exports (8 countries) 

1914-15 436,000,000 104,000,000 540,000,000 

1909-19K 531,000,000 102,000,000 633,000,000 

Sir James estimated that the normal exports of these eight countries for 1914-15 
had there been no war would have been 676,000,000 bushels. He observes that the 
United Kingdom in 1914-15 imported 8,800,000 bushels less than the advance average 
estimates had indicated, and he quotes Broomhall as stating that at the end of the grain 
year the stock in first hands amounted to 18,000,000 bushels as compared with 14,600,000 
bushels the previous year. He concludes that the consumption, owing to high prices 
and other causes, was less than average, and that the year ended with fairly increased 
stocks. He observes, moreover, that the actual imports into France were 70,000,000 
bushels compared with 40,700,000 bushels estimated as the normal requirement. Sir 
lames states: "It seems probable that owing to increased imports and reduced con- 
sumption she (France;, notwithstanding the loss of wheat caused by the war, will end 
the year with stocks in hand considerably larger than she had at August 1st of last 
year." 

Following this statement of facts, views, which from the point of view of the 
importer were optimistic, appear to have been pretty generally held in Europe, and 
especially in the United Kingdom, in the midsummer and early autumn of 1915. The 
United Kingdom had harvested a record crop of 74,000,000 bushels of wheat. Impor- 
ters were confident that with a prospective big world's supply from the 1915 crop the 
British farmers would sell freely and imports would soon flow in from the abundant 
North American harvests. European buyers, and especially those of the United 
Kingdom, as we shall show more in detail later, were not at first induced by the low 
prices of midsummer to make substantial purchases. It was, however, realized later 
that the stocks carried over had been overestimated and were rapidly dwindling to an 
insignificant amount. Exports from India which had been disappointingly small were 
practically stopped in October in view of the dry weather having persisted for some 
time in a number of the large wheat producing provinces. Owing to the protracted 
heavy rains in the United States winter wheat regions, the harvest was late, and the 
quality was poor as we shall later show. When the European demand did appear it 
was most persistent and only limited by the lack of ships and the consequent extra- 
ordinarily high freight rates which up to the close of the year did not cease climbing 
until approximately 50 cents a bushel was charged from Atlantic ports to Liverpool 
and $1.00 from Argentina. 

Just a word more about the progress of events during 1915 from the point of view 
of production and trade. Early in the war, by the wiping out of the German mercha n 
marine and the sinking of many British and neutral ships, the number of ships engaged 
in ocean traffic was so reduced that those remaining were unable to cope with require- 
ments, and with the increased freights, higher insurance, and greater cost of exchange, 
there resulted an ever-widening margin between the price received by the producer of 
wheat and the price paid by the European consumer. 

In January, 1915, Australia's wheat crop had been reported as only 25,000,000 
bushels against 103,000,000 the previous year. Some time afterwards the Argentina 
total, at first unofficially reported to be nearly 200,000,000 was subsequently lowered 
to 168,000,000 bushels compared with 113,000,000 the year before. This was followed 
by the Indian total at first reported as nearly 400,000,000 bushels, but subsequently 
reduced to 383,000,000 bushels. 

154 



Then came the earlier reports of the all important United States winter wheat, 
which for area in crop exceeded the previous year by about 4,000,000 acres. Concerning 
it grave fears had been expressed at the opening of the winter but the official report for 
April placed the condition at 88.8, which was better than had been expected. The 
May report with the small abandoned acreage foreshadowed a crop about equal to the 
record one of the preceding year. The increased acreage and excellent condition of 
spring wheat in Canada as well as in the United States at the same time suggested 
enormous total yields for both countries. 

The May option in Chicago, which had been $1.68 in February, ended the month 
of May at $1.39, and the much talked of corner had not materialized. The entry of 
Italy into the war, the German submarine campaign culminating in the sinking of the 
Lusitania, the higher condition of spring wheat in the United States (94.9), the increased 
acreage ajid excellent condition of the Canadian crops, together with optimistic reports 
concerning the growth of European cereals, were all features that operated for lower 
prices. Red winter wheat in Chicago touched $1.11, $1.08, and 98 cents in June, 
July and August respectively. The range was from 98 cents to $1.19^ in both August 
and September. 

Stocks carried over into the new cereal year in Europe, August 1st, were with one 
or two exceptions considered low. The quantity on passage over the ocean had rarely 
been as small, not at least for 10 years back had there been such a small floating supply. 
European buyers, as we have said, were slow in taking advantage of the opportunity 
for making cheap advance purchases of supplies, a circumstance which contributed 
not a little to the high prices soon to prevail. Mr. Geo. Broomhall on August 31st 
gives imports to Great Britain in the fourth week of that month as 1,936,000 bushels 
as compared with 5,832,000 in the preceding year, and imports for the four weeks of 
that month were only 10,416,000 bushels compared with 20,064,000 bushels for the 
corresponding month of the previous year. The total shipments into the United 
Kingdom and to the Continent for the same period compared as 23,304,000 against 
32,992,000. 

Both Mr. Broomhall and H. N. Bathgate & Co. so analyzed the situation about 
that time as to show the expediency of vigorous measures to replenish British stocks. 
On the 22nd and 24th of June, Bathgate & Co. had referred to the danger involved 
through neglect to purchase after the heavy decline that had recently taken place. 
The Bathgate statement of September 8th is worthy of being reproduced here as the 
warnings sounded in it were prophetic of coming events. 

"The present and prospective large wheat crops for the current season are very 
welcome; but unfortunately the fact that the promise is so good is having an adverse 
effect in curtailing buying for forward delivery. It is of course well known that weekly 
shipments have been small for two months, no doubt in anticipation of the relief to be 
expected from Canada and U.S.A. This is all right so far as it goes, as naturally both 
merchant and retailer would desire to avoid entering a new season with a heavy stock 
of dear wheat and flour. There is, however, another side of the matter, and that is 
that, if everyone refrain too long from buying, we shall be in the unpleasant position 
of being faced with a spot shortage in a world of great plenty." 

The Bathgates continue in their weekly issues of their report to insist that British 
buyers order early for forward movement, and on November 24th stated: "At this 
moment the stocks of wheat and flour in this country are only about half the customary 
average at this season of the year; and, indeed, if we consider the smallness of invisible 
stocks in the hands of retailers, the total quantity may be actually a great deal less than 
half." In the same issue the Bathgates observe: 

"In this country farmers are beignning to send their wheat to market more readily, 
and will probably be free sellers just when native wheat is least wanted. They ought 
to remember that they still have to dlspcse of fully three-quarters of a very abundant 

155 



crop, and that they have to sell it in a season when possible supplies of foreign wheat are 
the largest ever known. To hold on too long, with all sorts of political developments 
on the card, appears to us to be a policy not likely to be justified by events." 

In July, August, and September, came from Canada and the United States reports 
which exceeded each the preceding one in establishing record figures, but other influences 
than the large production of wheat soon assumed paramount importance. There had 
been extremely heavy rains in Kansas and the surrounding country, the downfall being 
the greatest on record with the exception of 1904 and 1908. 

At harvest, in Kansas and the surrounding Western States, it turned out that a very 
large proportion of the wheat crop was unfit for milling purposes and consequently 
unmerchantable. Estimates of the quantity of wheat unmillable have varied between 
60 million and 150 million bushels. Mr. George Broomhall, having first accepted the 
larger reduction, seems to have finally accepted, for practical purposes, that 100 million 
bushels were unmerchantable. 

Towards the close of the year, while generally optimistic reports on the North 
American crops were appearing, the prospects for the approaching harvests in the 
Southern Hemisphere were equally promising. At this time the world's statistical 
position seemed to indicate a very considerable surplus above all requirements, and 
crop reporting authorities of international repute, such as Mr. George Broomhall in 
the "Corn Trade News" of January 4th, ascribed "the high F.O.B. prices in the United 
States and Canada at that time to artificial causes, or in other words, to speculation." 
However, on September 21, 1915, the Bathgates while acknowledging "world's harvests 
of huge dimensions" make this significant observation: "On the whole we would say 
that the tendency this year is to exaggerate the total quantity likely to be available, 
whereas a year ago there was a disposition to underrate the supply." Further on 
however, acknowledging that there would be more than sufficient wheat to go round and 
leave a liberal surplus to carry forward into the next season, he says: "The trouble we 
think will be experienced in moving the wheat from one part of the world to the other 
owing to the shortage of shipping. It stands to reason that the more exporting countries 
desire to sell, the keener will be the competition to obtain steamers, and as a natural 
consequence freights will be likely to increase." As a matter of fact, at the end of 
September the advance in freight rates had been as much as 50% in a little over a month, 
and 2)4, times as much as the rates ruling the year previous when they were considerably 
above normal. 

Having thus outlined the general trend of events during 1915, let us give particular 
attention to the two features of prime importance just mentioned, viz., ocean rates and 
prices. 

Ocean Freight Rates 

In view of the important role of freights in fixing the price of wheat it will be of 
interest to present a few salient facts. Bearing on the cost of ocean freights on wheat 
before and since the war, Sir James Wilson, in a recent analysis of the cereal situation, 
elaborated some data compiled by the staff of the International Institute of Agriculture 
from BroomhaH's "Corn Trade News." We use that analysis freely in the following 
review. 

A rough comparison between prices and rates of freight may be made, always 
remembering that the figures are not strictly comparable. Taking the average price 
of wheat imported into the United Kingdom for ten years at $1.07 per bushel, broadly 
speaking, the difference between that price and the average price of wheat in the over- 
seas exporting countries is mainly accounted for by the cost of ocean freight, which 
in normal times, as will be seen from the five year average 1909-13 given below, 
varies from an average of 4.8 cents per bushel from New York to 18.5 cents from 
the North Pacific ports. 

156 



The course of ocean freight rates for that average of five years and other more 



recent dates, is presented in the following table 



Date 



New York Karachi Buenos Aires 

to to to 

Liverpool Liverpool Liverpool 



Australia to 

United 

Kingdom 

(Sailer) 



Cents per Cents per Cents per Cents per 

Bushel Bushel Bushel Bushel 
Average of 5 years 

ending 1913.... 4.8 10.9 8.6 17.0 

July 1914 5.3 7.9 6.9 12.2 

Jan. 1915 20.5 21.3 40.8 

August 1915 20.3 29.9 40.8 

Sept. 10, 1915. .. . 26.6 27.6 39.0 

Oct. 15, 1915 40.6 27.6 42.3 40.8 

Nov. 12, 1915.... 40.6 39.0 55.5 45.6 

Dec. 10, 1915 38.8 45.6 73.3 47.7 

Jan. 6, 1916...... 40.6 68.4 91.2 48.9 

Feb. 1, 1916 50.0 88 (b) 94 (a) 49 (c) 

(a) For Government account to United Kingdom 88 to 90 cents per bushel. 

(b) From Bombay, India, from 91 to 94.6 cents per bushel. 

(c) For steam 72 cents per bushel. 

Roughly speaking, the extreme high rates quoted up to the 15th of February had 
been 50 cents from New York and $1.00 from Argentina to Liverpool. Between these 
rates and the average prevailing during the five years before the war, we had therefore 
the striking difference of over 45 cents a bushel on the New York-Liverpool route and 
over 91 cents on the Buenos Aires-Liverpool route. 

Moreover, the insurance on wheat, which on average $1.00 wheat before the war 
amounted to Yz cent per bushel, amounted recently on $1.35 wheat to about 2 cents 
per bushel. 

Sir James Wilson remarks that "taken by itself the increase in ocean freights 
together with the insurance would, other things being equal, account for an increase 
of this amount in the difference between the price of wheat imported into the United 
Kingdom and the prices of the various exporting countries." 

The difference between the Liverpool and the Winnipeg prices for No. 2 Northern 
Manitoba wheat were in July 1914, $1.08 and 88 cents respectively, whereas on the 
10th of December they had risen to $1.81 and to $1.00. The increases in price were 
73 cents and 12 cents respectively. Why should the advance of the Liverpool price 
be so much greater than that of Winnipeg? Sir James believes it is to be ascribed to 
the extent of 35 cents a bushel in the increase in the cost of freight and insurance; and 
to the extent of about 33^ cents to the 3% fall in the exchange value of a pound as 
compared with a dollar. The rest of the increase in the difference between the prices 
may be, he says, due to the greater cost of inland transport and to the increased profits 
and expenditures. 

The shipper from Canadian ports and from New York on the 6th of January, 
1916, had an advantage in rates over the shipper from Buenos Aires of 50 cents a bushel. 
He had an advantage over the shipper from Karachi, India, of nearly 28 cents, and 
over the shipper from Australia by steamer of 31 cents, whereas before the war his 
advantage in that respect averaged only about 6 cents per bushel over the shipper from 
Buenos Aires or Karachi, and 12 cents a bushel over the shipper from Australia.* 

♦Our readers are requested to bear in mind this fact of utmost importance to Canadians, affording 
them an exceptional opportunity and advantage in the marketing of their wheat. 

157 



In the middle of July, just before the war, the price of No. 2 Hard Winter wheat 
at Liverpool was about $1.07 a bushel. Its cash price at New York was then about 92 
cents a bushel — a difference of 15 cents a bushel. At that date the cost of freight from 
New York to Liverpool was 534 cents a bushel, and of insurance about Y% cent a bushel, 
making the cost of freight and insurance about 6 cents a bushel, and leaving 9 cents a 
bushel to cover other charges and profit. On 6th January, 1916, the price of Choice 
Hard Winter in Liverpool was $1.90 per bushel and the cash price of No. 2 Red Winter 
in New York was $1.42 per bushel, a difference of nearly 48 cents per bushel. The 
cost of freight on that date from New York to Liverpool was 40 cents a bushel and the 
cost of insurance about 2 cents a bushel — a total of 42 cents, leaving 6 cents a bushel 
to cover other charges and profit. The increase of 33 cents in the difference between 
Liverpool and New York prices is thus accounted for by the rise in the cost of freight and 
insurance of 36 cents a bushel. 

On the average of the ten years before the war the price of wheat imported into 
the United Kingdom was $1.08 a bushel and the price of wheat exported from the 
Argentine was 94 cents a bushel, a difference of 14 cents a bushel. The average rate 
of freight from the River Plate down river to the United Kingdom was for the five 
years before the war 8}4 cents per bushel. According to Broomhall on 6th January, 
when Baril wheat was selling at Liverpool at $1.95 a bushel, the price of wheat at 
Buenos Aires was $1.08 a bushel, a difference of 87 cents a bushel. The cost of freight 
from Buenos Aires to Liverpool had risen on that date to 91 cents a bushel, an increase 
of 83 cents above what it was before the war. This increase in the cost of freight 
is more than enough in itself to account for the increase in the difference between the 
prices at Liverpool and Buenos Aires. 

What is responsible for this extraordinary increase in ocean freight rates? The 
"Australian Age" of November 9, 1915, is probably correct when it summarizes the 
situation as follows: — 

"Some 25% of the world's tonnage is either locked up in enemy ports or at the 
bottom of the sea. Another 20% has been requisitioned by the Admiralty for transport 
and war purposes. The British Admiralty, so we are informed, has 800 steamers, 
not including trawlers, and is requisitioning more every day. The enemy submarine 

campaign, although it has suffered a severe check, still is to be reckoned with" 

"Even when freight is chartered, no one can say definitely, as in normal times, 

that so much freight will be available; it may be sunk or it may be requisitioned." 

A proper conception of the extent of the rise in ocean freight as compared with 
the rise in prices was given by Broomhall in the "Corn Trade News" of January 18, 
1916, in the following statement: — 

"The difference between the C.I.F. price now and in January, 1914, of Canadian, 
Australian and Argentine wheat is 30s. 6d. per quarter (92 cents a bushel), a rise of 
roundly 90%; whilst freights have advanced from 3s. 6d. to 20s. 6d. per quarter (10>£ 
to 62 cents per bushel), a rise of nearly 500%." 



Past and Present Prices of Wheat 

In previous wars the prices of wheat have been relatively higher and have fluctuated 
widely. In the case of many wars the high level of prices has often continued for some 
time after the declaration of peace. The course of prices during the present conflict, 
as we shall see later, seems so far to confirm this general tendency. 

A remarkable chart prepared by Mr. Geo. Broomhall, and published recently, 
(sold by Broomhall's "Corn Trade News" of Liverpool at the modest price of 2s. 6d. a 
copy) enables us to give as follows a table in which are presented official average prices 
of home grown wheat in the United Kingdom for 115 years. We have given only the 
typical years in the first half of the 19th century up to 1842; but from this date we have 

158 



given the price for each year. It is to be remarked that there is a difference in prices 
between British wheat and imported wheat. The imported was higher and varied 
in the 10 years, 1905-14 from 5 to 10 cents a bushel, and averaged 7 cents for the whole 
period. 

Average price per Bushel of British Wheat for the Calendar year, 1800 to 1915. 

Year 

$1.73 1894 $0.68 

1.78 1895 0.70 

1.70 1896 0.79 

1.37 1897 0.91 

1.40 1898 1.03 

1.73 1899 0.78 

1.40 1900 0.81 

1.34 1901 0.81 

1.36 1902 0.85 

1.37 1903 0.81 

1.37 1904 0.87 

1.25 1905 0.90 

1.07 1905 0.85 

1.00 1907 0.94 

0.94 1908. ...... 0.99 

0.96 1909 1.13 

0.97 1910 0.96 

0.91 1911 0.96 

0.97 1912 1.05 

1.13 1913 0.96 

0.91 1914 1.05 

0.79 1915 1.61 

As an instance of high prices and violent fluctuations during war times and for some 
time after the declaration of peace, readers are requested to examine the above table 
for the period of the Napoleonic Wars and the two years following them, viz. 1800-1817, 
also the period 1812 to 1815 of our war with the United States. Note the fluctuations 
from the opening of the century: $3.62 a bushel to $1.80, $3.86, $2.01, $2.92; the 
latter being the price for 1817. 

Prices then fell rapidly to $1.37 in 1822, rose in 1825, and fell again lower in 1835, 
when there was a large British crop, but soon climbed again in 1839 to $2.16, declined 
from that until 1843 and 1844, when large British crops brought wheat to $1.52 and 
$1.55 respectively and the same prices the following year. In 1846 there was a bad 
harvest and potato diseases; in 1847 was the Irish famine, followed in 1848 by another 
bad harvest. In 1849 the Repeal of the Corn Laws became effective and there was a 
decline gradually until in 1851, $1.17 was reached, and in 1852, $1.23. 

Now came the Crimean War in which Great Britain, France, Italy, Russia, and 
Turkey were engaged, initiated in 1853, ended by the signing of the Articles of Peace 
in the winter of 1856. The prices for these years were $1.61, $2.19, $2.27, and $2.10 
respectively, and in 1857, the price was as high as $1.71. 

The Italian War in 1859 caused a rally which ran into the beginning of the American 
Civil War, 1861 to 1865. Then, however, the prices only advanced during 1861 and 
1862. In 1863 and 1864 there were two big British harvests, followed in the next 
two years by wet harvests and then by a drought in 1868, bringing wheat for two 
years to $1.95. In 1866 there was the war between Prussia and Austria. In 1869 the 

159 



Year 




Year 




Year 


1800 


. $3.47 


1850 


. $1.22 


1872 


1801 


. 3.62 


1851 


. 1.17 


1873 


1802 


2.13 


1852 


. 1.23 


1874 


1803 


1.80 


1853 


. 1.61 


1875 


1804 


. 1.89 


1854 


. 2.19 


1876 


1805 


. 2.74 


1855 


. 2.27 


1877 


1810 


3.22 


1856 


. 2.10 


1878 


1812 


3.86 


1857 


.. 1.71 


1879 


1815 


2.01 


1858 


. 1.34 


1880 


1817 


2.92 


1859 


. 1.33 


1881 


1822 


1.37 


1860 


. 1.62 


1882 


1825 


2.07 


1861 


. 1.67 


1883 


1835 


1.19 


1862 


. 1.67 


1884 


1839 


2.16 


1863 


. 1.33 


1885 


1842 


1.75 


1864 


. 1.22 


1886 


1843 


1.52 


1865 


. 1.27 


1887 


1844 


1.55 


1866 


. 1.52 


1888 


1845 


1.55 


1867 


. 1.95 


1889 


1846 


1.67 


1868 


. 1.94 


1890 


1847. 


2.13 


1869 


. 1.46 


1891 


1848 


1.55 


1870 


. 1.43 


1892 


1849 


1.34 


1871 


. 1.70 


1893 



Is. per quarter duty on wheat was removed and with a big crop in 1870 the price 
remained as in the preceding year, around $1.43, but on the continuance of the Franco- 
Prussian War from 1870 to 1871 prices began mounting, and remained high through 
1872, 1873 and 1874. In addition to war influences, the crops had been short in these 
years with the exception of 1874, when both in England and in France crops were 
good, but this was also the year of the Bengal famine. 

The last of very high priced wheat was seen in 1876 and 1877, coincident with 
the Turko-Serbian War and the other Balkan Wars, which were finally settled in 1878. 
In 1877 there also occurred the severe Indian famine. Still there was a poor British 
harvest in 1879 and a wet harvest in 1881, so fairly high prices persisted until and 
including 1882, being $1.37 in the last two years. 

We now witness a persistent slump between the latter year and 1895, a period 
which marks the advent of advanced methods of agriculture, including fertilizers, 
machinery, and especially the opening to cultivation in several countries of enormous 
areas of virgin lands, factors tending to the cheapening of production and the creation 
of abundant supplies. Europe was flooded with the wheat of the Western States. 
These big shipments began in 1877 and were more or less predominant until 1907. 
The wheat corner in 1898 apparently had little effect outside of the United States. 

In 1882 India, and especially Russia, expanded their production and exports. 
Argentina began its first shipments in 1886 and from 1900 on became a serious competitor 
in the world's markets. 

During this latter period Australia to a smaller extent and Canada to a greater 
extent became additional contributors to the world's supplies, so that Canada in 1915 
rose to the third rank of the world's producers, the United States having in that year 
wrested the first position from Russia. 

Some apprehension has been expressed at various times on the part of producers 
that with the continued expansion in the cultivation of wheat on virgin soils, together 
with improved methods of production, there would be in the world a permanent plethora 
of wheat with continued low prices. Still, with the accession since 1877 of all these 
new sources of supply, it must be borne in mind that since 1895 there has been established 
from year to year a slightly higher level of prices persisting until 1909, and it is doubtful 
if we shall ever see again, except in short-lived, temporary fluctuations, even the low 
average prices of 1910, 1911 and 1913. 



The Examination of the Situation arising from Supply and Demand 

In dealing with the question of supply and demand our attention will be confined 
to those countries only which are not, through the operations of war, cut off from free 
communication with the commercial world. Consequently, Germany, Austria-Hungary, 
Belgium, Serbia, Bulgaria, Turkey, and even Rumania and Russia are excluded. 
We shall refer later to the limited part Russia is enabled to take in this trade. 

For the purpose of enabling our readers to obtain a bird's-eye view of the situation 
in the demand countries of Europe, there are presented in the following table in parallel 
columns for the three years 1913, 1914, and 1915, three paramount trade factors, viz.: 
(1) production; (2) imports; (3) a combination of the first two to form the total supply 
available for consumption. The imports for 1913 and 1914 are the actual imports, 
while for 1915 the amounts contained in the corresponding column are estimated 
requirements. 

The figures in the following table refer to the grain year beginning August 1st, and 
comprise not only wheat but wheat flour converted into an equivalent of wheat. 

160 



— 2? 

cd "q. 



i i 

s K | 

© < J3 



CO O CO 
HCO00 
U3 © lO 



OONO) 050 
CO •* >o iC 10 o 
"l "^ M . °° rH ^ 
i>" co co ©" ©" co" 

© l> CO CM © i-( 
<M CO CM 



•^ CO 00 00 CM o 
MN 00 N »0 O 
00 N >ONN 2 

© rtT oo" rjn" »o" of oo" © 
H U5 ^ (N ^ in CM 



^ © TJH 

CO CO N 



13 



15 "3. 




5 g. 




H«g 






CO 


, CO 


"55 


2 "E 


■s 


3 O 


3 


OS 


PQ 
*o 


i— t 


CO 




n3 




3 




i 


i 

o 


3 
O 
J3 


1* 


H 



CO CO G H N o 
© b~ © 00 © © 
CCONO'^S 
©"©"•>*" uf rjT ^jT 

U3 ,_, rH ,_| 

CO CM 



© rH CO © lO © 

O lO N Oi W O 

°« *i °t "* • °° 

•Hh" "5 t>-" »o" oo" ©" 

t- -^ CO CO M H 
NM CM 



00 O © © i-i © 

© © © rH rH © 

"I ^ °. H . ^1 N 
i-T of tjT ©" ©" t-T 

H © CN CO >0 H 
CM 



© © © 
<*) © o 

eo ©^ m5 

co" oo" co" 



© t^ CO 

N rH CO 

«b ** **». 

'©" ©" co" 

CM CO CM 



© b- \o 

© CM lO 
© CO Ttt 

©" io" ©" 

rH rH CN 



© © oo 
b- © b- 

© © o« 



73^ 



cm »-h eo © Tf © 

co © b- 00 Tt< © 

■^ ©^ ©_ CO <<f © 

of of co" »d ©" io~ co" rtT co" 

© 00 rH © H (N 

CM rH rH 



© © © © lO © 
rH © © rH © O 

h oq_ © cm © © 
of ©" rjT of ©" ©" 

O0 O rft CO CO CM 
CM CO CM 



© © © 

00 © 00 

"3 rH OO 


© 


©" oo" co" 

CO © CM 


©" 
»o 



^ i> „> 

rH 2 3 3 

-■ S ? s 



©©©©©© 


© © © 


o 


© © © © © © 


© © © 


© 


©©©©©© 


© O © 


© 








00 CM O CO tJ( (N 


oo" ©" ©" 


©" 


© b- CO CM © rH 


CM rH Ol 


b» 


CM 




Tt< 



o 

3 3 



© © © © \o © 


© © © 


© 


hOOh CSO 


00 © 00 


lO 


rH 00 © CN © © 


fi5 h oo 


"* 








"<*< b- -* © OJ 00 


rH of CO" 


©" 


NCO H f^ 


rH iO 


00 


CM rH 




© 















. -g . 














• C 














' « : 














3" ; 


g 










CD . 


o 










cu . 


cx 

3 












2 

■M 3 

e 2 


E 

= 

s 




s 


a 

CJ 

I 


it 

11 

3 M 
CU 


S3 


fa 


n 


PC 


£ 


'J 


Q 



« S3 

3 N 

•3 £ 

a £ 

C/i c/J 



*T3 1 
3 jQ 



I «fg 

: &* 

o W 42 



3 X 



o o 



S U 92 ^ 

.S B 5 8 

3 



<3 



Pg 



crj 

a 

CD 



5 



.2 o 2 

^ aT3 
u cu _o 

en — 3 

TJ .2 -O 

« a e 

a ig o 

cu O — 






161 



All the data in the above table have been taken from the Bulletin of Agricultural 
and Commercial Statistics, excepting those of the estimated requirements for 1915, 
which are from Broomhall's "Corn Trade News" of January 25, 1916.* 

There has often been a tendency on the other side to begin the season 
by underestimating the requirements. It will be remembered that Mr. Broom- 
hall on the 31st of August, 1915, estimated these requirements for 1915-16 
at only 416,000,000 bushels, Bathgate & Co. on November 3rd estimating them 
at 506,000,000 bushels. We would venture the opinion that even Mr. BroorrihaH's 
latest estimate of 560,000,000 bushels — in which is included the provision for increasing 
the floating supply to a normal size at the close of the grain year — will turn out to be 
much too small, especially the 476,000,000 bushels allotted to Europe. 

In a forecast of this nature in the absence of ascertained facts there are certain 
features which it is well to take into account. It appears from the above table, for 
instance, that the European production of 1915 is practically the same as that of 1914, 
but that it is 71,725,000 bushels smaller than the production of 1913. In 1913 the total 
domestic production of these countries, plus the imports, gave a total supply of 
1,202,877,000 bushels. In 1915 the total production of these countries, plus the 
476,000,000 which Mr. Broomhall allows for imports, furnishes a total supply of 
1,156,459,000 bushels, an amount 46,418,000 smaller than the total for 1913. In order 
therefore to provide supplies of equal amount for 1915, it would be necessary to add 
46,418,000 to the 476,000,000 required imports estimated by Mr. Broomhall, making 
in all for these European countries total requirements of 522,418,000 bushels. This 
would bring the world's total exclusive of provision for the short floating supply to 
582,418,000, and with that floating supply a world's total of 606,418,000 bushels. 

The amount of 60,000,000 bushels for countries outside of Europe compares with 
the normal of 96,000,000 in 1913. Allowing Broomhall's estimate to stand, although 
it may appear somewhat small, it will be well to consider that an amount of 606,000,000 
of imports is not excessive. In times of peace for the five years previous to the war 
the world's imports averaged 624,000,000 annually. The grain year 1914-15 was an 
abnormal one because of the crop failures in certain of the exporting countries. There 
was a good deal of disorganization of the ocean traffic from the first successes of the 
German submarine campaign, at the same time that prices, especially in North America, 
ranged at a high figure. Then that year, it is admitted, started with abundant supplies 
carried over from 1913 when there was everywhere a plethora of wheat. In the latter 
half of the grain year 1915-16 the disturbance in transport owing to high freights has 
through the recent intervention of the allied European Governments been somewhat 
relieved, with the result that a comparatively free movement of cereals at more reason- 
able rates is confidently expected. Prices in the exporting countries are not unduly 
inflated, inflation being confined altogether to ocean freight rates; the needs of the 
importing countries are more urgent than ever, and stocks of wheat must be accumulated 
from the world's abundant crops against the many uncertainties of the future. The 
necessity for holding larger reserves is quite as imperative in the exporting countries, 
whose supplies were so cleaned out on the 1st of August, 1915, that the customary 
ocean floating supplies were reduced by one-half. 

It will be of interest to dwell for a moment on the very considerable needs of France 
in the current year. The table shows her total supply of wheat to have been reduced 
from 373,000,000 bushels in 1913 to 345,000,000 in 1914, and that with the 72,000,000 
of imports allowed by Mr. Broomhall she would have during the current year only 
309,000,000 bushels for consumption. The remark made in the "Corn Trade News" 
of January 4th is significant: "Recently the Government have been importing flour 
from England and taking large quantities of wheat flour from America, which imports, 

♦Mr. Broomhall in the same issue published a revised up-to-date statement of the imports for 
1914-15 at 524,464,000 bi ihels, which figures should, for practical purposes, be substituted for the 
499,040,000 mentioned above. 

162 



with the many complaints of lack of supplies, especially in the southern region, tend to 
confirm the claim that the crop of 1915 was a very poor one and much below the official 
estimate." The acreage in wheat varied as follows for the years 1913, 1914 and 1915 
respectively, 16,170,000 acres, 15,155,000 and 14,065,000 acres, the latter for 1915 
being 2,105,000 acres under the acreage for 1913. The official report of winter wheat 
seeded up to January 1, 1916, gave an acreage of 12,500,000. It is hoped, however, that 
this may eventually be substantially increased. 

On August 31st last Mr. Broomhall quoted the "Times," in which it was stated 
among other items of news concerning the French wheat crop that the "total French 
requirements of wheat have been officially ascertained at 43,000,000 quarters" 
(344,000,000 bushels). If we are to accept Mr. Broomhall's more recent statement that 
the French crop has been "a very poor one and much below the official estimate" 
(237,009,000 bushels), the French requirements would appear to be larger than the 
Broomhall estimate which we have used, viz. 72,000,000 bushels. Reducing the 
official estimate by only 13,000,000 bushels to 224,000,000, 120,000,000 bushels would 
be needed to replenish the supplies. However, a great saving in wheat will doubtless 
result from the French decree directing that the people should use a loaf in which enters 
only 75% of wheaten flour. The decree defines what may be used in the other 25%; 
certain unusual but valuable foods of the sago, tapioca, and arrowroot types are 
suggested as ingredients, and such a loaf would be 5% cheaper than the whole wheaten 
loaf. But even 20,000,000 bushels would be a large saving under such an arrangement, 
and 100,000,000 bushels would apparently have to be imported to make up the deficiency. 

Unfortunately, the out-turn of the other crops in 1915 was such that it is difficult 
to conceive how they can serve as substitutes for wheat. The following is the showing 
for the past three years: — 

1915 1914 1913 

Bushels. Bushels. Bushels. 

Rye 39,086,000 44,814,000 50,056,000 

Oats 242,912,000 299,610,000 336,049,000 

Barley 36,113,000 46,136,000 47,939,000 

Potatoes 332,791,000 440,657,000 477,115,000 

Short tons. Short tons. Short tons. 

Sugar Beets 1,662,500 4,134,880 6,647,000 

It may here be mentioned incidentally that the number of cattle in France were 
reported on July 1, 1915, as 12,286,849 head compared with 13,120,649 on December 
31, 1914, a decrease of 833,800 head in six months. 

The situation, in so far as our gallant and loyal ally is concerned, may enable the 
reader to form some conception of the terrible havoc that war is playing with agriculture 
in practically all the belligerent countries and of the unlimited demand on the abundant 
stores of the exporting countries which is likely to persist. 

Broomhall, February 22nd, gives French imports for five months August 1st — 
December 3Jst as 40 million bushels. Imports at the same rate for the remaining seven 
months would reach a total of 96 millions. 

It is now necessary to- examine the sources of supply that are called upon to furnish 
the 600 odd million bushels of wheat that the importing world will require, and also to 
replenish the reserves of the exporting countries in such manner that they will not be 
unduly depleted, as they were on August 1st of last year. 

The chief exporting countries with their actual exports of wheat and wheat flour 
converted into wheat during the grain years 1913-14 and 1914-15, together with their 
estimated exports during 1915-16 are given as follows: — 

163 



— - - 
t; K « 



23 | 

2 tt S* 

< w 



NNOC15 
"^ 00 (M (M 

r* ^ a© <n_ 

eo co" -^r co" 
o as t^ ■* 

CO 



00 O lO rH 

CO CO GO lO 

©NQ <0 

OJ w* oT N 

lO CO CO lO 



^ o £ 

"« ffi m 

►J 



o t- »o "* 


CO 


00 i-l o 1^- 


t^ 


CO t> CD 00 


00 






CO t-H CO CO 


CM 


CO CO t-H O 


— 


t^ <N t-4 ,-1 


<N 



H O T(t CO 
OS © i-l CO 

b- b- »h eo 

1>T "<#" "*" r-T 
t^ t^ t^ CO 



co 

3 s 

< w 



CO 

M (O H ^ H 
~ <N b- rH ,_, 
J3 <M O H ^ 

to co" co~ -rjT co" 

3HO0© 



5 SI 

J3 = « 



~* 03 O 

oca 

^ .5 * 
+-> til 

W 



t^ © © <M 
i-H 00 1^ <m 
O <N t^ os 

t-T i-T oo" tjh" 
Oi CO CO cq 

00 r-i r-l 



>0 O <M o 
O O CO o 
iOOrtJ 

i-T tjT <n" io 

CO <M i-h os 
CO >-i i— I 



o o o o 
2 2 2 o 
o^ q q o 

©" CO" <n" oo" 
"O H N tj* 
<M <M 



WJOIN O 
O O CD O 

»o q h o 
i-T © t»h* co" 

l-l TfH 00 T*H 
OS CO i-H r-1 



in w 

T3 -n 

D U 



c .5 

S 2 

0) *-> 

< < 
164 



l-H t>- 

OS <N 

CO CO 



2 ° 
o o 

- °- 

co" tjT 
00 o 
to CO 



(O .« 

5 § 

C 3 

3 O 

O O 

O _-, 



2 2 

o o 





aj 




e 


28 


co 


as o 


O) 






co cq 


6 


OS to 


^ to 


3 



J3 
a 
x 
cu 



U 



be 
a 

o 



OS 






.2 


00 


tt> 




"to 


CO 


£_ 




to 








Z3 


<* 






& 


°i 


6 
o 

o 

u 


JJ 


2 


CO 


pq 


J3 


-o 


CO 


& 


a> 








<M 






o 


OS 
OS 


% 


s 


a 




"" H (NM ^ 



A word about some exporting countries that are not included in the above table, 
and which it is estimated may export an additional 18 million bushels, making the 
above total of estimated exports 604 million. Russia, which exported in 1913-14, 
173,000,000 bushels, only exported 1,120,000 in 1914-15. Via the port of Archangel 
since the 1st of August, 1915, to the 12th of February she had exported 3,472,000 bushels 
and by the 1st of August, 1916, Broomhall expects her to send out by that route in 
all about 8,000,000 bushels. Broomhall estimates that for the current year North 
Africa, Persia, and Chili may be able to spare about 8,000,000 bushels., but only 2,000,000 
bushels are expected from India where in two of the great wheat producing provinces, 
drought has been so persistent it is feared the coming Indian harvest in March will 
not yield more than sufficient for home consumption. Still she had contributed to 
the world's exports 26,000,000 bushels out of her 1914 crop and 23,000,000 bushels 
out of her crop of 1915. 

It therefore devolves almost exclusively upon the four great producing countries 
mentioned in the above table to supply the world's requirements during the current 
grain year. These countries, after satisfying the demands upon them for export, had 
remaining for home consumption in 1913 a total of 821,000,000 bushels; in 1914 the 
total remaining was only 757,000,000. It will be seen from the estimated distribution 
of the 1915 crop that it is expected 992,000,000 bushels will remain for home bread 
requirements. That these quantities will be needed to replenish depleted reserves 
canno^ be doubted. If the remaining supplies for 1914 and 1915 were evenly divided 
between these two years there would be for each year 875,000,000 bushels without 
making any deduction from the Argentina and Australian crops on account of unreli- 
able wheat. And this amount is not excessive, especially in times like the present 
when the occurrence of crop failures would be disastrous in the absence of abundant 
home reserves. 

Bathgate & Co. recently made an observation which is worthy of attention and 
that is, that in times of scarcity, crop reports, official and otherwise, are inclined to 
pessimism, while in times of abundance there is a tendency to exaggerate in the opposite 
direction. Too little attention is generally paid to crop damage of the nature of that 
of last year to the winter wheat crop of the United States. Damage of various kinds 
to a more or less extent affects the milling value of a considerable proportion of every 
crop and that proportion is not to be ignored in a crop of such size as Canada harvested 
in 1915. The final analysis of the disposal of such a crop always discloses considerable 
quantities that cannot stand the milling test. We have, therefore, as indicated above, 
reduced the Canadian total by about 10% to meet that condition, and the damage of 
unknown extent that is recognized to have, for instance, seriously affected some of the 
Ontario wheat and a larger quantity of Western wheat. Much of this is still in the 
shock, having gone into the winter wet, and in its frozen state must await favourable 
spring weather before it can be threshed. A further and perhaps larger quantity 
having been threshed and piled in the fields with an insufficient srraw covering, will 
be exposed to serious damage in the spring. 

In order to apply a further test to the data used in the above table, we present the 
following analysis of the disposition of the United States and Canadian crops using for 
that purpose chiefly the data furnished by Mr. Broomhall and our own Census and 
Statistics Office. 






165 



Disposition of the U.S. Crop 

Bushels 

Seed Requirements for 1916 crop (same as 1915 official) 86,000,000 

Bread Requirements (Broomhail) 550,000,000 

Damaged Wheat unsuitable for flour (10%). . ( l) 100,000,000 

Carry over in excess of last year (Broomhail) 25,000,000 

Total : 761,000,000 

Exportable surplus 250,000,000 

Total U.S. crop 1,011,000,000 

(1) Broomhail allows 150,000,000 bushels. 

Disposition of Canadian Crop 

Seed Requirements for 1916 (Census Office) 25,000,000 

Bread Requirements (Census Office) 50,000,000 

Damaged Wheat unsiutable for flour (10%), (Census Office) 37,000,000 

Carry over in excess of last year (2) 12,000,000 

Total 124,000,000 

Probable actual exports (Broomhail) 216,000,000 

Probably held over for subsequent export 36,000,000 

Total Canadian Crop 376,000,000 

(2) Double this quantity might be nearer the real requirements for reserve stocks. 

In view, therefore, of Europe's great needs, it seems providential that Nature 
should have provided such an abundance of supplies. These, however, from our 
analysis of. the situation, do not appear to materially exceed the requirements of import- 
ing countries for food and the replenishing of reserve stocks nor do they exceed the 
requirements of the exporting countries themselves to replenish their own stores against 
the uncertainties of the future, some of which are already developing into serious 
threats of future shortage. 



166 



2 z 

o O 

u 

W O 
C '^ 

o w 

«-• £ 

<— — 
^ H 

hi Z 
9 3 

fa 

*o 
d 

o 

00 

«5 

a 

I 

- 
2 

GO 









Is 






g 
o 
o 

.a s 

t/3 



o£ 



as 

05 O 



G d 
a) 5 



© 

> .s 1 

^ -3 *o~ 

05 G . 

•G <L> J2 
f fa 



o o o o o o o 

o o o o o o o 

© © © © o o o 

©" ©~ ©~ rjT © O0 <N 

© <M rj< © 00 "<* t>- 

N h N N * 00 X 

co* i-T tiT t-T rx i-T 

© co © 

co 



© © © © © © © 


© 


© © o © © © © 


© 


©©©©©©© 


© 






00 00 o o •* 00 00 


© 


00 00 Tt* (N O "* (N 


i-l 


© © <M t^ i-t 00 i-i 


<■* 






»0 i-H © i-l t-H 


l> 


<M rH 


rt< 


<N 


<M 



© © 
© © 
© ©_ 

GO" <M*" 
CO ^ 
<M*" CO- 



X 



•a 

G 
U 

G 
aJ 

05 

— 

05 



© ■© © © 

© © © © 

© © O ©_ 

©" tjT o" ©" 

© 00 © © 

© OS HO ©_ 

i-T t>T O rf 



© © 
© © 
©_ © 
oo" t»T 

i-l OS 



© © © 


© 


© © © 


© 


©_ ©_ ©_ 


© 






©"" c<f ©~ 


c* 


■^ 1-1 © 


o 


CO tO H 


CO 



© © © 
© © o 
©_ ©^ ©_ 


o 
© 
© 


c^r ©~ ©~ 

IQ ■* O 
© 00 


00~ 

© 



G 
bfl 
G 
U 

-a 






"Si S J H 1 I 4 

■D tf CQ J5 < < c/) 
167 



Russell's Commercial Review of February 8, 1916, has a paragraph reading in 
part as follows: — "As a result of a movement of wheat from North America from July 1 
to December 31st, the official exports from the United States "were 120,693,000 bushels 
against 177,088,000 bushels, last year, and Canada 129,539,000 bushels against 
55,612,000 bushels last year. During the five weeks just past the exports from North 
America have been 55,666,000 bushels against 46,658,000 bushels a year ago, with a 
large portion of these shipments still of Canadian wheat." 

In the above table Broomhall shows what a large proportion of the total shipments 
are credited to Canada and the United States together. The official figures of exports 
of Canadian wheat and flour as wheat since the 1st of August, 1915, secured from the 
Canadian Customs Department follow: — 

Exports — Canada Bushels 

Aug. 1915 ; . 3,149,532 

Sept. 1915 7,629,162 

Oct. 1915 35,144,450 

Nov. 1915 47,045,176 

Dec. 1915 42,524,051 

Jan. 1916 8,245,627 

Total 143,737,998 

Apart from Canada's exceptionally large crop, is there any explanation to offer why 
her exports should compare so favourably with those of the United States? It is under- 
stood that through the energetic representations of the Federal Government an under- 
standing had early in the shipping season been reached with the British Government 
by which the latter should furnish the maximum number of ships for the distribution of 
Canadian grain. Apart from that, however, the Canada Grain Act of 1912 establishes 
definite grades of quality and provides for the control of these grades through strict 
inspection under the Grain Commission. The object of the Act was to perfect the 
system of Government supervision and control of the grain trade and to do away with 
difficulties and grievances which had arisen under the former law. In a supplement 
to George Broomhall's "Corn Trade News" of January 4, 1916, there is contained a 
long statement from the "London Corn Trade Association" communicated by the 
American Ambassador in London to the United States Secretary of Agriculture. In 
this statement — made on behalf of the London Corn Trade Association and "many 
European buyers of United States Grain shipped from Atlantic and Gulf ports," there 
is "expressed grave dissatisfaction with the conditions of trading in respect of the 
quality of grain exported on Certificate." 

The rules governing the inspection of No. 2 Hard Winter Wheat in the State of Illinois 

are quoted and the statement denying that any of the specified qualities existed follows: 

"Large quantities of No. 2 Hard Winter Wheat, 1915 crop, Chicago Inspection, 

have been sold and shipped in the last few months. A very large proportion of this 

wheat was neither dry, nor sound, nor sweet, nor did it weigh 59 pounds per bushel, 

nor even was it in any degree hard on its arrival in this country. Evidence in support 

of these statements is provided in Appendix A. accompanying this communication." 

The representations rather favour buying on sealed sample as practised in the 

Russian trade but commend the Canadian law and practice in the following words: 

"Prior to 1912, serious complaints were made against Canadian grading, but the 

Dominion Grain Act of 1912 and the administrative arrangements ancillary thereto, 

, have effected very great improvements so that all European buyers have now confidence 

in Canadian certificates, and though a great number prefer trading on sample or on 

standard, they acquiesce in the system of grading and its concomitant 'certificate final,' 

as established by Canadian law and carried out by Canadian practice." 

It may be inferred from the long communication that Canada's success in marketing 
her huge crop is to be ascribed in a considerable measure to the beneficial operation of the 
Grain Act, as the last paragraphs which we quote as follows show how strongly the 
London Association feel on the question of federal inspection: 

168 



"It is indisputable that in normal times when the harvests in the producing countries 
are favourable, the state of affairs which has led to the present complaints will militate 
strongly against American certificated wheat obtaining its proper intrinsic value in 
competition with those of other countries. It is hard to believe that even those sellers 
who are dominated by considerations of merely personal advantage can be satisfied 
with this state of affairs, and it must be in the highest degree unsatisfactory to honour- 
able traders in the States who have to suffer for the misdeeds of the unscrupulous ones. 

"Federal Inspection seems to be the only way to produce a uniformity in quality. 
Any other way may well be described as a "stupendous undertaking." The want of 
uniformity in a system of grading must result in a lowering of the value of the whole 
crop, for buyers naturally base their price on the poorest quality they may receive. 
Separate grading by different ports tends to the lowering of the grades in the endeavour 
to secure trade. 

"In our opinion neither sellers nor buyers should serve upon grading Committees 
nor have control of inspections. 

"The chief point we desire to emphasize is that grain should be graded on its intrinsic 
merits according to standards which should not vary from season to season. Uniformity 
of treatment should be accorded to domestic and foreign buyers. For these and other 
reasons Federal grading appears to be necessary if operations in American grain are to 
be conducted to the greatest mutual advantage of traders on both sides of the Atlantic, 
and if the producer is to receive the highest current prices for his grain." 



Record Crops, their Infrequency and their Recurrence — Significance of this 

Fact. 

The United States have, in the last three years, 1913, 1914, and 1915, established 
each year a new high record production of wheat, viz.: 763,000,000, 891,000,000, and 
1,011,000,000 bushels respectively. We have examined the annual production of the 
United States since she began to become a big exporter in 1882 and find no repetition 
of such an extraordinary performance. There are not even two new high records 
following each other. An examination of the following table will show how infrequent 
these new high records have been and how sometimes long periods of average low 
production have followed them. 

• Millions 

Year of Bushels 

1882 504 Record. 

1883 421 

1884 512 Record. 

1885 357 

1885-90 Average 6 years 425 

1891 611 Record. 

1892 515 

1892-97 Average 6 years 466 

1898 675 Record. 

1899 547 

1900 522 ' 

1901 748 Record. 

1902 670 

1904 552 

*1902-12 Average 11 years 659 

Million Yield 
Acres Per Acre. 

1913 50 15.2 763 Record. 

1914 53 16.6 891 Record. 

1915 59 16.9 1,011 Record. 

*Average acreage 46,000,OCO acres. 

169 



Note the total acreage and yield per acre during the last three new high record 
years; also the sharp rise from the 11-year average of 46,000,000 acres to 50, 53, and 59 
million acres respectively. The yields per acre in the last two years, viz. 16.6 and 16.9 
have not been equalled, not only in the whole period since 1882 but at any time. And the 
yield for 1913, 15.2, was in the 11-year period repeated only in 1906, 1909, and 1912, 
when the yields were 15.05, 15.4, and 15.9 respectively. 

Moreover, the whole period of 33 years, with the exception of the last three, does 
not show a grouping of three successive years of big crops. Observe in the table the 
years of low production which have almost invariably followed high record years. 

Other producing countries have had very similar experience although not so striking. 
Argentina had three good years in succession, 1906, 1907, and 1908, producing 155, 192, 
and 156 million bushels; but 1909 only produced 131 million. 1911 and 1912 gave 166 
and 187 million bushels, but 1913 only 113 million bushels. Although during the last 
two years the Argentine crops were fair ones, the record crop of 192 millions reaped in 
1907 has not since been repeated. Russia produced 154 million quintals in 1905; the 
production fell very much below that afterwards until 1909 when there was a record 
of 193 million quintals and a new record was not established again until 1913 when there 
were 228 million quintals. 

In Europe, the United Kingdon, Germany, and Austria-Hungary have had a 
pretty steady production, with the United Kingdom and Germany increasing their 
production. France and Italy, however, hardly hold their own. 

Canada's two good years 1912 and 1913 were followed by the short crop of 1914 
and the tremendous harvest of 1915. The determining factor in this big crop was not 
so much the increase of some 2,700,000 acres in crop but the difference in yield per acre 
between 15.67 in 1914 and 28.90 in 1915 practically doubled the crop. Such a magnifi- 
cent result can be reached again only by the miracle of perfect co-operation of Nature 
with the extraordinary efforts of our patriotic farmers. If Nature should not be 
propitious, then what a responsibility in this terrible conflict upon those who do not 
exert themselves to the utmost! Already there has been a bad start in that only 53% 
of the ploughing is reputed to have been done last fall in comparison with 71% in the 
fall of 1914. The official figures in November last were that at the end of October 
from 27 to 36% were ploughed compared with from 56 to 92% the previous year. 
There were 193,000 acres less sown to wheat last autumn than were sown in the previous 
autumn, besides there was 20% less summer fallowing than in 1914. 

What if the United States in the coming year should return to their 11-year average 
of 659,000,000 bushels and have only sufficient for their own absolute needs? Conditions 
were so unfavourable last fall that the acreage they were able to put in winter wheat 
was 4,756,000 acres short of that sown in the fall of 1914. The crop has already had 
a bad start with insufficient snow covering on a large area and has been visited by 
dangerous frosts. Damage is also reported from serious inundations so that the 
abandoned acreage in the coming spring is almost certain to be larger than last season 
which was exceptionally favourable from that point of view. With a serious drought 
affecting the crop which India is about to harvest in March, placing her probably 
outside of the group of exporting countries, how disastrous would be a crop failure in 
both Canada and the United States! 



Crop Prospects for the World s Wheat Crops in 1916 — Conclusions 

A few notes from the official reports and the leading Agricultural and Trade 
Journals will furnish some information concerning the conditions under which winter 
crops have been sown, how they are wintering, etc. 

170 



England and Wales — According to the January report of the Board of Agricul- 
ture, up to the end of December tfiree-fourths of the land intended for wheat had been 
seeded, and the sowings showed 6 to 7 per cent, decrease compared with those of the 
previous year. The condition of early sown wheat w r as generally good, but that of 
late sowings was not satisfactory. During January the condition of late sown wheat 
improved. On February 24th Mr. George Broomhall reported that weather in the 
United Kingdom was fairly seasonable and that some sowing was being done. (March 
14. — Weather unfavourable, being wet and late; seeding is being adversely affected.) 

Scotland — The wheat area is reported as considerably less than that of last year 
Except in a few localities the crop on February 1st was in promising condition. 

United States — The acreage sown to winter wheat in the United States last 
autumn is estimated at 37,256,000 acres, against 42,012,000 acres sown in the previous 
autumn, a reduction of 4,756,000. Besides this large reduction in the area sown all 
reports go to show that there will be a greater area abandoned this spring on account 
of winter killing than there was in the spring of 1915. During January and February 
very unfavourable reports of the condition of the crop were published. Reports from 
the "Modern Miller" republished in Broomhall's "Corn Trade News" stated that 
early in January the winter wheat belt in the United States had lost its snow cover. 
Towards the end of the month a general absence of snow was still complained of. On 
February 8th according to Broomhall, there were several reports mentioning cold 
weather in the winter belt and stating that frost had set in after rain had cleared the 
snow from the fields. In Kansas, Missouri, and Nebraska the frost was preceded by 
snow. On February 25th, Russell's "Market News" quoting from the "Modern 
Miller" stated that snow covering had been removed from the winter wheat crop, and 
unfavourable reports were coming in from a wide area. The crop was thin and the 
winter kill above the average. Unfavourable reports were coming in from southern 
Kansas, southern Illinois and southern Indiana. 

France — October was in general a good month and sowing and preparatory work 
were reported as proceeding with all possible speed. The weather in November was 
rainy, cold, and dry by turns, with storms, frost, and snow. Cereals showing above 
ground had generally a fine appearance. Towards the end of December George Broom- 
hall's correspondent reported that the official estimate of the crop, making the total 
production 237,000,000 bushels, was "greatly overestimated." On January 25th the 
Government had published their estimate that 12,500,000 acres had been sown to 
winter wheat up to January 1st compared with 14,500,000 bushels the preceding year. 
Still, he hoped more winter wheat would be sown in January and February and, weather 
favouring, some 500,000 to 1,200,000 acres might be sown to spring wheat. February 
1st, there was reported continued mild weather which caused some anxiety, as it promoted 
the growth of rank weeds and the development of insect pests. February 8. — Many 
complaints of excessively wet fields. It was hoped that later on when the cereal crops 
had made better growth that they would get ahead of the weeds and smother them. 
Labour has been very short for the seeding of new crops. It was stated that during 
February and March it was expected arrivals of foreign wheat and flour at French ports 
would be at the rate of 5,600,000 bushels per month and that from April 1st onward 
the arrivals would be at the rate of 7,200,000 bushels per month. 

The estimated requirements in 1914-15 were 41,000,000 bushels, but the actual 
imports turned out to be some 70,000,000. It is believed that for the year 1915-16 
also the forecast will be exceeded by the reality. Broomhall's cable of February 24th 
stated that the outlook for wheat was fairly satisfactory. It was hoped that the 
Government would furnish sufficient labour for large spring sowing. Imports for the 
five months, August to December 31, 1915, were about 40,006,000 bushels. March 
14. — Broomhall cabled: Supplies insufficient; importation continues on large scale. 

Italy — In November it was reported that in northern Italy cereals were growing 
under satisfactory conditions, but that elsewhere there had been too much rain in 

171 



places. January 4. — The outlook for the new crops was generally favourable. Jan. 4. — 
It was reported that the Government had commandeered all the wheat and maize; 
that, moreover, an arrangement had been made for the better supply of steamers to 
bring necessary supplies of wheat, coal, and provisions. The report of February 1st, 
although generally favourable, complained that the southern districts lacked rain. 

February 24. — Official report stated the crop outlook was satisfactory with the 
weather seasonable. March 14. — Crop outlook fair; reserves light. 

Egypt and North Africa — Reports from the beginning indicated wheat had been 
sown under favourable conditions, subsequently the germination had been good and 
young plants healthy. February 24. — Rains had fallen and crops benefited. 

Russia — The conditions of winter sowing were reported extremely favourable. 
Out of 64 provinces the sowings in 12 were satisfactory and in 52 above average in 
various degrees. December 19. — Broomhall's correspondent stated that up to that 
time the fields in many regions had not possessed a good blanket of snow, but that the 
winter sowings had gone under snow in a healthy condition. Various reports mention a 
decrease in the area under winter grain, but the position of the new crop was reported 
as quite satisfactory. According to Broomhall's Corn Trade News for Feb. 15th a 
report just received from Petrograd confirms that in some parts there has been a sharp 
decrease in the land put under winter cereals. The causes of the decrease are given as 
scarcity of labour and scarcity of horses, whilst in some parts war conditions are directly 
responsible for the smaller sowings. It is thought that the area under spring crops in 
the south and south-east of Russia will also show a large decrease. In January there 
were complaints that the millers found it difficult to obtain supplies owing chiefly to 
railway waggons and scarcity of bags. Jan. 11. — There was severe frost reported in 
the centre and north; in the south rain and snow alternated. February 8. — Conditions 
generally favourable although in the south in parts where there was no snow covering there 
were fears of damage from late frosts. Supplies appeared to be about fair. February 
24. — Snow covering reported thin and parts of territory very cold. Officials believe 
that crops are all right. Private reports are unfavourable. Officials confirm 20% 
decrease in acreage. 

Germany and Austria-Hungary — Crop conditions were from the beginning 
reported to be generally favourable. At the end of December frequent food riots were 
reported in Germany. February 10. — Hungary was issuing bread tickets giving the 
right to one-half pound daily for each person. Potatoes arriving in Berlin showed 
much damage from frost. Jan. 4. — It was reported that 50,000 railway waggons of 
Rumanian wheat were bought by Germany at 161,000,000 francs; 39,000,000 francs of 
export duty had to be paid, 13^ millions of it in gold. Much dissatisfaction was 
expressed by the Germans at these conditions. Jan. 18. — Crop conditions in Germany 
were reported as generally favourable, but heavy rains did some damage. The official 
Census Report was that there were sufficient supplies of breadstuffs until the new crops, 
but later the supplies turned out not to be as big as expected, therefore the bread ration 
had to be reduced, and instructions given that no more low-class rye meal must be used 
for the pigs. 

February 1. — There were complaints at the slow marketing of the crops, and the 
Government provided for a gradual increase in the maximum prices of products to induce 
free sales. The marketing of potatoes was especially slow; although the poorer 
qualities for cattle were more freely offered, the better qualities were held back in the 
hope that a higher maximum price would be fixed. In February the weather was 
reported moderately colder with some slight frosts. There were some complaints of 
floods which, however, were not excessive. The statement that there was no scarcity 
of cattle foods is very much doubted. February 24. — Weather was reported moderately 
mild with occasional rain. No complaints heard from crops. Reports from Hungary, 
same date, indicated weather and crop news were favourable. 

172 



Spain — The recent official estimate of the 1915 crop reduced the previous one by 
some 5,000,000 bushels, making it 139,200,000 bushels, which compares with 116,000,000 
bushels in 1914. Mr. Broomhall states that "official and unofficial authorities grant a 
large crop for 1915, but so far the supplies have not been in accordance with the estimates 

and imports have been made freely." "The imports already made and the 

different qualities authorized to be imported free do not confirm the big crop estimates. 
If the large crop was actually gathered, it would appear that the growers must be 
holding back a considerable part of their wheat." At the end of December the weather 
was reported favourable for the new crops. February 1. — The new sowings were 
reported as follows: — 

Wheat 9,843,000 acres Increase 6% 

Rye 1,725,000 acres Decrease 5% 

Barley 4,214,000 acres Increase 21% 

Oats 1,070,000 acres Increase 17% 

The sowings were made under good conditions with germination regular. March 
14. — Outlook fair; reserves light. 

Scandinavia — Extraordinarily low temperatures have prevailed in these countries, 
but it is not yet known whether the very severe frosts have had any harmful effect on 
the winter crops. February 8. — Norway abolished the duty on wheat and Sweden 
had already taken similar action to be effective until July. 

South Africa — February 8. — The winter harvest at Cape Town was reported as 
favourable, but the official advices indicated that the out turn in the other parts of the 
Union was much less favourable, and the general harvest reported 10% below last year's. 
March 14. — Drought damage denied. 

Australia — An arrangement was made in November for marketing the whole 
Australian wheat crop. The Federal and State Governments adopted a scheme for 
financing and handling the harvest, a Government Committee of experts to act as 
sellers and pool the proceeds, all the expenses of handling, transport, and sale of the 
harvest to be paid out of the pooled funds. The balance is to be distributed to the 
farmers, who will receive an advance up to 3s. per bushel. February 8. — It was 
announced the crop movement was developing slowly. Offers were not large but very 
steady. March 14. — Favourable rains for new crop. Offerings are limited, and 
chartering slow. 

Argentina — The crop harvested in January 1915, 168,470,000 bushels, furnished for 
actual export 94,356,000 bushels according to Broomhall. The officials expected that 
the crop harvested in January of the present year, 184,000,000 bushels, 16% larger 
than that of the previous year, would normally supply for export about 110,000,000 
bushels. In the official Bulletin of August-September, 1915, the disposition of a former 
crop of like amount 183,000,000 bushels was referred to as normal and should furnish 
for export 110,000,000 bushels, for seed 20,000,000, for consumption 40,000,000, in all 
170,000,000 bushels, leaving 13,000,000 bushels to be discarded as unmillable wheat. 
The Argentine "Times" of December last estimated however that owing to the scarcity 
of tonnage not more than 70% of the available supplies from the 1915-16 crops would 
be shipped. According to BroomhaH's cable of February 24th wheat offers were 
moderate and quality satisfactory. 

India — Since October the greatest anxiety has been felt concerning the crops 
owing to the existence of droughty conditions especially in the great wheat producing 
provinces of the Punjaub and in the United Provinces. A cable from Calcutta at the 
end of February states, however, that beneficial rains have fallen in the Punjaub, the 
United and Central Provinces and in Bihar. Our correspondent at Muzaffarnagar, 
United Provinces, cables that there they have had light, beneficial rains. 

One-half of the area of the Punjaub and in the United Provinces fortunately is 
irrigated, that is, 5,800,000 acres are irrigated, and this encourages the hope that 

173 



although this year's crop may not be a good one yet it will be sufficient to prevent 
any fear of famine. In the other provinces irrigated area would probably not average 
five per cent. 

February 1. — Total area in wheat was reported revised to 28,244,000 acres as 
against 29,752,000 the previous year, a decrease of 5%. Exports from India were 
stopped in October on the first appearance of dry weather. March 14. — Crop promises 
well, of fair quality. 

Conclusions 

The statements and data mentioned in the preceding pages may now be briefly 
summarized. When it became known by the midsummer of 1915 that the world's 
wheat crops would reach a record figure prices fell on this Continent even considerably 
below the dollar mark. Overseas importers with low reserve stocks at home, while 
floating supplies were reduced by one-half, neglected for a time to take advantage of 
the opportunities for the purchase of comparatively cheap wheat. When it was realized 
that a large proportion of the United States winter wheat crop was unmillable and sup- 
plies of merchantable wheat were slow in coming to market a sudden demand sprang up 
for wheat and fdr ships to carry it. The fact that huge spring crops of prime quality 
had been harvested did not interrupt that persistent demand nor did the fact that the 
subsequent harvests of the Southern Hemisphere were equally promising. Note, 
however, was taken of the seriousness of the drought prevailing in India where earlier in 
the season a bumper crop had been predicted. A further discouraging factor from the 
importer's point of view was the United States winter wheat report indicating a reduc- 
tion of 4,700,000 acres seeded to that cereal and a disappointing pre-winter condition. 

However, the ocean freight situation had become of greater importance to the 
European importer than the enhanced prices. At the end of September freights had 
already advanced as much as 50% in a month and were already twice as high as the 
rates ruling the year previous when they were considered above normal. 

Practically one-half of the merchant marine had disappeared from the ordinary 
channels of trade, and there was the keenest competition to secure the tonnage of the 
remaining half, so that by January the previously unheard of rates of 50 cents per bushel 
from New York to Liverpool and $1.00 from Buenos Aires were reached. Mr. Broom- 
hall aptly observed on January 18th that while the price of wheat had risen 90% there 
had been a rise of nearly 500% in freights. Then came Government intervention. 
The Government of Australia intervened to remedy the situation in so far as the 
transportation of the Commonwealth wheat crop was concerned, and the British Home 
Government subsequently took action that tended at first to steady and afterwards to 
reduce the exorbitant charges. 

Concerning prices, we have observed in this war the same tendency as in other 
great wars for the price of wheat to rise and fluctuate widely with the predominance of 
a comparatively high level even in spite of record production in the exporting countries. 
We have examined how for thirty years the enormous stores of wheat from virgin lands 
flooded Europe with cheap wheat; how increased population, and demand from increased 
consumption was finally capable of absorbing the whole production; how there followed 
what might be termed a stabilizing of production, so that fluctuations through a series 
of years resulted in a fair average, there being shown an increase of only 2% per annum 
in the total production of the world's wheat crops during the ten years ending August 1914. 

Even with the exploitation of new sources of supply there has been from year to 
year "since 1895 a higher level of prices, which persisted until 1909, and there is some 
better basis than a mere pious hope that the low average prices of 1910, 1911 and 1912 
will not be repeated. 

Our tables have shown that since the outbreak of the war fairly high prices have 
been maintained with the exception of about three months in the late summer and 
fall of 1915. It has been suggested that some big milling interests and elevator com- 
panies were last season, as they had been often before, quite active in inducing the 

174 



needy and timid producers to dump their wheat on to the market at any price until such 
time after the completion of the harvesting and threshing as the buyer's depleted supplies 
had been replenished. There were, however, many excellent reasons which have been 
mentioned why prices should rise again and maintain a fairly reasonable average. And 
in times of such stress in the Motherland and among our Allies, it is indeed fortunate 
that Mother Earth should have, during the past season, yielded up her treasures in 
such extraordinary abundance that, with prices only good to average the farmer should 
have been able to receive a very satisfactory reward for his toil. In the autumn of 
1915, Europe's needs apparently had developed beyond the expectations of our Allies, 
some of whom at first naturally took the most optimistic view, inspired by the fair 
outturn of home grown crops and the reputed unlimited supplies soon to be available 
from abundant foreign harvests. The demands of France early became particularly 
urgent, and her first needs having been satisfied by imports from the United Kingdom, 
the latter's stores, with very little wheat arriving from overseas, soon dwindled to a 
record low point. Then arose the exorbitant freight rates nearly doubling the price 
to the European consumer, with nearly one-half of the total price, especially in the 
case of wheat from Argentina, going to the ship owner. This abnormal rise in freights, 
although having a tendency to deprive the producer of a due proportion of his legitimate 
profits, established a margin of difference of charges in favour of the North Atlantic 
route as compared with the rates from the Southern Hemisphere. Fortunately, the 
Canadian exporter was protected further because of the beneficial operation of the 
"Grain Act" and its wise administration, by means of which grain of uniform good 
quality is assured to the importer. Then there was an unlimited supply of Hard 
Wheat of prime quality for which there has been an almost unlimited demand. We 
have seen that Mr. Broomhall expected Canada's exports to exceed those of the United 
States, and it will not be surprising if there should be a demand limited only by the 
facilities for shipment, and the huge shipments of October, November and December 
may be repeated on the opening of navigation, with India practically out of the field 
as a competitive exporter. It is to be noted that the exports in our tables are estimated 
to the end of the world's grain year, namely August 1st, so that shipment of Canada's 
old crop may continue practically for two months longer without coming into com- 
petition with the new crop. 

There seems a good basis for the opinion that the United States will not repeat 
in the coming season the great crops reaped during the last two years. The history 
of the past shows the improbability of it, and the ascertained facts concerning the 
winter crop, which has already been sown, emphasizes the improbability of it. It 
will be noted that, in so far as facts are definitely known, conditions in Europe, especially 
at sowing time, were not propitious. In the enormous preparations that have been 
going on for probably the fiercest struggle of the great conflict during the next few 
months there has been, and there must continue to be, a lack of labour and motive 
power as well for the sowing as for the subsequent tilling and harvest. It has become 
practically impossible to resort to the customary intensive methods with the use of 
fertilizers on regular rotations. We see in France the unfortunate results from forced 
abandonment of the old methods in the rank growth of weeds that probably can be 
but imperfectly controlled. Mr. Richardson, of Australia, has estimated from con- 
sideration of these and various other causes a reduction in Europe's wheat production 
for 1915 of at least 15%. It is doubtful if this is not an underestimate as applied to 
the coming season, because the production of crops other than wheat, and especially 
roots, will suffer even more than that cereal from the war conditions. We have seen an 
instance of this in the very striking drop in the French production of potatoes and 
sugar beets, probably because of the absence of labour and fertilizers needed in their 
cultivation. 

The conclusion therefore appears obvious. There is a reasonable expectation 
that remunerative prices will be well maintained, and there is every inducement to 
the Canadian farmers to extend to the utmost in the coming spring the cultivation of 

175 



wheat. Nature is not always prodigal of her treasures, and although the yield per 
acre for the 1915 crop was at the record figure of nearly 29 bushels per acre, the average 
yield for the preceding five years 1910-14 was only 18.55. Assuming an acreage equal 
to that of the past year and with a good fair yield of 20 bushels per acre, there would 
be harvested a crop of 260,000,000 bushels or over 100,000,000 bushels less than 
that of last year with which to face a demand which, from all present appearances, 
will exceed anything that we have seen in this war. 

The price of meat products is also well sustained, and the cultivation of the coarser 
grains and fodders required will ensure good profits to the live stock farmer. Economic 
interests unite, therefore, with patriotic duty in stimulating the agriculturists of Canada 
to extraordinary productive efforts during the forthcoming season. 



Countries 



World's Production of Wheat 

1915 1914 



1913 



Bushels 

Germany 

Austria 

Hungary 151,407,000 

Belgium 

Bulgaria 46,612,000 

Denmark 4,917,000 

Spain 139,160,000 

France 237,806,000(a) 

Great Britain and Ireland 74,116,000 

Greece 8,000,000(b) 

Herzegovina and Bosnia. l,600,000(b) 

Italy 172,695,000 

Luxemburg 516,000 

Norway 269,000 

Holland 6,216,000 

Portugal 8,000,000(b) 

Rumania 108,761,000 

Russia in Europe (54 

Governments) 764,975,000 

Serbia 

Sweden 6,400,000(b) 

Switzerland 3,880,000 

Canada 376,303,000 

United States 1,011,505,000 

Mexico 8,000,000(b) 

Argentina 184,162,000 

India 383,376,000 

Japan 23,669,000 

Russia in Asia (10 

Governments) 143,849,000 

Algeria 34,655,030 

Egypt 39,148,000 

Tunis 11,023,000 

Australia 143,000,000 

Totalsexcluding Germany, 

Austria, Belgium and 

Serbia 4,094,021,000 

(a) Not including territory occupied by enemy. 

(b) From BroomhaH's Corn Trade News. 

176 



Bushels 
152,000,000(b) 
60,842,000 
105,144,000 
13,973,000 
29,414,000 
5,788,000 
116,090,000 
282,691,000(a) 
62,432,000 
5,600,000(b) 
l,600,000(b) 
169,444,000 
613,000 
269,000 
5,380,000 
8,000,000(b) 
46,296,000 

573,300,000 

8,000,000(b) 

7,619,000 

3,278,000 

161,280,000 

891,017,000 

8,000,000(b) 
168,470,000 
311,688,000 
21,645,000 

179,348,000 

20,000,000(b) 

32,832,000 

2,205,000 

24,922,000 



3,244,365,000 



Bushels 

171,077,000 

59,626,000 

167,351,000 

14,769,000 

60,627,000 

6,695,000 

112,402,000 

319,373,000 

56,696,000 

4,000,000(b) 

2,560,000(b) 

214,407,000 

644,000 

324,000 

5,081,000 

5,600,000(b) 

84,192,000 

813,784,000 

11,024,000 

9,330,000 

3,509,000 

231,717,000 

763,380,000 

10,400,000(b) 
113,905,000 
362,693,000 
25,207,000 

121,143,000 

36,848,000 

38,427,000 

5,515,000 

103.874,000 



3.679,684,000 



World's Production of Oats 

1915 1914 1913 

Countries Bushels Bushels Bushels 

Germany 567,575,000 629,871,000 

Austria. 154,796,000 173,606,000 

Hungary 75,404,000 81,447,000 93,937,000 

Belgium 46,816,000 45,136,000 

Bulgaria 8,983,000 8,116,000 12,968,000 

Denmark 48,956,000 44,440,000 53,755,000 

Spain 34,207,000 29,390,000 23,843,000 

France 242,912,000(a) 299,610,000 336,049.000 

Great Britain and 

Ireland 205,311,000 189,618,000 189,588,000 

Italy 29,594,000 25,249,000 40,912,000 

Luxemburg 2,000,000 3,562,000 3,425,000 

Norway 8,777,000 8,777,000 12,870,000 

Netherlands 18,488,000 18,784,000 19,875,000 

Rumania 28,172,000 23,823,000 35,756,000 

Russia in Europe 

(54 Governments) .... 902,616,000 680,017,000 961,107,000 

Switzerland 5,220,000 4,883,000 4,792,000 

Canada 520,103,000 313,078,000 404,669,000 

United States 1,540,362,000 1,141,060,000 1,121,768,000 

Russia in Asia 

(10 Governments).... 130,643,000 153,033,000 113,966,000 

Algeria 14,195,000 12,877,000 16,916,000 

Tunis 3,242,000 648,000 3,891,000 

Argentina 71,000,000 53,884,000 47,983,000 

Totals excluding Ger- 
many, Austria, and 
Belgium 3,890,185,000 3,092,296,000 3,498,070,000 

(a) Not including the regions occupied by the enemy. 

HOW AUSTRALIA IS MARKETING ITS WHEAT 

As the 1915 wheat harvest drew near in Australia, the grain grower began to 
realize that he was in a very serious position. With the ocean freight situation governed 
by war conditions, and with the uncertainty as to wheat prices being maintained, no 
private firm or combination of firms dared to take the risk of large purchases, for, if 
unable to market while prices remained high, they might lose millions. 

Under these circumstances, there was a strong probability that the bulk of the 
crop would remain unmarketed, and price demoralization threatened results that 
would be disastrous to the farmers, who needed the cash for their crop, and to the 
whole community. 

On the other hand, the world was clamouring for wheat; there was no difficulty in 
finding buyers, and the country had a surplus of 150,000,000 bushels for export. The 
Government recognized that the question was of national importance. It was vital 
not only to the Australian farmer, but to the Empire, that the crop should be profitably 
marketed. Some means must be found for disposing of it. 

The scarcity of ocean vessels was at the root of the difficulty. Therefore, the 
first step was to secure all vessels controlled by the Commonwealth, in order to supple- 
ment those placed at the Government's disposal by the British Admiralty. Assuming 

177 



that this would provide sufficient transportation, the problem was still only half solved. 
No guarantee could be given that ships would not be requisitioned for war purposes. 
Grain buyers declared "We will not buy a single bushel of wheat more than we have 
ships to fill, and those ships must be allotted to us absolutely," — something that even 
the Government could not guarantee. 

The Government therefore decided to assume the responsibility. The risk involved 
many millions. Only the Government with the resources of the country behind it 
could shoulder the responsibility of handling the entire crop and face the risk of lack 
of vessels and a falling market. 

The scheme was a "pool" in which every farmer became a shareholder. First, 
the Government took complete control of the crop and of its disposal. No one could 
sell except to the Government; no one could buy except from the Government. 

It was then decided that the farmer should be advanced 75c. per bushel on his 
wheat, less freight from his station to principal shipping points. Arrangements were 
made with the Associated Banks to finance the undertaking. Farmers were to deliver 
their grain to the mills or railway stations, receiving the usual certificate, and on pre- 
senting same at the bank, were paid the sum called for. 

For the money provided by the banks, amounting to millions of pounds sterling, 
a charge of 5% is made, which is a much lower rate than could have been secured by 
independent buyers. 

Through agents, the Government undertakes to receive, forward and market the 
wheat. When the crop is finally disposed of, the balance, if any, over and above the 75 
cents advanced, will be paid the farmer. He will thus receive all that the wheat realizes, 
less cost of handling, ocean transportation, marketing, and the 5 per cent, charged by 
the banks on the money advanced. Should the crop realize $1.14 net per bushel, there 
will be a dividend of 39 cents payable on each bushel. Not only will he get full parity 
price for the wheat shipped out of the country, but also for every bushel used in internal 
trade, provision having been made for supplying millers at a price to be approximately 
the London parity. All will receive the same equitable treatment. 

In normal seasons, ocean freight rates average from 16 to 24 cents per bushel. 
In December last the rate was quoted at 60 to 70 cents per bushel. Such tonnage as 
was available cost, including insurance, about 70 cents. According to the Journal of 
the Victoria, Australia, Department of Agriculture, the farmers were receiving the 
benefit of a reduction of from six to twelve cents per bushel in ocean freight, as a result 
of doing away with competition between dealers for vessel space. 

The undertaking may be defined as a co-operative realization of the harvest, with 
the State acting as manager. Had it not been for this scheme, more than half the 
farmers of Australia would have faced ruin, with disastrous results to the whole com- 
munity, a situation which, it is conceded, justified the Government in taking action 
looking to its control. 

Will it work out? It will, provided the Government can get the shipping. That 
is the risk the Government, or rather the country at large, must take. 



THE WHEAT CROP IN RUSSIA 

W. KOTCHETKOV, Assist. Agricultural Commissioner from Russia to the 

United States 

Wheat is cultivated in almost every part of the Russian empire, but the principal 
regions of this crop are the provinces of black soils (tchernozem) of European Russia. 
The distribution of the area under wheat crop in different parts of the Empire is shown 
in the following table, according to the data of the Yearbook of the Russian Department 
of Agriculture for 1912: 

178 



Table I. 

Area in desiatins* under 

Region, and Provinces Winter Spring 

wheat wheat 

I. Region of black soils: 

1. Central agricultural provinces (Voronesh, Kursk, Orel, 

Riazan, Tambov, Tula) 156,634 663,945 

2. Middle Volga (Kazan, Nizhny-Novgorod, Penza, Saratov, 

Simbirsk, Ufa) 6,658 1,644,659 

3. Low Volga (Astrakhan, Orenburg, Samara) 10,491 3,991,897 

4. Novorussia (Bessarabie, Cossacks of Don, Ekaterinoslav, 

Taurida, Cherson) 1,870,149 6,461,593 

5. South Western (Volyn, Kiev, Podolsk) 1,104,008 112,306 

6. Little Russia (Poltava, Charkov, Tchernigov) 207,913 1,275,624 

Total for Region 3,355,853 14,150,024 

Total Winter and Spring 17,505,877 

II. Region of other soils: 

1. Industrial provinces (Vladimir, Kaluga, Kostrome, Moscow, 

Tver, Yaroslav) . 1,417 31,569 

2. White Russia (Vitebsk, Minsk, Mohilev, Smolensk) 24,005 27,149 

3. Lithuania (Vilne, Grodno, Kovna) 77,993 16,316 

4. Provinces of Lakes (Novgorod, Olonetsk, Petrograd, Pskov) 4,072 1,744 

5. Baltic Sea (Curland, Livland, Estland) 31,070 6,040 

6. Provinces of Ural (Viatka, Perm) 16 621,438 

7. Northern (Archangel, Vologda) 1 16,586 

Total for Region 138,574 720,842 



Total Winter and Spring 859,416 

* 1 desiatin = 2.7 acres. 

III. Provinces of Vistula. (Warsaw, Kalish, Keltze, 
Lomzha, Lublin, Petrokov, Plotsk,Radom, Suvalki, Sedlets) 459,292 2,817 



Total Winter and Spring 462,109 

IV. Caucasus 3,134,965 1,518,428 

V. Siberia 4,704 2,598,109 

VI. Middle Asia (Akmolinsk, Semipalatinsk, Semire- 
tchensk, Turgai, Ural, Syr-Daria, Samarkand, 

Fergana, Trans-Caspien) 443,880 2,404,85S 

Total for the Empire 7,537,268 21,395,078 

Total Winter and Spring 28,932,346 

It can be seen from this table that the area under winter and spring wheat in 
European Russia, with Poland (provinces of Vistula) but not including Caucasus, was 
in 1912: 

18,827,402 desiatins— 50,833,985 acres; and in Asiatic Russia and Caucasus: 

10,104,944 desiatins = 27,283,349 acres. 

In the sixty-three governments (provinces) of European Russia 92.9 per cent, of 
the total area (17,505,877 of 18,827,402 desiatins) under wheat cultivation is in the 
region of black soils. 

179 



The total yield of wheat is increasing, as shown by the following table: 



Year 



1890-1 
1895-6 
1900-1 
1903-4. 



For 


Average per 


Domestic 


member of 


Consumption 


population 




Poods 


94,949 


0.98 


291,042 


2.73 


386,886 


3.38 


525,094 


4.40 



Table II. 
Total net yield of wheat in 
63 governments of Euro- Exported 
pean Russia 

Thousands of Poods* 
265,957 171,008 

520,773 229,731 

525,981 139,095 

771,757 246,663 

Table II shows that the consumption of wheat in the country is increasing more 
rapidly than the export. The latter is about thirty per cent, of the total yield. The 
consumption per inhabitant, while it increased during the period 1892-1904 from 1.5 
poods (54 pounds) to 4.5 poods (162 pounds), may seem very low, but it is not to be 
forgotten that the principal bread stuff in Russia is rye, the total yield of which in the 
Empire was, in 1912, 1,602,263,000 poods as against 1,331,655,400 poods of wheat. 

The total yield of wheat in 1912 was distributed in different parts of the country 
as follows, in poods: 

Table III. 

Winter wheat Spring wheat 

European Russia 263,032,400 562,259,800 

Caucasus 176,278,200 83,251,100 

Siberia 317,500 113,842,700 

Middle Asia 23,426,000 109,247,700 



or 



463,054,100 868,601,300 

*1 pood = 36 English pounds. 7,720,000 tons 14,477,000 tons. 

The export of wheat in 1912 was 240,545,000 poods of grain, for the sum of 
258,824,000 rubles, and 7,352,000 poods of wheat flour, for the sum of 12,637,000 rubles. 




We have seen that most of the wheat is produced in the region of black soils in 
Southern Russia. On the map is shown (shaded with black lines) the region 
exporting wheat abroad or to other parts of the country. The following table (IV) 
gives the figures of transportation of wheat on the railroads from the region producing 
an excess of wheat to other parts of the country and abroad : 

Table IV. 
Year For Domestic Consumption For Export 

Thousands of Poods 

1895. 47,546 109,229 

1900 80,097 59,015 

1905 87,205 147,686 

1909 115,804 248,129 

In addition to the railways, the rivers form an important means of transportation, 
connected as they are by a system of canals, for example, the Volga River is connected 
with Petrograd. We are sorry not to be able to give you any figures concerning this 
means of transportation. On the railroads the grain is transported in sacks; on the 
rivers, in bulk in large barges (200 to 280 feet in length on the Volga) towed by steamers. 

Methods of Growing Wheat 

Table III shows that about two-thirds of the wheat produced in European Russia is 
spring wheat. %The methods of its culture are different in different parts. The best 
varieties of durum wheat are produced, up to the present time, on the lands which 
periodically are left for several years (5 to 15) for pastures and prairies, after having 
produced four or five different crops (wheat or flax, rye, oats, buckwheat). However, 
this kind of system is becoming more and more rare and can be found practically only 
in the extreme eastern parts of the region of black soils. As a rule the spring wheat is 
grown in the regular rotation of three years (fallows, rye, spring crops, such as wheat, 
oats, barley). The use of the farm manure is not yet general on the black soils, but 
its use is growing. There is no doubt that many virgin black soils are so rich in organic 
matter and nitrates that the use of manure is even harmful, especially in the dry years, 
causing the "burning" of the crop because of the excess of salts in the soil moisture. 
Experiments show that phosphates (acid phosphate, Thomas slag) give usually very 
good results on black soils, but its use in this region is only in the experimental stage. 
Practically, fertilizers are used on a large scale only in southwestern and western 
Russia for sugar beets. 

The methods of tillage for spring wheat are usually very simple. In the "steppes" 
(prairies) of southern and southeastern Russia, the virgin soil is ploughed in the fall to 
a depth of six to nine inches, harrowed in the spring, and the sown seed is harrowed 
again. 

Even now, in eastern and southern provinces, primitive ploughs ("Sabans") with a 
large flat iron share and wooden board, are used for the first deep ploughing, but this kind 
of an implement is becoming more and more exceptional, giving place to the modern 
ploughs of different kinds. 

In the regular three year rotation (see above) the field, after rye, is usually ploughed 
in the fall to the full depth of five to seven inches, harrowed in the early spring, some- 
times ploughed again, but shallow — four to five inches, and the sown seeds of wheat are 
harrowed or disced. The manuring, if any, always takes place in fallow, once for six 
or nine years, because of the lack of manure. In this case the spring wheat follows the 
manured rye. 

• The winter wheat is cultivated principally in western and southwestern provinces 
and in Caucasus. In the western par£ of Russia the methods of agriculture are more 
intensive and careful than in the East. The fallow preceding the wheat is always 
well manured. The peasants usually begin to plough the fallow late, at the end of June, 
but good farmers try to plough it for the first time in April or May, harrow several times 

181 






during the summer, in order to destroy weeds and to keep the upper part of the soil 
pulverised, to keep the moisture in the soil. Six or, at the least, four weeks before the 
time of sowing, which takes place in the first days of September, the field is ploughed 
shallow or cultivated or disced. 

The use of the modern ploughs (especially of German types Sack, or Eckert), discs, 
drills, harvesting machines, binders, horse rakes, etc., is very common at every middle 
sized or large farm, and the stores of Zemstvos (self-governing organs of the provinces 
or districts) and the co-operative stores are rapidly introducing modern implements 
among the peasants. 

Organization of Grain Elevators and other Grain Storehouses 

In Russia there is a network of grain elevators organized in many internal govern- 
ments by the State Bank. We shall give below the description of these elevators. 
In addition to this network, the Ministry of Trade and Industry raised the question 
of systematic creation of elevators in seaports. The preliminary programme of the 
Minister of Trade was approved by the State Duma in the sessions of 1912 and 1913. 

Below is data relative to the grain export trade of Russian ports and their need of 
grain elevators, according to the project of the Ministry of Trade and Industry. 

Archangel — The average annual trade in grain being estimated at 125,000 tons, 
the project admitted the desirability of having at this place four floating elevators. 
At this time there is only one private floating elevator. The local Board of the Port 
expressed the necessity of one permanent elevator with a capacity of 17,000 tons. 

Petrograd — The normal export of grain here is 900,000 tons, 350,000 tons of this 
arriving by railways and the remainder by waterways. In addition to the existing 
warehouses, a necessity was admitted for at least one elevator with a capacity of 35,000 
tons 

Revel — Many of the private warehouses at this place are quite distant from the 
line of landing of the vessels, and it was admitted to be urgently necessary to have here 
an elevator with a capacity of 17,000 tons and, later, another of the same capacity, after 
the completion of the Moscow-Revel Railway. 

Riga — It was proposed to build an elevator of 20,000 tons capacity and later 
another of 17,000 tons capacity. 

Windava — At the normal export of 230,000 tons per year, it was admitted desir- 
able to build here an elevator with a capacity of 17,000 tons. 

Libau — The private grain dealers solicited in 1913 for an elevator of 70,000 tons 
capacity. 

Odessa — Normal trade, 1,500,000 tons yearly. Projected an elevator with a 
capacity of 70,000 tons and well equipped warehouses with a capacity of 60,000 tons, 
and, later, another elevator of 70,000 tons capacity. 

Nicolaiev — The normal trade is estimated at 1,750,000 tons, more than 1,000,000 
tons of which needs storage. Estimating that an elevator will be filled six times 
during the season, the capacity of the necessary storage houses must be 185,000 tons. 
In addition to the existing elevator of 35,000 tons, it is necessary to have well equipped 
storage space for 150,000 tons. The Southern Railway Company planned to enlarge 
its existing elevator by the erection of a third building of a capacity of 25,000 tons. 

Cherson — It is admitted desirable to build here an elevator of 50,000 tons and 
well equipped warehouses. • 

Eupatoria needs an elevator of 25,000 tons. 

Theodosia needs an elevator with a capacity of 35,000 tons and well equipped 
warehouses for 17,000 tons. 

182 



Berdiansk — The normal grain export of this port is 400,000 tons yearly. About 
fifteen per cent, of this quantity is loaded from the cars directly to the steamers, and the 
total need of grain warehouses is estimated for this port at 60,000 tons. The existing 
storehouses are rather temporary, and, therefore, the port needs an elevator with a 
capacity of 35,000 tons, which could be enlarged later by an additional elevator of 25,000 
tons> 

Mariupol needs an elevator of 50,000 tons. Because of the planned improvements 
of this port its trade must grow, and it will soon need another elevator of the same 
capacity. With planned improvements of the port and building of the elevators, the 
export trade of Mariupol is expected to reach 800,000 tons of grain annually. 

Taganrog — It is planned to build an elevator of 35,000 tons capacity and ware- 
houses with capacity of 50,000 tons. 

Rostov — The normal export trade of grain is about 1 ,600,000 tons annually. About 
340,000 tons, or sixty per cent, of the grain imported by river, and 170,000 tons, or 
twenty-five per cent, of the grain imported by railroad, are loaded directly from the 
barges and cars. There is in the port a private elevator, with a capacity of 13,500 
tons, and warehouses with a capacity of about 115,000 tons. It is proposed to build 
on the new wharf two new elevators of 25,000 tons capacity each, and, in addition, two 
groups of well equipped warehouses with a total capacity of 50,000 tons. The project 
forsees also that, after the actual work of equipping the river Donets with locks is 
finished, it will be necessary to build here an additional elevator of 17,000 tons capacity. 

Novorossiisk — The normal annual export of grain is more than 1,000,000 tons. 
Twenty-five per cent, of the exported grain is loaded directly from the cars. The 
remainder of the grain needs warehouses of 130,000 tons capacity. The capacity of 
the existing elevator (the largest in Russia) and other grain warehouses is about 90,000 
tons. The remaining 40,000 tons will be more than covered by the obligatory building 
by the Vladicaucasus Railway of a second elevator with a capacity of 50,000 tons. 

If we add the needs of the ports of Azov, Eisk, Temruk and Kertch, we may admit 
the total immediate need of our ports as 

Elevators 6,000,000 tons 

Well equipped warehouses 170,000 tons 

The average cost of construction of elevators is estimated at $18.00 per ton of 
capacity, and of well equipped warehouses $10.00 per ten of capacity. 

If we admit that the project overestimated the work of the elevators and that the 
elevators will be filled not six, but five times in a year, and the warehouses four times in 
a year, the quantity of grain served yearly by the present and proposed grain storehouses 
will be, in round numbers: 

Proposed elevators 3,000,000 tons 

Proposed warehouses 650,000 tons 

Present existing elevators. 1,650,000 tons 

Total 5,300,000 tons 

or, approximately, five million tons, or more than one-half of the actual sea export. 

The Ministry of Trade and Industry asked, for this purpose, a credit of 25,000,000 
Rubles ($12,500,000.00). We have no information at hand concerning the subsequent 
fate of the above mentioned project of the Ministry of Trade. 

Actually the work of building a network of elevators in the country is in the hands 
of the State Bank, a Department of the Ministry of Finances. The latest information 
we have upon the activity of the State Bank in this direction we take from the "News 

183 



of the Ministry of Agriculture," No. 10, February 10, 1913. In an article entitled 
"Elevators of the State Bank" we find that, in 1912 and 1913, the Bank constructed 
new elevators in the following points: 

Griazi South Eastern R.R 25,000 tons capacity 

Valuiki " ■ " 8,500 " " 

Tolkai Samara-Zlatoust R.R 5,000 " " 

Abdulino ■ ■ " 12,000 " " 

Millerovo South Eastern R.R 10,000 " " 

Talova a « " 8,250 tt 

Lisk " " " 8,250 ■ 

Sorotchinska . .Orenburg-Tashkent R.R 12,000 " " 

Neprick ■ ■ " 5,000 « 

Bogata " " " 5,000 " 

Buguruslan. . . Samaro-Zlatoust R.R 10,000 " 

In 1914 the elevator in Samara, of 50,000 tons capacity, was opened. It was also 
planned to start in the spring of 1913 on the building of 19 elevators with a combined 
capacity of 185,700 tons. 

The whole system of State Bank elevators, comprising eighty-four elevators, was 
to be completed in 1916. The network of all these elevators covers eight provinces, 
i.e. Samara, Saratov, Simbirsk, Voronesh, Tambov, Penza, Orenburg, and Ufa. Later 
it is planned to enlarge this scheme to the south and the southwest (provinces of Kiev, 
Kharkov, Poltava) and to the east to Siberia. 

We find a description of the construction of State Bank elevators in an article by 
Mr. W. Alexandrov, in the "Agricultural Gazette" (the organ of the Russian Ministry 
of Agriculture) for 1914, No. 23. 

The smallest size elevator is 5,000 tons. The capacity of the elevators in each 
case is determined in relationship to the grain trade of the place, usually twenty to 
thirty per cent, of the latter. 

As a rule, the elevators are built upon the silo system; but, in some exceptional 
cases, in addition to the silo system, there are rooms for the storage of flour in sacks or 
oats in large bast sacks, prepared for shipment on the rivers Volga and Kama. Each 
silo has a capacity of from fifty to one hundred and seventy tons. 

The elevators are equipped with conveyors, automatic scales, machines for clean- 
ing the grain, etc. All the machinery is run by electricity from power station, which is 
placed in a separate brick building, near the elevator. The principal building materials 
used in the construction of the elevators are concrete, hollow concrete brick, iron and 
wood covered with iron. 



FARM STORAGE OF GRAIN 

E. A. HOWES, Dean of Faculty of Agriculture, Edmonton, Alta. 

The question of greater production has been a live one in the Province of Alberta 
during the past year. There has been an unusually large crop, a record breaker in fact; 
and the very size of the crop and the great bulk of grain to be marketed has brought 
to light a condition in the West that must be fairly faced. Reference is made to the 
congestion in grain traffic that automatically follows a large harvest. Advice is cheap, 
also there are probably several factors to consider in discussing the amelioration of 
present conditions, but one factor well worthy of careful consideration is treated in 
the following paragraphs. 

184 



That the crop last year was an unusually bountiful one was largely due to favourable 
climatic conditions. Nevertheless, the increased effort to make the land produce 
was partly accountable for it. This increased effort was called forth mainly 
by patriotic motives, but partly by a perfectly legitimate wish to profit by 
the unusual demand caused by war conditions. Part of the result is past 
history. Prices were undeniably good, but not as good as some expected. 
Probably prices could never go high enough to meet all expectations. However, the 
great trouble in this province lay in the fact that while yields were good and prices 
were good, most of the farmers, having no storage facilities of their own, wished to 
unload as early and as rapidly as possible. They could not always do this, and much 
dissatisfaction resulted, not to speak of definite loss caused by the delay. If, during 
the coming year, something could be done to mitigate this trouble, it would be a work 
well worth undertaking. 

It is not intended to offer suggestions to railroads, because car shortage is to be 
expected after harvest; indeed it appears most unreasonable to blame the roads for 
failing to carry, the year round, cars sufficient to handle the grain rush at autumn. 
The roads, however, should be urged to make all possible provision in mobilizing cars 
for the jam that is sure to come, following a favourable summer. Nevertheless, it would 
seem that the farmer should shoulder a certain amount of the responsibility. Ready- 
made granaries are not hard to procure, and while these cost money, and it is cheaper 
to haul direct to the elevator, it is better to provide them than to suffer loss from delay. 
Then, too, the man who can hold his grain for a time is bound, in the average of 
years, to command a higher price than the man who sells during the rush. The very 
large grain grower may feel that it is impossible to provide adequate storage for 
his own use, but with the average farmer — and he is in the vast majority — it is 
both practicable and advisable. Any person interested in granary construction 
should read Bulletin No. 8 issued by the Department of Lands, Victoria, British 
Columbia. 



BACKYARD AND VACANT LOT GARDENING 

OTTAWA 

The vacant lot gardens in the City of Ottawa consisted of 128 plots, fifty by one 
hundred feet, for which no less than 180 applications were received. There was great 
enthusiasm shown by the majority of the gardeners during the summer. It was no 
unusual sight to see one hundred persons busy at their gardens on a summer's evening. 
The season was favourable for most crops and in consequence the results, as a whole, 
were very satisfactory. 

A number of persons told what they had grown on their plots, the following being 
some examples: 

Plot No. 31 — 10 bags of potatoes; 300 ears of corn; 1,200 cucumbers and 300 
tomatoes. 

Plot No. 13 — 12 bags of potatoes; a liberal supply of corn, pumpkins and squash. 

Plot No. 20 — 9 bags of potatoes, a large crop of tomatoes, cucumbers and beets. 

Plot No. 110 — Potatoes, 6 bushels; carrots, 1 bushel; turnips \}/2 bushels; beets, 
2 bushels; cabbage, 36 heads; green beans, 16 gallons; peas, shelled, 10 quarts; onions, 
2 gallons; corn, 13 dozen cobs; tomatoes, 314 lb. ripe, 2 bushels green. 

Plot No. 121 — For a family of seven, a constant supply of green beans, July 15th 
to Oct. 1st., potatoes, 6 bags and sufficient carrots, turnips, parsnips, onions and cabbage 
for the summer, fall and winter supply. 

185 



NOTES FROM TORONTO BACKYARD GARDENERS 

"If someone started a plausible story about two million dollars being buried in 
the back yards of Toronto, it can readily be imagined with what eagerness the people 
would be up with the early bird and out in the yard digging for treasure. The treasure 
is there all right." 

4 

"I have kept no account of cash returns from my 40 x 50 foot garden, but at least 
$12 or $15 would have to be paid out for such supplies as it produced. But the point 
I wish to make is the advantage of having sound fresh fruit and vegetables and their 
more frequent appearance on the table." 

4 

"I never made any serious attempt at gardening till this year. The work has 
been such a pleasure and the results so satisfactory that, apart from the value of the 
crops, I have been well rewarded." 

4 

"We have been well supplied with fresh vegetables all summer, and hope to store 
a good supply of carrots, parsnips, celery, etc., for days to come." 

4 

"My garden of 60 x 20 will reduce household expenses by at least $25." • 



WOODSTOCK 

"Recently I made the final inspection of the backyard gardens at Woodstock, 
Ont., and found some splendid gardens. It was a surprise to me to see how much 
could be raised on a small plot of ground when properly worked. Places which were 
weeds last year, so I am told, are places of profit and beauty this year. Most 
of the contestants had flowers along with their vegetables, which added to 
the appearance. There was one garden 50 x 100 where over $100 worth of 
vegetables were produced. Other gardens produced as much in proportion to 
their size. In some cases we found three crops of lettuce had been grown, two crops 
of radishes and two crops of beets. The contestants seemed well pleased with the 
effort they had made and I was pleased to have the benefit of doing the judging." — 

I. B. Whale. 

HAMILTON 

The Garden Club of the city of Hamilton for the year 1915 has been a decided 
success. We had two hundred and twenty-five members and with one exception they 
diligently cultivated their lots with the result that their families are amply provided with 
potatoes and other vegetables for the coming winter and in many cases they have 
sold what they did not require for their own use. 

We estimate that more than 5,000 bags of potatoes, besides large quantities of other 
vegetables, have been grown by the members of the club. 

MEDICINE HAT 

While only 78 lots were registered in the books of the Vacant Lot Garden club as 
being cultivated, there were perhaps five or six times that many which were actually 
cultivated, and most of these were the direct or indirect result of the Vacant Lot garden 
movement. 

186 






Never before in the history of the city has there been such an abundance of vege- 
tables, and never before has the cost of living been so low. For the first time Medicine 
Hat has exported potatoes. Previously a great many carloads of potatoes have been 
brought in, but this year several carloads have been shipped out, and there are more 
to follow. 

A great deal of garden truck was grown on acreage, and many who entered in this 
way got their inspiration from the Vacant Lot Garden club campaign in the local papers, 
and distribution of literature, so that it created a sentiment in favour of gardening which 
produced wonderfully gratifying results. 

CALGARY 

The second year of the Calgary Vacant Lots Garden club proved a great advance 
upon the first. Last year the total number of lots under cultivation was 243; this 
year it was 976, an increase of 733. This would represent about 100 acres devoted to 
vegetables that were brought directly under control of the club. In his report the 
Secretary-Treasurer, Mr. H. G. Burrows, says: 

"We cannot begin to estimate the value of this work to the community. Every 
family in this city has been benefited directly or indirectly through the work of this 
organization and what has been accomplished cannot be weighed by dollars and cents." 

THE BACKYARD GARDEN 

The war still goes on; the need for food stuff is becoming more urgent as the time 
passes; therefore, it is important that, not only should the farming communities be 
encouraged to furnish more produce, but all persons in the cities, towns, and villages 
who have sufficient ground for a garden should grow something and thus do what they 
can to assist production. In many of the cities of the United States, and in a few in 
Canada, Garden Clubs have been organized. 

We have in Canada an untouched force, throbbing with vitality and anxious to 
help — the boys and girls — many of whom have received training in gardening along 
with other subjects taught in the schools. Organized into clubs, enlisted possibly 
through the aid of the schools, they would prove no small factor in solving the diffi- 
culties that may arise through shortage of labour. The food produced through 
these agencies would be at the doors of those who most require it. It would be fresh 
and crisp every day, and the quantity consumed would probably increase 100 per cent, 
or more, thus effecting a considerable saving in the expenditure for meat and bread. 
The outlay would be small, and the saving to the people as a whole would be great. 

A campaign for more production, conducted along the lines above mentioned, 
would cheapen the cost of living for those taking part, would increase materially the sup- 
plies for export, and would mean more food for the warring nations of Europe. 

— Milton J. Tinline. 

The Home Vegetable Garden and a Patriotic Gardening Competition 
— Pamphlet No. 13 by W. T. Macoun, Dominion Horticulturist. 

Additional information on vegetable growing, the use of hot beds and cold frames, 
etc., will be found in pamphlets issued by the Publication Branch, Dept. of Agriculture, 
Ottawa, Ont. Free on application. 



187 



THRIFT 

THE NECESSITY FOR PUBLIC AND PRIVATE ECONOMY 



"Extravagance, always a folly, in these days becomes a crime; thrift, 
always a virtue, in these days becomes a national duty." 



Germany's Example — In Germany, since the war began, strict economy has been 
the order of the day. The whole population has cut down its living expenses, and has 
stopped all unnecessary work, so as to devote the greatest possible part of its labour to 
supplying the fighting men with material. By the Allied command of the sea, German 
foreign trade has been mostly stopped. But the German people have managed to do 
without their imported luxuries. The absolute necessities they have managed to pro- 
duce at home. At the same time the stoppage of imports has relieved Germany from 
the necessity of sending out exports to pay for them. This has set free a great mass of 
labour and productive capacity, which has become available, firstly, to produce such 
goods as will replace the absolutely necessary imports; secondly, to produce war material. 
In consequence, after a year and a half of war, Germany is able to supply her people 
with the necessities of life out of the fruits of their own labour: and in addition, to keep 
her armies in the field plentifully supplied with munitions — and this while she has at 
least five or six million men in the fighting line. 

Restricting Consumption in Britain — Until a few months ago, hardly any 
effort was made in Great Britain to restrict consumption to what was necessary, so as to 
have as large a surplus as possible left for the supply of the war. This was not through 
want of patriotism, but because people did not see the truth of the situation. Owing 
to war orders and to the rise of prices, all producers were making great profits, workmen 
were earning high wages, there was an appearance of prosperity and plenty of money in 
circulation. People could see no need for cutting down their expenditure — they could 
live as well or better than before. 

Urging Economy — But the mistake was pointed out, and was soon brought home. 
People saw that no nation could carry on a war costing nearly half its national income, 
and at the same time go on living as before, without quickly coming to collapse and 
disaster. A campaign for economy was started all over Great Britain and is now going 
on. People are being taught that they must cut down their cost of living to its lowest 
point and restrict themselves to necessaries. It does not matter whether individuals can 
afford superfluities or not. Every superfluity consumed means that so much labour has 
been expended in producing it, which might have gone to producing the necessaries of 
life or supplies for the army. There is simply not enough labour in the country to 
produce the necessaries of life for the civil population, the supplies required for the army, 
and the superfluities as well. If superfluities continue to be consumed, it means that 
there will be a shortage of the other things. In the same way public bodies are being 
forced to abandon all work that is not absolutely necessary, whether they have the 
money for it or not. That is not the question. If they had the money ten times over, 
by spending it on unnecessary work they are diverting labour which should be employed 
in another way. 

188 



The Crisis over in Canada — The situation has been recognized in Great Britain, 
but it has not been so fully recognized in Canada. When the war began we were forced 
by the shutting off of borrowed capital into a measure of public and private economy. 
That was so much to the good. But we were economical not because we recognized the 
need for it — that need was not recognized even in Great Britain at that time — but because 
we were forced to be. Now our situation has changed. Thanks to the tremendous 
harvest and enormous war orders, money is abundant, and we have nearly got over our 
local economic crisis. We have the same apparent prosperity as Great Britain. Do 
not let us repeat her mistake. We cannot afford it, if we are to do our share in the win- 
ning of this war. 

A Better Situation — The question will be asked — Can we afford to supply goods 
on credit, and to what extent? We could not afford it six months ago, because we had 
to meet our own current debts abroad. But that situation has now changed. We have 
cleared off our current obligations, and for the future we have only to meet our operating 
expenses. Everything above that will be profit, and we need not insist on immediate 
payment. 

Canada's Opportunity — It will appear from the above that if we are willing to 
observe, during the remainder of the war, from choice, the same economy in public and 
private expenditure that we have observed during the past year from necessity, we shall 
be in a position to extend to Great Britain and to our Allies an assistance that will be 
even more valuable than sending our soldiers to Europe; and that this assistance will not 
only cost us nothing, except to abstain from the pleasure of spending our money as fast 
as we make it, but will turn to our own great advantage. 



All money that is spent in these days on superfluous comforts and luxuries, whether 
in the shape of goods or in the shape of services, means the diversion of energy that can 
be better employed in the national interests, either in supplying the needs of our fighting 
forces in the field, or in making commodities for export which will go to reduce our 
indebtedness abroad. And : on the other hand, every saving we make by the cur- 
tailment and limitation of our productive expenditure increases the resources which can 
be put by our people at the disposal of the State for the triumphant vindication of our 
cause." — Mr Asquith. 



"To meet the costs of the war it is necessary that our savings should be doubled; 
and this will mean the exercise of economy to an extent which is not yet appreciated by 
the bulk of the people. The alternative to drastic economy is drastic taxation. . . . 
It is not yet clear that Local Authorities have realised the fundamental change that 
has taken place in their financial position and the pressing necessity that exists for 
retrenchment and economy. . . . The public must realise that the era of extrava- 
gance has passed away, and that for many years to come a policy of the strictest economy 
must characterize the administration of the local as well as the national government of 
this country." — Quarterly Review. 



"The question of personal expenditure is a difficult and delicate one It is easy to 
lecture other people, but what is more important is to make every man understand 
that he should examine his own expenditure, to see how much he can cut it down in the 
national interest. It is for the men who benefited from additional income derived from 
the war to show why this expenditure should not be postponed until the war is ended." 

— Hon. A. J. Balfour. 

189 



"As a representative of the army in the field, I want to appeal on their behalf to 
the civilian army at home to play their part strenuously. Whether the army in the 
field, who are entirely dependent on the civilian army for food, equipment and munitions, 
can get those things in sufficient quantities depends absolutely and entirely on whether 
every man and woman at home shows the utmost energy in production and the utmost 
economy in consumption. Any failure in this respect helps the enemy to win just as 
much as the soldier who refuses to do his utmost in the field of battle. 

"The question is how we can take millions of men from their workshops and farms 
and yet provide for all the needs of the civil population and the army millions in the 
field. If those left behind only work as hard as they did before and all the consumers 
consume as they did before the war, our problem will be insoluble. 

"Hitherto we have filled the gap by vast importations, but the Chancellor of the 
Exchequer and other financial authorities impress us with the vital necessity of reducing 
our imports. The dilemma is either that the civilians must go short of things that they 
are accustomed to in peace times or the armies must go short of munitions and other 
indispensable supplies. Which is it to be?" — Lord Kitchener. 

"Canada has been in the habit of doing as little as possible for herself and calling 
on the resources of the banks and lending companies, in the last few years. There 
has been a constant stream of money, millions and hundreds of millions, sums incalcul- 
able and beyond our simple conceptions. Credit has been too good, resources too great 
and optimism unbounded. We have unlocked the doors of the vaults and have revelled 
in" loans." — Sir George Foster. 



Every penny saved helps You and your Country. 
Every penny spent unnecessarily helps the enemy. 
Save your money now; later it may save you. 
Some can serve their country by fighting; 
Some can serve their country by working; 
All can serve their country by saving. 

"There is, I believe, a call now — a most earnest and special one — for service and 
sacrifice by everyone in this Province and in every part of the Dominion, and every 
reasonable step should be taken at this time of stress and strain that will add to the 
strength of the country and conserve our resources in every way possible for the great 
task. It is surely a time for all of us to abstain from luxuries and extravagance in 
what we wear and what we eat as well as in what we drink." — Premier Hearst. 

4 

"As we all know, in 1915 there was an enormous contraction in the manufacturing 
and mercantile business of the country, although to a considerable extent this was 
replaced by orders for munitions — the phenomenal harvest also further assisted the 
recovery of trade. The necessity for practising economy has been impressed on all of 
us, but I am afraid that so far there is very little evidence that the advice has been taken 
seriously, either by individuals or municipalities — restrictions in expenditures must be, 
I think, brought about in both cases." — Sir Edmund Osler. 



"The United Kingdom has advanced large amounts to Canada for military expen- 
diture, and the time may come when it will be desirable, if not necessary, for the Domin- 
ion to finance its own requirements. In any case, we must economize in every way 
possible so that we may bear our full measure of responsibility during the war and be 
prepared for the taxation that must follow." — Sir F. Williams-Taylor. 

190 



''We have heard a great deal about the conservation of national resources. The war 
has proved the possibility of a wiser conservation of our individual resources, and we 
have realized our social responsibilities at this time of national crisis. We must now 
realize that we are the trustees of our own incomes and owe it as part of our contribution 
to the building-up of a greater Canada that useless extravagances be abandoned. This 
needs most careful consideration." — Department of Public Health, Toronto. 



On every hand one sees evidences of waste throughout the country as well as in 
the cities. The farm home, the country hotel, the school child, the youth and maiden, 
all show the same disposition to regard food, clothing, furniture and books with care- 
lessness and prodigality. A general thrift campaign, such as some of the speakers of 
the Women's Emergency Corps advocate, should be of inestimable value. 



Thrift will help us to win the war, and the lessons we are receiving in thrift will 
do us no harm when the war is over. But there must be thrift all round. Thrift means 
a system under which all can thrive — not a system of senseless luxury and ostentation 
for some, and of grinding poverty and hardship for others. 



Economy in Canada, to be effective, must divert labour and capital from catering 
to indulgence in luxuries to the production of food, clothing, munitions, and other 
essentials of national strength. Retrenchment in foreign-produced luxuries is most 
likely to meet this requirement. Under normal conditions imports make foreign 
markets. But we have in the consumption of war a market for all we can produce and 
more. f 



Economy that renders labour or capital idle is worse than useless. Only such 
economy as diverts labour and capital to more productive uses or to the production of 
more permanent results can be regarded as beneficial. Where results of that nature 
are not virtually assured it is better to avoid all disturbing departures from the ordinary 
patronage on which commerce and industry depend. 



Thrift is not cheese-paring, but an intelligent use of food and other resources, the 
habit of sacrificing personal interests to the nation's. 



Produce more and consume or destroy less is a simple, effective, and unassailable 
formula, but economies that cause unemployment without the certainty of resultant 
greater production should be avoided as worse than useless. 



If you want to have some one working for you, put some money in the bank. 

191 



Campaign of Thrift 

In Great Britain a campaign has been inaugurated by direction of the Board of 
Education, to promote thrift among the schoolchildren. A circular has been issued 
by the Board explaining that facilities are to be provided and the pupils are to be told 
of the desirability of subscribing to the war loan. "Teachers, should make clear," 
says the circular, "that everyone who can save even so small a sum as five shillings 
has an opportunity to contribute to the loans. Reginald McKenna, Chancellor of the 
Exchequer, speaking at a meeting to urge economy and to promote the loan, said "The 
people of this country have got to learn that in our present circumstances parsimony 
becomes the highest virtue. A lump of sugar not consumed, bread not wasted, and a 
cigar or cigarette not smoked means so much less imported foreign goods which we can 
pay for only by sending gold out of the country or borrowing it. We must economize 
if we are to endure." 



Saving in the United States. Campaign Inaugurated 

The American Bankers' Association has now inaugurated a country-wide campaign 
for the promotion of savings, and invites the co-operation of bankers, business men, 
school authorities and the public generally, in making it as influential as possible. 

Movements of this kind have an unusual dignity and effectiveness when carried 
on by a nation-wide organization for a large public purpose, and afford a special oppor- 
tunity for every well-disposed person to give help. 

A campaign for savings is deserving of support at any time, but now more than 
ever it should appeal to public favour. An especial effort will be made to enlist the co- 
operation of the public schools, and teach the children the principles and habits of 
thrift. The campaign will be ably and enthusiastically led and if proper co-operation 
is given there will be results worth while. — The National City Bank of New York, 
January, 1916. 



PLAIN LIVING AND HIGH THINKING 

"We have found to our surprise that the plainer living imposed by the losses of the 
war is not by any means so great a hardship as we feared. We now realize that many 
of our supposed luxuries, some even of our presumed necessities, were so merely because 
we thought them so, or rather because our neighbours thought them so. We have 
discovered practically, what our sages have long tried to teach us, that a very large 
proportion of our expenditure has served no end of real comfort, but simply the lust of 
the eye and the pride of life. The simplest, easiest, and most comfortable mode of living 
is, on the whole, that of conformity with our environment; and now that we have all 
gone down a peg or two together, we really are scarcely aware that the general level 
has been lowered. It is astonishing how many things we can do without and not miss 
them — provided they are not rudely recalled to our consciousness by gloating possessors 
next door. On the more positive side we are equally astonished to find how quickly 
we become used to little actual discomforts that at first seem intolerable. Just as many 
of our gilded youth have had, in the trenches, to accommodate themselves to an intimate 
association with vermin, so we find it easy to ignore, in a high cause, numbers of little 
irritants that would once have raised intolerable blisters. Grumbling has almost wholly 
ceased. We are all so busy that we have no time to think of inconvenience. 'Slackers' 
and 'grousers' have become almost synonymous terms; and the group they embrace is 
a very small one." — James F. Muirhead, of London, England. 

192 



"I doubt if the working classes of this country regard any more the aristocracy as 
an effete race of parasites battening on their labours. And, on the other hand, the 
aristocracy more than ever before realises the magnificent qualities of the British working 
man, and what the nation owes to him. I think the common sacrifice has brought all 
classes together in a manner that has not existed since the Napoleonic Wars. The 
common peril has reunited the country. 

"Furthermore, all our standards of life are changing, and must continue to change. 
The nation must go back to the simple life, to the less luxurious method of our ancestors. 
I do not mean that I want the poor to suffer in any way. The more wages the working 
man earns to the extent that he can procure for himself and his family better food, 
better clothes, better housing, the better it will be for the country. But above this 
minimum standard of comfort, every class will have to alter its ways. We shall have to 
abolish all useless luxury; we must dispense with every form of extravagance. 

"This war is going to be the great leveller. Money must no longer be the criterion 
ofpower. Wealth must no longer be the proof of superiority. Henceforth the citizens 
of this country will have to pull together." , 

— Hon. Walter Long, President Local Government Board of England. 



ECONOMY IN THE HOME 

Good Food, Well Cooked 

If it is true that half the cost of living is the cost of food, then with the whole world 
calling for economy, there never was a time when the need was greater for economy in 
domestic expenditure. Nor was there ever a time when there was a greater need for 
knowledge regarding food values and the preparation of nutritious food at small cost. 

This is essentially woman's work, and those who complain of the drudgery of pre- 
paring three meals a day often fail to realize how important that work is in the affairs 
of life. The usefulness, happiness and efficiency of the individual depend largely 
upon health, which to a great extent is governed by the suitability of food and its proper 
preparation. That the world should have wholesome meals at reasonable cost is far 
more vital to national welfare than the question of a career for women. The architecture 
of the house we live in, the fashion of our clothing and many other things that enter so 
largely into the make-up of our lives are non-essential. What is far more important is 
that men and women should be strong physically and efficient mentally. The ranks of 
the world's strong men are being sadly thinned, and the vigour of those who will grow 
up to take their place depends so much on the work of the women in the home that the 
importance of the subject needs strong emphasis. 

When the importance of food in relation to human welfare is borne in mind, it is 
pitiful when we consider how little sensible thought is given to the subject, and how many 
women, particularly in cities, are brought up without any real knowledge of this 
important office, and sometimes actually to despise a knowledge of domestic affairs. 

What makes the Food Bill large 

Very often the food bill of a household is excessive for the following reasons: 

1. Poor cooking. This sometimes results in the waste of about one-third of the 
food used. Under this heading may be included badly constructed ovens, and lack of 
knowledge as to the temperature at which food should be cooked. Generally too much 
heat is used. 

2. Loss through cooking excessive quantities. 

3. Buying materials that are of small nutritive value. 

4. Buying foods that are out of season, and consequently high-priced. Select 
native products. 

193 



"There is food enough in flesh and vegetables wasted in Canada every year to feed 
every hungry mouth, if conserved and saved. Authorities in Britain state that the 
majority of people should save 10 per cent, more than usual and the more wealthy, 20 
or 25 per cent. Are we doing it?" — Monetary Times. 



"It has been said that more is wasted in a Canadian home in one week than would keep 
a French family for two weeks, and there can be little doubt that there is much truth in 
this statement. Nearly every day in very many homes enough is thrown away to make 
most valuable soups, and garbage cans far too often reveal most deplorable waste.' ' 

— Dept. of Public Health, Toronto. 



Meat Consumption 

Based on the Census returns of 1910, the per capita consumption in Canada works 
out to 61 lbs. of beef, 9 lbs. of mutton, and 66% lbs. of pork, or 136% lbs. of all kinds of 
meat. 

An estimate of the per capita consumption of meat in the United States was given 
as 172 lbs. for 1909, and from the information to hand it appears that Canada's neighbor 
is the greatest consumer of meats per capita. Other countries are given as follows: 
United Kingdom, 119 lbs.; France, 80 lbs.; Germany, 113 lbs.; Argentina, 140 lbs.; 
Denmark, 76 lbs.; Norway and Sweden, 74 lbs.; Belgium, 70 lbs.; Austria-Hungary, 
64 lbs.; Russia, 50 lbs., and Spain, 49 lbs. 



ECONOMY IN FOOD 

The following appeal is made in the September issue of the Journal of the Board of 
Agriculture of Great Britain: Everyone who lives in the country or has a garden 
can produce something to eat — the more the better; vegetables, fruit, poultry, eggs, 
rabbits, milk, cheese. 

Every Plant in your Garden may Save You Money. 

Produce all you can; buy as little as possible! Cultivate thoroughly! Destroy 
insect pests and weeds! Prepare manure! 

Preserve and Store Your Crops With the Greatest Care. 

The finest harvesting may be rendered useless by bad storing. Protect from the 
weather ! Destroy vermin ! Store your own vegetables ! Bottle your fruit or make jam 
or pulp of it! Preserve your eggs when abundant? Cure your own bacon. 

Eat Little Meat 

Replace meat by milk, cheese, peas, beans and lentils, which are as rich in flesh- 
formers as meat, and much cheaper. Use more vegetables! Eat more fruit! Bake 
your own bread; it will be cheaper and better. 

Cook Vegetables by Steaming 

Boiling in water reduces their food value! Cook potatoes in their skins! Use the 
hay-box cooker; it will save coal. 

Waste Nothing 
Buy nothing from abroad that can be produced at home. 

194 



In England the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies has been conducting 
a very successful campaign throughout the country in national economy. Patriotic 
housekeeping and child welfare exhibitions have been organized in many towns, at 
which lectures have been given by experts on the best use of food, the use of money, 
civic wealth, etc., and exhibits have been shown of fuel economizers, economical cooking 
utensils (such as hay-box cookers) , simplified furniture and all sorts of labour-saving 
devices. 

A model patriotic housekeeping exhibition was held at the N.U. Shop in London 
in November and December, which was very much appreciated. The kitchen was 
literally packed during the demonstrations, and visitors came from Leeds, Devon, 
Carlisle and Hants, and many, not connected with the N.U., stated that the infor- 
mation given by the exhibition was exactly what they needed for thrift campaigns 
contemplated by themselves at home. 



WHAT KIND OF APPLES TO BUY 
POINTERS FOR THE CONSUMER 

D. JOHNSON, Fruit Commissioner, Ottawa. 

Do not buy the Ben Davis for use in the fall nor the Ribston Pippin late in the 
winter. Such errors have done much to turn the public from a most delicious food. 

Like the gardener who plants flowers to give a succession of bloom from early 
spring till late fall, our apples should be chosen to give us the best quality, both for 
dessert and cooking, from fall until the spring. 

The average consumer appears to think that there are only one or two high grade 
varieties of apples produced in Canada. He has heard of the Spy, the Mcintosh Red 
and the Fameuse, and thinks he must have these, no matter how much he has to pay for 
them, whereas other apples, quite as good in quality, are practically unknown. The 
Spy is undoubtedly an apple of fine flavour and texture, but, like other apples, it has 
its season and itfs off-season. In the early part of the year, say the latter part of August 
and the first of September, the Yellow Transparent, Autumn Strawberry, Gravenstein 
and St. Lawrence are just as much to be desired as the Spy during the winter months. 
In September the Spy will not compare with such varieties as the Ribston Pippin, a 
medium sized, streaked apple of most delicious acid flavour, a splendid cooker, and 
particularly delightful when baked and served with cream; but it, too, has its season 
and, if kept too late in October, it grows mealy and is not a desirable apple to buy. 
Other apples that may be purchased at this time with the assurance of getting something 
equal in quality to the Spy, are Wealthy, Fall Pippin and Blenheim Orange. These are 
succeeded in the latter part of October and in November by such varieties as the King, 
an apple well known to all commercial fruit dealers as being unusually beautiful, large 
in size, red in colour, full of juice and of a flavour unexcelled by any other apple produced 
on the Continent. The King is a difficult apple to grow as the tree is not productive, 
and on that account is it not as well known to the public as it should be, but I should 
consider my supply of apples incomplete without a good quantity of Kings each year. 
But the King has not the monopoly of fine flavour for this season. The R.I. Greening 
is then at its prime. This variety is so well known that it is unnecessary to enlarge 
upon its qualities. It is one of our best dessert and cooking apples and, as it is pro- 
duced in large quantities in the various provinces, it is usually sold at a low price in 
comparison with some of the more showy apples. I have often thought that if the 
Greening had the colour of the Spy, it would displace it in public favour, and it is my 
conviction that no household should be without a good supply of this variety at the 
beginning of the winter. It holds its flavour and keeps well on into the winter. 

195 



For January and February we have many varieties of splendid quality, such as the 
Steele Red, Spitzenburg, Grimes Golden, Yellow Bellflower, Jonathan, Tolman Sweet 
and Hubbardston. These are all dessert apples of the highest quality, and for my own 
use I would just as soon have them as the Spy, and I am sure that no one will question 
but that they are quite as good as the Spy for cooking purposes. As winter advances, I 
would suggest for dessert such varieties as the Golden Russet, which at this season sur- 
passes all other varieties in richness of flavour. For cooking, even the much despised 
Ben Davis, Stark and Gano, if properly prepared, will then be found very acceptable, 
and may be depended upon to keep, without showing material waste, right on into the 
late spring. 

As my life has been devoted to the fruit growing industry, I think I may safely 
claim familiarity with all the standard varieties grown in Canada. It may therefore 
be of interest to state the varieties I selected for our own use during the present winter, 
after we had exhausted our supply of Ribston Pippin and Gravenstein. Since the 
family is not a large one, we secure our apples in boxes. The list was as follows: — 
Snow, Mcintosh Red, King, Greening, Bellflower, Jonathan, Steele Red, Spy, Golden 
Russet, Ben Davis. 

"Perhaps the item most to be condemned, as usually it is positively danger- 
ous, is the patent medicine, which is found in such alarming quantities in so many 
homes." — Toronto Dept. of Public Health. 



THE FOOD VALUE OF CHEESE 

Dairy Department O.A.C. 

Cheese at 17c. a pound furnishes, for one dollar, more than twice as much human 
energy as is obtained from one dollar's worth of beef sirloin at 18c. per pound. There 
is more than twice as much muscle building food in a pound of cheese as in a dozen 
eggs. The more general use of cheese as a food will help to reduce the cost of living. 

Note the following points about cheese. 

(1) Cheese furnishes energy and muscle. 

(2) It can be eaten without cooking, or made into a variety of cooked dishes. 

(3) Well prepared cheese is practically pre-digested and can be eaten by any one. 

(4) There is less water about dairy products than any other class of foods. » 
Ask your grocer for Canadian Cheese and insist that it be of good quality. Make 

up your mind to eat it at least once a day. The Dairy Department at the Ontario 
Agricultural College, Guelph, has issued a leaflet containing receipts for cheese dishes 
which will be sent on aplication. 



THE CANNING OF POULTRY 

DR. R. BARNES, Chief of Meat and Canned Food Division, Ottawa. 

Since the bringing into operation of the Meat and Canned Foods Act eight years 
ago, the effect has been to eliminate veal as a constituent of the products labelled and 
sold as "Chicken" and "Turkey." 

It may not be out of place to state that at the time the Act came into force there 
was not one single plant in Canada engaged exclusively in the canning of chicken. 
Several had tried and were losing ventures, due solely to the fact that they could not 
place on the market an honest product at the price for which so-called "Canned Poultry' ' 
could be purchased, and of this counterfeit there were thousands of cases. 

196 



It may be asked how the Meat and Canned Foods Act produced such a wonderful 
change. First, by prohibiting the movement of canned poultry from one province to 
another, or out of the Dominion, unless it had been inspected and marked. Secondly, 
by requiring a true and correct description on the label. These two requirements can 
only be met by the examination of the raw material by a qualified veterinarian who passes 
only what is fit for food, who controls sanitary conditions and supervises the product 
from the time it enters the plant until it is shipped out to the trade. 

The official markings are the words "Canada Approved," the Crown and the 
establishment number. This mark on any tin or package indicates that the article 
within was at the time of marking sound, healthy and fit for food, and that in the case 
of products, the process of manufacture was conducted under proper sanitary conditions. 
Purchasers of canned poultry should buy only such as bear this mark, otherwise they 
have no assurance as to the soundness of the product. 



THE BEN DAVIS APPLE 

By PETER McARTHUR 

To-day I was tricked into praising the Ben Davis and I culled my choicest 
adjectives in an attempt to do it justice. And now that I know it was the Ben Davis 
I was praising I am not going to take back a word. Instead I am going to add to them. 

My change of heart is due to Charles M. MacFie, of Appin, Secretary of the 
Glencoe Apple Growers' Association. When I was calling on him he invited me to 
sample a new preserve his wife had been putting up. He went to the pantry and 
brought out a sealer filled with something faintly ambertinted and delicately translucent. 
It looked like citron or like especially successful pear preserves. While he was getting 
me a dish of it, my mouth watered in anticipation, for it certainly appealed to the eye. 
I tasted it. Superb. I thought it was pear preserves, though it was better. Instead 
of the flat taste often noticed in pears it had a faint sub-acid flavour that made it perfect. 

When I had finished my eulogy he told me as gently as possible, so as to avoid shock, 
that what I was eating was preserved Ben Davis apple. It seems that this apple has 
been masquerading all these years. Instead of arousing contempt as an eating apple, 
it should be ranking with the pear as a preserving fruit. He gave me a sample from 
another sealer which contained the same kind of preserves, except that the apples were 
not peeled. The choicest flavours are just beneath the skin and it was even better 
than the first, though not so attractive in appearance, and the skin was so tough that 
it had to be rejected. But it was fit for a king of the canners. I naturally asked Mrs. 
MacFie for the recipe, and here it is: 

Peel and core the apples and cut each into about twelve slices. Place in a preserv- 
ing kettle and add two cups of sugar for each quart of preserves. Cover with boiling 
water and then let the preserves boil in the covered kettle until the apples become 
transparent. Then seal away while hot. 



HOUSEHOLD EFFICIENCY 

MISS M. U. WATSON, Director Macdonald Institute, Guelph. 

The daughters of Canada should not be sent to homes of their own without the 
training necessary for intelligent buying and satisfactory preparation. They should 
either receive it at home, or be sent to school and be given opportunity to learn it before 
marriage. 

The best milk at any price for the babies. Their lives depend upon it. 

197 



Buy skimmed milk for milk soups and desserts, because it is a substitute for meat 
and costs about quarter the money. 

Eliminate meat from the diet of small children. The normal child will thrive 
better on milk, cereals and eggs in place of meat. A child's appetite is what the parents 
make it. Do not feel sorry for the child whose breakfast is oatmeal and milk, and 
whose supper is bread and milk with a bit of biscuit and jam; the child is well fed. 

The housewife who prevents a dollar's worth of waste has earned that dollar, iust 
as surely as did her husband in office, workshop or farm. 

An ignorant and untrained servant wastes more than an intelligent buyer can save. 

Constant watchfulness and the careful training of helpers are the only safeguards. 

The untrained mistress cannot be expected to prevent waste. Her ignorance is as 
costly as that of ignorant servants. 



AVOID WASTE 

MISS B. M. PHILP, Lecturer, Macdonald College, Quebec. 

We women have responded well in providing necessities for the men at the front* 
but there is an equally urgent duty before us in seeing to it that the resources of our 
country are husbanded and conserved in order that we may stand the heavy drain and 
strain upon us. The women of France have given us a wonderful example of what 
can be done by thrift and resourcefulness. The women of England are learning the 
lesson, but we in Canada scarcely know the rudiments of economy. Life has been too 
easy for us. Nevertheless we have shown what we were capable of in Patriotic work, 
and if we will we can prove equally successful in the checking of extravagance, in 
increased productiveness and in the conservation of resources. 

Let every woman begin at once to examine the channels through which her money 
goes. How much is spent on necessities, how much on luxuries? Let her learn to do 
without the latter by stopping them at once or by degrees. Study the amounts spent 
for the necessaries of life. Are they wisely spent? Do we secure value for our money? 
If not, let us not rest until we do. The physical necessities of life may be grouped under 
the headings: shelter, food, clothing. Shelter includes rent or its equivalent and the 
running expenses of a home, such as light, fuel, taxes, laundry, repairs, wages, telephone, 
etc. Study each of these outlays carefully and see if there is waste anywhere. Learn to 
economize in light by switching off the electricity when not in use and doing with fewer 
lights. In the matter of fuel much is often wasted by not understanding the furnace or 
range and burning much more coal than one gets return for in heat. Learn to run the 
furnace economically. If we can make a ton of coal last a few days or a week longer 
than before we have accomplished something in the way of economy. Turn off the 
gas directly instead of leaving it a minute or so after the food is cooked, and make use 
of the simmerer more frequently. Repairs are often made necessary by carelessness 
in handling. Learn to take care of furniture and equipment and insist that the other 
members of the family do likewise. Even the boisterous small boy will respond to the 
appeal when he realizes that he is thus helping to win the Empire's battles. Dry out 
the bars of soap so that there may be less wastage, and do not leave it lying in the pan 
of water you are using. Utilize the soap scraps in making melted soap for laundry or 
other purposes. These are just a few of the ways in which leakages occur in the running 
expenses of a home. 

In the matter of food the chief causes of waste are (1) Poor cooking, resulting in a 
loss of food value or rendering the food unpalatable so that much is left on the plates; 
(2) Buying more of some commodities than can be used before spoiling; (3) Buying staple 
goods in too small quantities and losing the reduction in price for quantity; (4) Buying 

198 



things out of season; (5) Buying cooked foods that could be more cheaply prepared at 
home; (6) Not making use of leftovers, water in which vegetables are cooked, etc. 
(7) Buying things that could be produced at home. Even an apartment can have a 
window box for parsley and cress, and many a city home has a bit of ground which could 
be made to produce vegetables for the home table. 

Clothing is perhaps one of the most difficult lines in which to avoid extravagance 
since the desire for personal adornment is inborn in every one of us. The shops 
present so many alluring accessories of dress that our expenditure for these often exceeds 
that for the actual clothing of the bqdy. Still even here we can be stern with ourselves, 
in the light of the present need. It must be not "What can I buy?" but "What can I 
do without?" Let us limit ourselves to real necessities and in the purchase of these 
let us see that we get value for our money. Buy only suitable materials. Learn to 
recognize quality and insist on getting it. Garments made of good material, though 
more expensive at the outset than shoddy, wear many times as long, keep their shape 
and look well long after the poorer article has gone to the rag man. 

In the matter of production the women of rural communities have many oppor- 
tunities for helping that are denied to their urban sisters. Every extra dozen eggs they 
can secure from their poultry yards, every additonal peck of vegetables or fruit they can 
produce and take to market will help the cause. In the lack of adequate help in the 
fields due to enlistment they can supply much of the need since with the introduction 
of machinery the necessity for physical strength has been much lessened and any 
woman can learn to drive a gang plow, a harrow, mower or binder. The opportunity 
is ours to see that the output from Canadian farms for 1916 does not fall below that of 
1915, but, if possible, exceeds it. 



HOUSEHOLD ACCOUNTS 

MISS B. M. PHILP, Lecturer, Macdonald College, Quebec. 

Keep accounts in order that you may see where your money has gone and what 
proportion your respective expenditures bear to the whole outlay and to each other. 
This need not be done in an elaborate and burdensome way, but as simply as possible. 
Below is given a form which is easy enough to be kept by any woman and which may be 
adapted to suit her special circumstances. 



Account Book 



Date 


Items 


Re- 
ceipts 


03 

s 

a 
| 

W 


Balance 


I 


6 

<M 

0) 

d 
S 


bo 8 

•1 i 

3 * 

(3 w 


Clothing 


8-2 

3 a 

u u 


05 

c 
5 

12 
*G 

c 


Jan. 1 

" 3 

3 


Cash on hand $ 

Paid for Meat 

Groceries 


75.00 


$0.88 
1.45 

2.15 
6.50 
3.50 




$0.88 
1.45 


30.00 


2.15 
6.50 


3.50 


1.00 




5 


Rent 




8 


Light Bill 




" 12 
" 13 
" 16 


Paid for Coal 

" " Boots 

" " Church Subs. 


























Feb. 1 


Balance from Jan. . . . 





















199 



Any blank book may be ruled and used for this purpose. A form such as the 
above shows the date and nature of each transaction. Receipts and expenses are 
clearly shown and the balance may be found daily or weekly as preferred. The remain- 
ing columns are added to enable the housekeeper to see what amounts are spent on each 
department and may be added to at her discretion. For instance, she may wish to 
subdivide her food account in order to show the relative amounts of the butcher's, 
baker's and grocer's accounts, or she may wish to keep her light and fuel accounts 
separate in Running Expenses, or to keep separate clothing or personal accounts for 
different members of the family. She may add a column for Education, or Recreation, 
or Investments. Each account form should meet the needs of the household for which 
it is kept. Statistics such as these enable the housewife to see where her heaviest 
expenses are and if any seem disproportionate to the size of her income she can 
investigate and find out the reason. It also enables her to determine where she can best 
retrench if retrenchment becomes necessary. Extra demands can be met by the saving 
of a few cents here and there. Figures obtained from the study of the expenditures of 
many thousands of families show that for an average family of five the division of 
income in percentages should be about as follows: 













Other 








Running 




Expenses — 








Expenses — 




Insurance, 


Income 


Food 


Rent, etc. 


Wages, Fuel, 
Light 


Clothing 


Savings, 
Charity, 
Investments, 
etc. 


$2,000-4,000. .. 


25 


20 


15 


20 


20 


800-1,000... 


30 


20 


10 


15 


25 


500- 800. .. 


45 


15 


10 


10 


20 


Under 500 


60 


15 


5 


10 


10 



The less the amount of the income the larger the percentage which must be spent 
for food, leaving less for the other expenses of the family. These figures furnish a stand- 
ard by which one may judge whether one's own income is apportioned to the best 
advantage. 

In addition to the daily account sheet it is well to have a similarly ruled sheet in 
which to enter the monthly totals, viz., total Receipts and Expenses and monthly 
balance as well as the amounts spent each month on the several divisions. This 
furnishes a record for comparison from month to month, and the idea may be carried 
still further and a yearly account sheet made out showing the totals for the year. 



Monthly Account Sheet 



1016 


Rec. 


Exp. 


Bal. 


Food 


Rent 


| Run- 
ning 
Exp. 


Cloth- 
ing 


Church 
Charity 


Inci- 
dentals 


January 

February 

March 



















200 



Where credit accounts are carried it would be necessary to have a column for 
credit expenses as well as cash and this might be subdivided to show the different persons 
for whom a credit account was carried. 



Cash Expenses 



Date 



Jan. 



Items 



Meat 

Sugar 

Potatoes 

Leg of Lamb. 

Paid Butcher 

" Grocer. 



Rec. 



Exp. 



Bal. 



Credit Expenses 



Grocer 



Dr. Cr 



$2.00 



$0.50 
1.50 



Butcher 



Dr. Cr. 



$2.4C 



$1.15! 



1.25 



Applying a system such as this to one's household expenditure places the running 
of the home on a business basis and only by recognizing it as a business and treating it 
as such can the best results be secured. The method outlined is by no means the only 
one that may be employed, but it is simple and effective and if put into practice by 
every woman at the head of a home and a similar system for personal accounts taught 
by her to the boys and girls of her family the effect on the well-being and prosperity of 
our country would be inestimable. 



PATRIOTIC PURCHASING 

"New occasions teach new duties." 

You can help win the War! Keep your money circulating in Canada by buying 
Canadian Products — products of Canadian farms, orchards and factories. 



Your money is needed at home, where it will continue to work for you. 
dollar sent out of the country unnecessarily is a dollar lost. 



Every 



If Canada cannot supply your needs, give your preference to the products of the 
Empire — Great Britain and Ireland, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India, 
Ceylon, British West Indies. There are few, if any, essential articles that are not or 
cannot be produced within the Empire. Buy them in preference to goods from any 
other country. Keep your money within the Empire. 



Next to the countries of the British Empire, give your preference to goods that come 
from the countries of the allied nations — France, Russia, Italy, Japan. Make the 
dollars fight for us. 



This is not a matter of spite; it is a matter of war finance. 

201 



Germany is spending practically nothing in foreign countries, not only because 
of the British Navy, but because she realizes the importance of keeping money at 
home. 

J- 

It is illegal to import from enemy countries during the war, either direct or by 
way of a neutral country. Products that were brought in before the war started may 
legally be purchased. 

4» 

You are not assisting Canada or the Cause by purchasing goods that come from 
Neutral Countries. Do not do so, unless it is unavoidable. Remember, Canada 
first; the Empire next, Allied Countries third. Let our trade follow the Flag. 



Where were these apples and vegetables grown? 
Where was this cheese made? 
Where was this article manufactured? 
Where was the raw material for its manufacture produced? 

These are the questions you should ask the dealer. We appeal to the women to 
be patriotic in their shopping. 

Curtail as much as possible the purchase, particularly from foreign countries, of 
articles classed as luxuries. These are extravagancies in War time. All available ship- 
ping is needed for the transportation of food and other essentials of life. Room cannot 
be spared for articles of luxury. 



Do you realize to what an extent foreign-made goods prevail in Canada? You will 
find them everywhere if you look around you. 

On every hand you will see German and Austrian goods, ranging from lead pencils 
to kid gloves. 



Germany and Austria will make every effort to seize the World's Markets after 
the War is over. They are preparing now. They will endeavour to flood this country 
with the output of their factories, and will succeed just to the extent that you consent 
to buy them. Nationalized business, not individualized business is their aim. 



Help to build up Canadian industries while the war is still on, so that they may 
be better able to withstand the pressure afterwards. Keep Canadian workmen employed. 
Demand Canadian products. 

Here are some of the articles that we have been accustomed to import from Germany 
and Austria: 

Lace, Toys, Artificial flowers, fruit and leaves, Socks and stockings, Gloves and 
mitts, Dress fabrics and trimmings, Woollens and cottons, Chinaware, Glassware, 
Cutlery, Combs, Buttons, Fancy Goods, Lead pencils, Drugs, dyes and chemicals, 
Tobacco, pipes, pouches and other smoker's requisites, Binder twine, Musical instru- 
ments and parts, Electrical apparatus. 



Great Britain is taking steps to give the preference to Canadian goods. 

202 



A Call to Women for Aid 

"As a result of the work done through the Consumers' League, assisted by the 
Department of Agriculture, stores that are featuring United States produce when they 
can get local produce, are being to a certain extent ostracized and are beginning to see 
that it is to their own advantage to secure home grown produce." 

"During the coming year we should have a united campaign throughout the whole 
Dominion with regard to the matter. The way to success is to get the women interested. 

— Wm. E. Scott, Deputy Minister of Agriculture, British Columbia. 



GIVE PREFERENCE TO CANADIAN GROWN FRUIT 

D. JOHNSON, Fruit Commissioner, Ottawa 

It is a matter of surprise that Canada should import some ten million dollars' worth 
of fruit each year, when it is well known among fruit experts that the fruit produced 
within her own borders surpasses, in quality and flavour, that grown in any other part 
of the world. 

It will be remembered that in the year 1914 large quantities of apples went to 
waste in the fruit producing sections of the Dominion, while the same year 269,359 
barrels (imported chiefly in boxes and reckoned at three to a barrel) of apples were 
imported from the States. The greater quantity of apples imported are brought into 
the Prairie markets, where they come in competition with British Columbia, Ontario 
and Nova Scotia fruit. How can this be explained? The claim is sometimes made 
that the packing of the imported fruit is superior to our own. This may have been 
true some years ago when we were beginners in the art of box packing; but now that 
British Columbia has sufficient quantities of large, beautifully finished apples of the 
type produced in the Western States, to impress the market, and since Ontario and 
Nova Scotia have also adopted the box for their high class apples, I maintain that 
Canadian apples of just as fine quality and as well packed as any imported stock, may 
be obtained at prices not so high as those asked for the imported fruit. As far as the 
barreled apples are concerned, our experience goes to show that the Canadian pack is 
superior to the American; a fact undoubtedly due to the effect of the Fruit Marks Act, 
which has established uniform grades for the whole Dominion. 

One of the great difficulties I believe in replacing imported fruit with our domestic 
fruit is that the public are not alive to the values of the different varieties. This is 
particularly true in the case of peaches and apples. In 1913, for example, Canada im- 
ported 12,137,029 pounds of peaches (valued at $353,459). These were produced mainly 
in the Northwestern States, and were picked when perfectly hard and before they had 
shown any sign of ripening, with the result that our markets are filled with imported 
peaches of fine appearance but of very poor quality. This fruit in many cases is taken 
from the boxes in which it is shipped, unwrapped and placed in baskets, leading the 
public to believe that the peaches are Canadian grown. I am convinced that in this 
way many people are prejudiced against peaches simply because they do not realize 
that the woody, tasteless fruit which they buy early in the season is an imported product 
and not the luscious peach as grown in Canadian orchards. Every consumer should 
make sure that the peaches he buys are Canadian grown, fresh from our own Canadian 
orchards, where the peach is fully matured before being shipped, and consequently 
possesses the delicious flavour and juicy texture that only properly matured peaches can 
have. Ask for Canadian peaches and be satisfied with nothing else. 

203 



USE CANADIAN FRUIT 

R. M. WINSLOW, Provincial Horticulturist, Victoria, B.C. 



The people of Canada as purchasers and consumers have a partiotic and practical 
duty with respect to Canadian products. Our producers, fruit-growers included, are 
doing their share in increased production. Their efforts, in considerable measure, will 
be vain, unless the consumer does his part and co-operates in the great movement by 
demanding Canadian products. 

In nothing is this more true than in respect to fruits. This country has an important 
fruit industry, and our fruits are of high quality. The industry is not nearly as large 
and as prosperous as it should be, however, because consumers, by failing to insist on 
Canadian fruit, are paying each year from $3,000,000 to $4,000,000 for imported fruits, 
of kinds produced in Canada. The following table shows the quantities, and value 
(including duty paid, but not including freight or distributing costs), imported in 1913 
and 1914: 

1913 

Value incl. 
Quantity 



lbs. 
Blackberries, gooseberries, rasp- 
berries and strawberries 6,939,470 

Cherries 971,619 

Currants 30,071 

Peaches 14,579,147 

bu. 
Plums 151,650 

lbs. 
Quinces, apricots, pears, 

nectarines, etc 13,445,837 

bbls. 
Apples 320,325 

lbs. 
Grapes 6,247,527 



Duty but 
not Freight 

$ 

712,789.00 

122,470.38 

2,726.42 

476,390.33 

313,074.80 



441,601.90 



957,174.75 



505,743.29 



Quantity 



lbs. 



1914 

Value incl. 

Duty but 

not Freight 



7,104,745 

1,084,797 

19,214 

12,137,209 

123,531 
lbs. 



816,955.80 

142,092.94 

1,825.28 

474,854.50 

353,610.10 



11,040,871 502,137.51 
bbls. 

330,907 1,236,664.80 
lbs. 
7,712,447 644,326.24 



$3,531,970.87 



$4,152,476.17 



All the above fruits are produced in large quantities in Canada. It rests entirely 
with the consumers to diminish the imports and to establish a bigger outlet for fruit 
growers by preferring the home grown products. 

Anything that reduces imports is just as effective in restoring a proper balance to 
Canada's foreign trade as an increase in exports. It is impracticable, with respect to 
most fruits, to develop a considerable export trade, and the consumer's co-operation 
is essential in enlarging the domestic market for Canadian fruits. 

The purchaser of fruit can be guided by a few general rules: 

1. The grading, packing, grade-marks, and the sizes of fruit packages in Canada 
are governed by a Dominion law, enforced by the fruit inspection service. The require- 
ments of the law are very generally observed by fruit growers. In consequence, the 
consumer has the maximum of protection in buying Canadian fruit. 

2. Canadian summer fruits are usually later in maturing than imported fruits, 
owing to our cooler season. When southern fruits of any kind are on sale, Canadian 
fruits will follow shortly. 

3. The retailer usually knows in advance when Canadian fruits are to be had. 

204 



4. The retailer likes to meet the customer's wishes. 

5. It will particularly help if consumers will wait for Canadian-grown preserving 
fruits. 

6. Canada produces each year far more apples than are imported. It is sound 
practical patriotism to always demand Canadian apples. 

7. Look on the package for the address of the grower. Insist that it be Canadian. 

8. The year 1916 promises large crops of fruit of all kinds in Canada. It is a good 
year for a good resolution — Buy Canadian fruit. 

Ask your dealer whether the fruit he is offering is Canadian. Insist on being sup- 
plied with Canadian-grown fruit. Be patriotic consumers of Canadian fruits and 
vegetables. 



PRICES OF FOOD PRODUCTS STEADILY RISING 

The United Kingdom Board of Trade Labour Gazette reports that in December 
1915, prices in that country had advanced on an average 24 per cent, over December 
1914. The prices of the following articles had advanced from 40 to 15 per cent, in the 
order given: beef, tea, mutton, flour, bread, butter, eggs, milk, cheese, bacon, sugar 
and potatoes. Fresh fish was 50 per cent, higher, but margarine only 3 per cent. 

Prices in Berlin in November were 82 per cent, above July 1914, having fallen 
6.6 in the previous month, due, it is said, to government regulation. 

It is not to be assumed that this increase in prices is an accurate measure of the 
German food shortage. Food articles that can be stored have been stored in large 
quantities, so as to provide for future emergencies. Organization has been effected 
to regulate the placing of food in storage and its withdrawal and distribution as the 
needs of the community warrant. 

Food Prices as indicated by Index Numbers 

1915 1914 1913 

Canada 

June 148.6 135.3 136.4 

December 162.14 137.6 137.1 

Great Britain 

June 147.7 115.9 121.3 

November 159.1 125.5 120.7 

United States 

June 125.992 121.096 120.050 

December 133.146 124.183 125.734 

Italy 

October ' 120. 97.6 

Holland 

October 145 . 117 . (year's average) 

At the end of January the Canadian index number stood at 172 as compared with 
139 for January 1915. As a result the cost per week for food for the average working 
man's family is now $8.28 or 31 cents per week more than a year ago. The chief advances 
were in lard, eggs, butter, cheese, sugar, tea, coffee and potatoes. 

In Great Britain there was an advance of 5 per cent, during December, making a 
total advance since the war began of 46 per cent. 

In the United States in January the index number rose from 133 to 137. 

The latest Austrian figures show that the general level of prices is 117 per cent, 
above the prices current a year ago. / 

205 



Percentage increases in Food Prices in England, Germany and Austria, 

between July, 1914, and August, 1915 

Butter 
Beef Veal Mutton Pork Bacon Lard Butter Subs. Eggs Cheese 

Berlin 45.9 40.7 53 129 148.2 170 58 

Vienna 104 100 .. 74.8 150. 163 50 100 128.6 .. 

London 39-71 .. 29-67 .. 30 .. 33 6 66 26 

Bread Rye Flour Milk Sugar Tea Coffee Rice Beans Peas Pota- 

Bread toes. 

Berlin 42.9 28.6 22 24 .. 9.7 186 186 232.5 75 

Vienna 100 81.4 32.3 8.6 .. .. 233 150 228.6 .. 

London 40 ..39 19 97 50 -3 

Food in Germany 

The Socialist paper "Vorwaerts," published in Berlin, estimated In July, 1914, the 
total amount to be paid per month for the unavoidable necessities of food for a family 
of four persons at 25 marks, 12 pfennige, or about $6.25 per week. This was the 
minimum. This minimum advanced in succeeding months as follows: 

1914 Marks $ 1915 Marks $ 

August 22.44 5.00 January 29.65 7.12 

September 26.74 6.42 February 31.49 7.56 

October 27.09 6.50 March 32.90 7.90 

November 27.86 6.70 April 24.91 8.38 

December 28.74 6.90 May .26.49 8.76 

June 37.36 8.97 

In October, 1915, it had advanced to probably 50 marks, or $12.00. 

Not only was there a lessened quantity but the lessening of quality was perhaps a 
greater evil. "Vorwaerts" states: 

Meat less and poor; breadstuffs, including cheese, not to be enjoyed; about half the 
normal quantity of butter and eggs used; vegetables of the poorest sort in use; sugar 
much reduced; cocoa, tea and marmalade have almost disappeared from the table, 
even fresh fruit, so necessary to the nourishment of children; potatoes and war bread have 
become the principal means of nourishment. The result is general under-nourishment 
. . . This means not only bad nourishment, but hunger, permanent hunger! 

(Following the publication of the above statement came the temporary suppression 
of the German paper.) 



GERMANY'S FOOD 

Germany has been able to keep up her struggle against the Allies because of her 
wonderful national organization. She had trained and organized her people, organized 
her industries and organized her agriculture. Her financial institutions, schools and 
universities, and her churches also apparently had been organized to contribute their 
share in the maintenance and strengthening of the nation. Had she been unable to 
feed herself, she would, long ere this, have succumbed. How has she been able to do it? 

Immediately upon the outbreak of the war a Commission of sixteen experts was 
formed to advise and direct the Government along the lines of the production and the 
consumption of food. On this Commission were eight representatives from the most 
important agricultural colleges; there were also two Imperial Statisticians. Prof. Paul 
Eltzbacher, Rector of the Commercial College, Berlin, was Chairman. The first 

206 



conclusion that strikes one is that Germany had ready a corps of trained experts able to 
handle this question. These men had available a mass of statistical material dealing 
most thoroughly with the resources and products of the Empire and with their distribu- 
tion. They were able to start work at once — in fact, so promptly were their conclusions 
arrived at that one suspects they were more or less ready at the time of the outbreak 
of the war. 

The question that they put to themselves was — "If Germany were cut off so that 
she could neither import food nor export, what lines of production should be followed, 
and what restrictions should be put upon the consumption of food?" Their general 
conclusion was that with certain changes in their lines of production, certain modi- 
fications in the handling of their food, possible extensions in the use of vacant land, and 
the strictest economy in consumption, the German people could feed themselves. 
From time to time they advised the Government, and on their advice public enactments 
were made. In December of 1914 their complete report was pubished. An English 
translation of this report was issued in June, 1915, by the University of London 
Press — "Germany's Food — Can it Last?" edited by Dr. S. Russell Wells, with an intro- 
duction by Dr. A. D. Waller. The report is one of intense interest, and is very sug- 
gestive for the people of Canada. 

The Commission started out with this recognition of the importance of their 
investigation. "The problem is not only of theoretical interest, but of the very greatest 
practical importance, for it concerns nothing less than the outcome of the war. The 
efficiency of our army, our transport service and our finances has been brilliantly proved. 
If we wish to win, the organization of food supplies must not be lacking." 

First, as to producers — No food must be fed to live stock that can be used as human 
food. As a consequnce the number of swine must be reduced by nine million and the 
number of milch cows by one million. Potatoes were to be grown as extensively as 
possible, replacing some of the acreage of sugar beets. The reduction in the number of 
milch cows would produce less milk, but this milk was to be consumed as far as possible 
either as whole milk or as cheese. Butter was to be eliminated as much as possible 
from the national diet, being considered a luxury. This, of course, has hit the German 
housewife very severely, and will explain to some extent the so-called "fat riots." 
The extension of the potato acreage was to provide a cheap flour which could be used 
to supplement wheat, but particularly rye flour. 

Beet sugar has been one of the products on which the whole agricultural industry 
of Germany was based. How was the question of their large surplus to be handled? 
First of all, encouragement was to be given to the increased home consumption of 
sugar; secondly, the acreage of sugar beets was to be reduced; and, third, the sugar 
factories were to change their plans whereby a larger portion of the sugar would be 
retained in the by-product, thus decreasing the output of sugar and increasing the sugar 
in the by-product for stock food. 

In this manner the Commission went over the entire range of food products. No 
wheat was to be used for making starch and the people were to be instructed not to 
starch their clothes, thereby economizing and also improving sanitary conditions; 
health and economy were to be considered of more importance than fashion. 

"One thing is, of course, needful if the requisite measures are to succeed, that each 
shall sink his personal interests unreservedly in the common weal to-day. It does not 
matter whether a farmer or a manufacturer prospers, or whether a company pays 
dividends, but we have all got to live. It is not a question of money at all but of bread, 
meat and potatoes." 

Having fully considered the question of production, the Commission turned their 
attention to that of the consumption of food. The result of their suggestions was the 
setting out of what has been known as The Ten Commandments. These were printed 
on placards which were posted in every public building, railway coach and street car. 

207 



Following up the work of this Commission the Government appointed special 
committees or commissions for the storing and distribution of food products, and 
appointed another committee closely to follow the working out of their recommen- 
dations and to submit from time to time suggestions for variations in the regulations or 
the making of new enactments. 

The Ten Commandments 

(1). Don't eat more than necessary. Don't eat between meals. 

(2). Consider bread sacred. Use every little piece. Dry bread makes good soup. 

(3). Be economical with butter and fat. Use jam instead of butter. Most of the 
fat we get from abroad. 

(4). Use milk and cheese. 

(5). Use much sugar. Sugar is nourishing. 

(6). Boil potatoes with the skins on; then nothing is lost in peeling. 

(7). Drink less beer and alcohol; then the supply of rye from which these are made 
will be greater. 

(8). Eat vegetables and fruit. Plant vegetables in every little piece of earth. 
Be economical with preserved vegetables. 

(9). Gather all you don't eat for the animals. 
(10). Cook with gas and coke. The ashes from coke make good fertilizer. 

Moral — Obey these ten commandments and economize for the Fatherland. The 
rich must also follow these commandments. 



A DUTCHMAN WITH THE ENEMY 

The London Times Weekly, January 21st, 1916. 

"In Munich things are dear and bad. The sausages and the ingredients with which 
the food is prepared are not made more palatable by the frequent employment of 
substitutes. This is noticeable not only in the case of ordinary dishes, but also, and 
more particularly, in the various confectioners' shops. The pastry evidently contains 
a very large amount of potato meal. As for prices, I paid 4s. for one hors d'oeuvre, 
consisting of a herring, a couple of radishes, a small piece of celery, half an egg with a 
sausage, and a couple of shrimps, which would certainly not cost more than Is. in 
Holland. The price of beer has gone up more than 40 per cent., while the quality has 
gone down very much. Eggs cost 23^d. to 3d. each. Here we made our first acquaint- 
ance with the breadcards. We got breadcards from the head waiter at breakfast (175 
grammes of bread each). This gave us a right to five miniature loaves. The small 
German loaves are well known, but these were extra small. The bottom was 
hardly larger than a five-mark piece. It has frequently been proved that even this 
small quantity of bread is not entirely unmixed with substitutes. Whether the quantity 
of bread people get is sufficient is a matter of doubt." 

"Much female labour is employed in Vienna. I saw women doing the hardest 
navvies' work and busy as street cleaners and tram conductors. Public life, speaking 
generally, seems to go on in the usual way. The theatres are crowded. Naturally the 
feminine element is far and away predominant. One does not see much mourning 
worn, and to go by externals one would think, sitting in a theatre, that there was no 
war at all. There is something inexplicable in the psychological attitude of the people. 

208 



"Food is dear and scarce. Butter costs 4s. 2d. a lb.; lard, 7s. 6d.; and goose fat 
os. lOd. Dinner for two at the hotel, with a bottle of ordinary Rhine wine, costs 14s. 
6d.; yet so little did we get that two hours later we were very hungry and paid 4s.2d. 
for some small pieces of bread and butter, with salmon and ham upon them, and two 
cups of coffee." 

"We stopped in Berlin for some four days. Private motor-cars no longer run 
there. In Wertheim's stores you see two notices. One of them states that on account 
of want of string, packets cannot be tied up, and the other that small parcels cannot 
be sent home owing to lack of employees. Women work as conductors on tramways 
and on the underground railway, and I saw 20 or 30 women with spades and other 
implements digging at the works connected with the new railway tunnel under the 
Friedrichstrasse." 

"K." Bread 

Five per cent, of potato meal must be added to rye bread. A larger addition is 
permitted, but in this case the bread must be distinguished by the letter K,* and if 
more than 20 per cent, is added the amount of addition must also be marked on the 
bread. 

The making of potato bread is not due to a lack of grain, for, owing to the prohibi- 
tion of its use as fodder, we have quite enough for our requirements without the wheat 
hitherto imported, but to the fact that the greater durability of grain in contrast to the 
perishable potato makes it particularly suitable for storing as provision for the 
future. The use of potatoes in bread-making increases the consumption of potatoes 
instead of grain and so makes a saving of grain possible." — German Report. 

*K here stands for Kartoffel (potato), but the bread is often called Kriegskot (war 
bread). 

Great Loss of Men Will Defeat Germany 

Paris, Feb. 8. — In an interview published in La Liberte, a well-known manufacturer 
who has just returned from internment in Germany throws new light on the economic 
situation in the Empire. He says: 

"Germany has never lacked a supply of copper. She found a two-year supply in 
the invaded regions of France. In order to hoard up her own resources she stopped the 
exploitation of her own iron mines, and is working the French mines exclusively. From 
these she has withdrawn a vast stock equalling the amount ordinarily dug up in ten years 
under French methods in peace times. 

"Wheat is very scarce in Germany, but potatoes and other vegetables are very 
abundant and cheap. Meat is extremely scarce, but coal is plentiful and relatively 
cheap. 

"It must not be expected that Germany will succumb to economic pressure. She 
will be defeated only by the loss of untold thousands of men, a loss which is already 
acutely felt throughout the nation. 



209 



WOMEN AND THE WAR 



"To brave hearts nothing is impossible.'' 1 — -Joan of Arc. 



"In this tragic hour my message to every woman in Britain is: — Be brave! — sure 
in the victory that awaits my brave countrymen and their Allies. Men must fight, 
but this is not the time for women to weep. They must be strong in faith, active in 
war- work, inspiring as ever by their love and patriotism the magnificent courage of 
their countrymen. France will never forget what Britain has done and is doing — French 
women and British women join hands in a bond of mutual sympathy and affection, 
rejoicing together in the renewed hope of our glorious future and of our eternal friendship 
cemented in the war." — Sarah Bernhardt. 



"Our women — they are superb." — General Joffre. 

THE APPEAL OF AN ENGLISH SCHOOLGIRL 

"Night after night the big ships sail out into the starlit darkness, carrying men, 
and yet more men, away from the peaceful shores of Britain to the reddened fields of 
France, or the sandy beaches of Gallipoli. Cheerful and confident, the men go forth 
to battle for us, and we women are left at home, face to face, many of us for the first 
time in our lives, with anxiety, sorrow, and dire need. Few men are left, and they are 
needed in the arsenals and munition factories; therefore on the women of the nation 
falls the burden of producing the food supplies. No longer is it true true that "men must 
work and women must weep" — all must put their shoulders to the wheel, and answer 
the country's call in this her hour of need. Now that the highways of the ocean are 
less safe than of yore, it is imperative that more food should be produced in the country 
itself, so that the Army, the Navy, the wounded, and, above all, the children, who 
will be the future men and women of the Empire, may be adequately supplied. At a 
time when the nation is being called upon to bear a tremendous strain morally, physi- 
cally and financially, it is of the utmost importance that the food supply should be well 
maintained. But how can this be unless the women lend their help? Women of 
England! here lies your great opportunity, which may not come again! For years you 
have claimed equal rights with men, show now that you are worthy of them, and can 
fill a man's place." 

— Eilidh Hay Forbes, in The Journal of Agriculture. 

BRITISH WOMEN AND THE WAR 

"Two hundred and fifty thousand women are working in the War Munitions 
Factories of Great Britain." 

Apart from these everyday occupations, British women have swarmed into the 
factories of the big centres for war work, and a large proportion of them are women who 
never before have had anything to do with factory life. At a Coventry shell-making 

210 



works all the production is done by women drawn from the leisured classes. They are 
under the supervision of a few trained foremen, and work ten hours a day. The women 
are not only doing the work well, but seem to be thoroughly interested in it. 

The London Chronicle correspondent says: "In all the armament areas thousands 
of women, sometimes tens of thousands, are at work in the big towns. Under one roof 
in Birmingham I saw three thousand girls engaged in making fuses for British and 
Russian shells — and Birmingham is ringed with factories. At Newcastle a single 
munition firm alone employs six thousand women. The point that has to be remembered 
is that these hosts of women war workers have volunteered from widely varied conditions 
of life. It is a democratic army, like our army in the field. There are well-to-do 
women in the ranks, as well as domestic servants; there are school teachers and shop 
girls, the daughters of professional men as well as the wives of soldiers at the front. 
The uniform of overalls raises them all to the same level." 

THE WOMEN OF AUSTRALIA 

Resolved: that this meeting of the National Council of Women of Victoria 
urges all women to be steadfast in this time of suffering, and to use every effort, 
no matter at what personal cost, to secure final victory; in order that their 
children may succeed to the heritage of their fathers, the freedom of the 
British Empire. 

Such was the resolution drawn up at a meeting of the Australian National Council 
of Women. 

Surely it is a strong bond of union amongst the wide flung Dominions of our Empire 
that women in the British Isles, in Australia, in New Zealand, and women in Canada, are 
all resolved on one thing, that no sacrifice is too great to make, which will help to serve 
the Empire in the time of its dire need. 

How loyally women there have already given of their best, we all know. We 
Canadians who cannot think of Ypres, of St. Julien and Langemarck without a thrill of 
pain as well as of glory, can understand the feeling of the mothers and wives of the 
Australian heroes of Anzac. Australia may previously have meant little to us. Hence- 
forth it must mean a land of heroic men and women. 

Every Canadian woman worthy of the name will join with the women of Australia 
in the resolution which came from their National Council of Women. 

GIVES ALL HER BOYS TO CAUSE OF FRANCE 

Speaking of his experiences at the front, Baron Malaussene, adjutant-lieutenant, 
in a recent interview, said: 

"The Canadians fought like lions; they are great fighters. We in France are 
grateful to every mother in Canada who has sent her son, and for the blood of Canada 
that has been spilt on the battlefields of France. We will not forget, but we pray that 
it may cement a more lasting friendship in the years to come between this country and 
that across the seas." 

Spirit of the Women 

"Yet there are still many in your country who have not yet felt that there is a 
war — who feel no duty upon them to serve at this time. We in France realize that we 
are fighting for the lives and the honour of our wives and little children and our national 
freedom. Ah! it is because you are so far away that men do not realize the need of 
England, the cry of France and her allies, for help. Behind the splendid heroism of the 
fighting men of France there is the spirit of the women. Ah! the brave, courageous 
women. There is not a woman in France today who is thinking of her own comfort 
or pleasure before the cause. It is the grand spirit of the women of France that is 
helping her through these terrible times. 

211 



"I will tell you a story: 

"In a little hospital not far from the firing line, where Dr. Williams was tending 
the wounded, there was a poor French lad badly wounded. It seemed as if nothing 
would rally his spirits but a sight of some one from home, so the doctor asked if he had 
a mother. Yes, he had, and the light came into his eyes at her name, but she lived 
too far away, and they were very poor. Never mind, there was a way, and in two days 
the doctor had that mother by the bedside of her boy. There was never a cry or a tear, 
only brave words of cheer and encouragement. She sat with him through one night 
and told him how he would soon be well enough again to fight. Once outside the ward 
this brave woman broke down for an instant. She said, 'I have sent six boys to the 
front; he is the only one left, and tomorrow, my baby, my last one, goes to the war. 
Ah! it is hard!' 'But,' said a soldier nearby, 'your boys have done bravely, mother, 
for their country; would you have it different in the hour of France's need?! She drew 
herself up. 'No!' she exclaimed, 'had I all my boys at my side again, I would gladly 
send them to fight for their country.' 



HE SAW A WOMAN PLOUGHING 

President of Britain's Agricultural Board tells Shrewsbury Audience of 

Singular Sight 

The necessity of replacing men's labour by that of women in agricultural occupations 
is engaging the attention of most people in England at the present moment. 

Lord Selborne, president of the Board of Agriculture, is a keen advocate of 
women taking the place of men on the land wherever possible. In an address which 
he gave a few weeks ago at Shrewsbury, he said he had seen what he believed nobody 
had ever seen in England — "a woman ploughing." "Women of every class," he 
declared "must assist. The squire's wife and the farmer's, and the parsons' wife, the wife 
and the daughter of the labourer, each in turn could make a contribution to agriculture 
in this year of war, and so work for victory just as husband, son or brother, in the fleet 
or in the trenches. I would make a special appeal to the wives and daughters of men 
who are fighting, because they are well cared for by the nation. They have not been 
left in grinding poverty as are the German women whilst the men are fighting the 
battles. 

It was not right that a woman in this country should live in greater luxury than 
she did before her husband or son went away to fight; she should do her part just as the 
men. She must go on to the land if the farmer asked her at a fair wage for a fair day's 
work. This is a moment when each man and woman of every class must put forward 
that unselfishness and patriotism on which depends the fate of England." 



THE WOMEN OF MONTENEGRO 

The Montenegrins themselves do not understand so much about artillery as about 
other arms, in the employment of which they are past masters. Their specialty is 
not the complicated modern war, but the partisan warfare in the mountains, the real 
Indian war. One hears them shouting something to one another on the bare, black 
mountains; then they glide down into the valley in groups of two or three, jump in 
their soft felt shoes from stone to stone, conceal themselves in the holes which are hidden 
by the evergreen bushes, and suddenly they all collect at one spot in the rear or at the 
flank of our patrols. Woe to these patrols if they allow themselves to be surprised! 
The Montenegrins give no quarter to anybody, not even to the wounded. On the other 
hand, it is next to impossible to capture Montenegrin soldiers. Wherever a warrior goes 
or stands there also is his wife, and when he falls she jumps to his side and drags him 
away. No dead or wounded are found after a battle. 

212 



ITALIAN PEASANT WOMEN AS FARM HELPERS] 

In the midst of mobilization, in the summer, in spite of various classes having 
been recalled, the harvest was gathered in without great difficulty, and was generally 
abundant; when the men were wanting, the women were ready to work, those wonderful 
Italian peasant-women, prodigal of children, and desirous of taking the place of their 
husbands in all the labours of the field. The Valley of Aosta, scantily populated, has 
given all its valid men to the Alpini; the women have reaped, threshed, and garnered 
the grain; they have attended to the vintage, and now are digging and ploughing the 
earth. 

EDITH CAVELL— TWO OPINIONS 

The Official Defence by Dr. Alfred F. M. Zimmermann, German Under 
Secretary for Foreign Affairs, Oct. 24th, 1915 

"I see from the English and American Press that the shooting of an 
Englishwoman and the condemnation of several other women in Brussels 
for treason has caused a sensation, and capital against us is being 
made out of the fact. It is undoubtedly a terrible thing that the 
woman has been executed; but consider what would happen to a State, 
particularly in war, if it left crimes aimed at the safety of its armies to go 
unpunished because committed by women. No criminal code in the world — 
least of all the laws of war — make such a distinction; and the feminine 
sex has but one preference, according to legal usages, namely, that women 
in a delicate condition may not be executed. Otherwise man and woman 
are equal before the law, and only the degree of guilt makes a difference in 
the sentence for the crime and its consequences. 1 * 

"It was a pity that Miss Cavell had to be executed, but it was necessary. 
She was judged justly. We hope it will not be necessary to have anymore 
executions." 



The Opinion of James M. Beck, Late Assistant Attorney General of the United 

States 

"And you, women of America! Will you not honour the memory of this martyr 
of your sex, who for all time will be mourned as was the noblest Greek maiden, Antigone, 
who also gave her life that her brother might have the rites of sepulture? Will you not 
carry on in her name and for her memory those sacred ministrations of mercy which 
were her lifework? Make her cause — the cause of mercy — your ownl" 



213 



THE CALL TO THE COLOURS 

Not having been invaded, England has been long in awakening to the reality of 
the war, but an old Oriental proverb says "Beware of the man who is slow to wrath." 
The great majority of the British people to-day, especially the women — the people of 
England, Scotland, Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, finally 
realize fully that to preserve their own liberty and that of the world the teeth and claws 
of the Prussian tiger must be torn out. 

— Lord Northcliffe. 



PROVISIONS OF THE CANADIAN MILITIA ACT 

The provisions of the Canadian Militia Act according to which all male subjects 
between the ages of eighteen and sixty may be called upon are worth studying in this 
connection. They may be placed on "active service anywhere in Canada and also 
beyond Canada for the defense thereof, at any time when it appears advisable to do so 
by reason of an emergency." They are divided into four classes, which are to be called 
to the colours in order: 

First class: Eighteen years and upwards, but under thirty years, who are unmar- 
ried or widowers without children. 

Second class: Thirty years and upwards, but under forty- five, unmarried or 
widowers without children. 

Third class: Eighteen years and upwards, but under forty-five, married or widowers 
with children. 

Fourth class: All those of the age of forty-five years and upwards, but under 
sixty years. 



FACTS REGARDING ENLISTMENT FOR SERVICE OVERSEAS 

Enlistment is for the war, and six months after, if required . 

Remuneration: 

The following are the rates of pay in the C.E.F. Field 

Rank Pay allowance 

Colonel $6.00 $1.50 

Lt.-Colonel 5.00 1.25 

Major 4.00 1.00 

Captain 3.00 .75 

Lieutenant 2 . 00 .60 

Adjutants in addition to pay of rank $0.50 

Sergeant 1 . 35 .15 

Corporal 1 . 10 .10 

Private 1 . 00 .10 

Privates and Non-commissioned officers are provided with clothing, equipment 
and subsistence. 

214 



Separation Allowance — Soldiers' dependents (wives, children of a widower, or 
widowed mothers, if son is unmarried and sole support) are paid the following monthly 
allowance by the Canadian Government: 

Privates $20 a month 

Sergeants 25 a month 

Warrant Officers 30 a month 

Lieutenants 30 a month 

Captains 40 a month 

Majors 50 a month 

Lt.-Colonels 50 a month 

If a soldier has dependents, a portion of his pay is made to them direct. 
In cases where the separation allowance and pay are insufficient, further assistance 
may be given by the Canadian Patriotic Fund. 

Sick, Wounded and Prisoners — Sick and wounded are cared for and their pay 
continued until discharged. 



THE PATH OF FIRE 

No nobler call to Canadians has been sounded than that of the Chief of the Mohawks 
last week in the Council Chamber of the Six Nations at the Indian reserve near Brantford 
(Ontario). Some dissatisfaction had been expressed by a Chief present at the restric- 
tions imposed upon Indians in the exercise of their fishing and shooting rights under 
the treaties with the pale faces. It was a tense moment when the Chief of the Mohawks 
rose to urge the duty of responding to the call of the King for men — and yet more men. 
In quiet tones he recalled his own sacrifices. His eldest lad, working on the farm, 
hitched his horses to the fence one day and followed the recruiting sergeant. Later 
he sailed with the First Canadian Contingent. That year the area under crops on the 
farm had to be cut down. Then a second son and later a third boy joined the King's 
colours, and the Chief and his squaw were left alone to till the land, restricting further 
the acreage under crops. It was a simple story of duty and sacrifice simply told, and 
it carried its own message. Drawing himself up proudly, the Chief reminded his 
hearers of an old Indian legend. An Iroquois who had been captured by an enemy 
tribe was given two alternatives; to seek freedom by passing through a path of fire 
which his captors had made or remain behind with the women and children. The 
Iroquois prisoner never hesitated — he preferred the path of fire, with the honour and 
freedom it held out, to the ignominy and disgrace of remaining with the women. Seizing 
the psychological moment, the Chief of the Mohawks gave the war cry of his tribe and 
sat down. 

It was a thrilling moment for the palefaces who were privileged to witness the 
scene. That war cry of the Mohawk Chief was the answering challenge to German 
tyranny of one who had tasted of British freedom. It was a call to every Canadian 
eligible for military service. For every man capable of serving King and country at 

the front the choice now comes — the path of fire, which is the path of honour, or ! 

"Not once or twice in our rough Island story 
The path of duty was the way to glory". 

— The Globe, Toronto. 



The Old Serb. — "Fighting with the Bulgarians against the Turks I lost my 
brother; my sons fell fighting with the Greeks against the Bulgarians; but only when 
the Germans came were my wife and my grandchildren killed." 

— Raemarkers of Holland. 

215 



THE BOYS AT THE FRONT 

The * 'Listening Post" 

The following contribution appeared in The Listening Post, a Canadian newspaper 
published in the trenches in France. 

"Think of the Listening Post! Far out in front of the trench, nearer Berlin than 
anyone else. All alone, but for his wire. Watchful, alert, peering through the dark, 
analysing every sound, dissecting every vision, investigating every smell. An epicure, 
a critic, a reporter rolled in one. A rising bank of mist that may be gas; a footfall out 
in front that may be our own patrols or it may not. The safety of the trench depends 
upon him, and on the safety of the trench depends — yes, what? 

"On a fine night, with a full moon, dry ground and a good view. Fine! A regular 
picnic. All the universe and the myriad stars to remind you of your future happiness. 
But on a wet night, a thin drizzling, slush of a night, your knees a sponge, your elbows 
a marah, your tummy a morass, nothing to be seen, heard or smelt, but wet, damp and 
misery. Then's time you think of your past sins. 

"Flare lights may show up your position, but it is the bullets — and machine guns 
that actually ascertain whether a listening post is a post or merely a prostrate piece of 
timber. 

"There is a diversity of opinion among Listening Posts, as to whether they run 
more risk from the bullets of those in front or their friends behind. But that, like the 
Welsh coal strike and compulsory service, is a controversial matter, and the Editor 
says it is 'spot barred.' 

"One day I'll write a poem about a listening post, and then the world will know the 
dull depths of the dreary, damp, despondent, despairing, dangerous drudgery of this 
devastating duty. 

"Yet many of them like it, ask to be sent out. Go and go again. If the aeroplanes 
are our eyes by day, the listening posts are certainly our night lights." 



A LETTER FROM FRANCE 

The following letter from a prominent Scotch Agriculturist, who knows Canada 
well, is of more than usual interest. 

"B.E.F., France, 

January 28, 1916. 

"I was very glad to have your letter of December 12th, which reached me a few days 
ago in an old French Chateau, of the 11th Century." 

"The response of Canada has been mangificent, but the details you give bring out 
the facts better than any paper. At this part of the line we have a lot of Canadians 
near us, and some Australians not so far away, both fine — I don't know which to admire 
more. But our own chaps are grand. How they stand the mud and water, cold and 
dirt, monotony and danger and wounds so well is a constant wonder. The indifference 
to danger or rather to the. possibility of sudden extinction is very strange." 

'This part of the country was overrun by the Germans and the burned churches are 
abundant evidence. Nearer the line there are of course no undamaged houses and the 
villages are heaps of ruins quite uninhabited. These guns have such a deuced long 
range nowadays that one must be a long way back to be clear of them. I suppose we are 
at this moment six or seven miles from their guns but they can pip us when they like. 

216 



Two aeroplanes came over today and dropped a couple of bombs in the garden next door — 
total casualties, one bird killed by flying glass. It is remarkable how much ammunition 
must be expended to get any result. The other day they gave us 2,000 shells, any 
amount of machine gun and rifle fire and lots of bombs and other horrors for several 
hours and the casualties were two killed and half a dozen wounded on our section. I am 
glad to say we gave them two shells to their one and knocked them about a good deal. 
We are gaining on them in ammunition and men and it seems to me that we only need 
inflexible determination for say two years more to finish them off for keeps." 

"You may think from what our papers say that we are making a muddle of things, 
and no doubt many mistakes have been made by those in high places, but I question if 
any other nation could have done what we have done in the time. I am sure Germany 
could not. As to the organization, it is wonderful. My brigade, of which I am 
a Staff Officer, was moving lately — say 4,500 men and 300 horses and waggons. 
We halted each night in a new place and within an hour every man had a hot 
meal, had received or posted his letters, and even bought postal orders — the office 
was in full swing with a typewriter clicking away and telegrams and motor 
cyclists coming and going. Next morning shortly after dawn and a hot breakfast, the 
whole outfit would be marching again. Men who had fallen sick in the night would be 
flying in motor ambulances to base or field hospitals, lame horses would be picked up 
by the Mobile Veterinary Section, and the vouchers for the payment of billeting money 
for the whole 4,500 men and 400 horses in perhaps 150 different billets properly made out 
and -certified would be in the hands of the village 'Maire.' If you remember that — 
Brigades have been recruited, trained, equipped and organised so that they can move like 
this in a foreign country all in eighteen months you can see that we have worked miracles. 
And remember that three hot meals a day have got to come from somewhere every day 
and they never fail to come. All the stuff comes across the Channel, even our coal, which 
is served out to us every day even on the move. And eighteen months ago there were 
not — Brigades that could move and fight in the British Army. There is nothing 
wrong with our organization, but we are fighting the best professional soldiers in the 
world, and even if the war lasts ten years we shall still be amateurs fighting professionals. 
You cannot train civilians like me to their pitch of efficiency in a year or so, but every 
month the war lasts reduces the number of their professionals and brings us nearer the 
same level of quality. Already we are nearing them, soon we shall dominate them. 

"The spirit of our men is grand. The other night one of our men, wounded in 
both arms, was pulled off the top of the parapet which he was climbing in order 'to get 
at the chap that did it.' I suppose he was going to bite him, as he could not carry a 
rifle. All they hope for is that the enemy will come out of his holes so that they can 
get at him." 

"The German methods are, of course, despicable and we are much handicapped 
by them. For instance this town, which is quite large, and of which you would know the 
the name quite well, is within easy range and is full of French women and children. 
Whenever we have given the Huns a specially hot time they turn their guns on this 
town. It has no military effect whatever beyond this, that, as we know they will kill 
women and children if we bombard them hotly, it rather cools our ardour. It is all of a 
piece with their favourite game of advancing behind a screen of women, driven forward 
by their bayonets. Nothing that you have ever read about the German atrocities is 
exaggerated. If some particular act is not true you may be certain that another of 
equal barbarism has been perpetrated. It is difficult to imagine anything worse than 
spitting babies and carrying them alive on their bayonets over their shoulders, and we 
know they have done this. Again and again in the advance from the Aisne it was found 
that in houses occupied by German officers a favourite habit was to open the grand 
piano and use it as a closet, filling it with human ordure. This is a small thing but it shows 
the 'mark of the beast'." 

217 



IN THE TRENCHES 

"For breakfast, about seven o'clock, we have tea or cocoa, bacon and bread- Our 
dinners consist of a pound of good fresh beef, potatoes, and bread, or steak, potatoes 
and bread and onions. For tea again we don't fare at all badly. We usually get bread 
and jam, biscuits and tea or cocoa, and on top of all that we get as many smokes as we 
can very well manage. Generally, we do our own cooking on our trench fires, but when 
there is a shortage of cooks, our rations are brought to us already prepared. In addition 
to the four packets of cigarettes that are included in our regular rations each week, we 
receive quite a lot from private sources." — A Canadian Soldier. 



Tommy Atkins in the trenches well fed is a great fighter; well fed he will stand to the 
last. John Bull at home over-fed might become overconfident. The Canadian who 
does not deny himself in some way does not know that he is in the war. The Canadian 
farmer is pushing production not for the epicure and gourmand, but for the boys at the 
front. Beef, bacon, flour, cheese and eggs from Canadian farms are for the Front, not 
for overloading our home tables. Let us economise and keep the supply waggons 
moving. Remember what the "Distressed Pessimist" said in Punch (Dec. 8, 1915) 
after a too hearty meal. 

"It's odd — very odd! But somehow, fresh after dinner, I never can get myself to 
feel as though the Germans would win." 



Jam replaces Butter 

The value of jam as a food lies in its richness in sugar, in the minerals which are 
present in the skins of the fruit, in its laxative character and its mechanical aid to 
digestion, writes Prof. James Long in The London Evening News. Its "toothsomeness," 
too, is not to be despised, for it appeals to that relish and appetite which go so far in the 
maintenance of health. 

Five pounds of jam cost no more than one pound of butter, but what of its relative 
value as food? One pound of butter provides 3,600 calories, whereas five pounds of 
jam provide 5,250. Practically the energy value of three and a half pounds of jam is 
equal to that of one pound of butter, and at a good deal less cost. 

Sugar present in fruit has a remarkable effect on nutrition. 

Jam contains a large proportion of "invert" sugar, which is more freely digested 
than raw sugar and can be eaten with greater impunity. 

Honey is an excellent example of invert sugar, of which it contains nearly twelve 
ounces to the pound, and is well known as a delightful, nutritious and easily digestible 
dainty, although as with everything else, too much can be eaten at once. 

An officer of the Royal Field Artillery sings the praises of jam: "Money is not much 
use here where there's little to buy, and when a rich country feeds its soldiers so well. 
When I say well fed, I mean bacon, steak, bread, and jam every day, varied by bully 
and 'Maconochie.' I think jam will never have to bow to wheat while there's an army to 
be fed in the field. It is the staple out here; many a muddy loaf, or a loaf that has had a 
brush of the oil barrel, is made eatable by jam. Goodness knows where all the plums 
and apples come from. Then jam comes in tins, and tins are useful for making paths. 
Bread comes in nothing — that's where jam scores; also jam is equivalent to vegetables." 

218 



SUGAR FOR THE SOLDIERS 

A German Report states: 

"The consumption of sugar must be much increased. Last year we exported more 
than one million tons of sugar; now this sugar can serve as a substitute for other food 
stuffs. Such an increase in the consumption of sugar is quite possible. In England 
and America the sugar consumption per head of the population is nearly twice as big as 
ours. There., to a much greater extent than with us, jam of all kinds is eaten together 
with or instead of butter, and many sweet dishes of simple composition are used for 
dessert. 

"Sugar is also suitable as a food in its ordinary form. For some years it has been 
tried as an invigorator in fatiguing marches or in sports. Exact inquiries show that by 
eating about 12 to 15 grams of sugar at intervals of half an hour the feeling of tiredness 
can be overcome most effectually. We have been rightly urged, therefore, not to forget 
sugar of various kinds in sending gifts to our troops in the field." 

Canadians would do well to keep this in mind in sending gifts to our soldiers — a small 
box of lump sugar will be most acceptable and helpful. 

A Hint 

"By the way," interjected one of the men, "if you are writing to Canada about us, 
would you mind telling those good people out there who send us these nice things not to 
put chocolates and cigars in the socks they knit and send out to us. We don't like to 
write ourselves for fear they might misunderstand us, and think us ungrateful. But 
when they reach us out here the chocolates are usually dissolved away, and the cigars are 
unusable." 

Newspapers for the Front 

Canadians Over Seas like to read Canadian papers. Newspapers from home are the 
next best thing to letters. Here is a suggestion : Wrap up some every week and address 
them as follows: 

Lady Drummond, 

14 Cockspur St., 

London, S.W., England. 

Write on the outside the place of publication. Tie them up carefully. The postage 
is one cent for four ounces. Lady Drummond's clerks will then forward them to the 
boys in camp, hospital, or in the trenches. 

Magazines for the Soldiers 

"A Carload a Month" is the slogan adopted by a group of Toronto men interested 
in helping to meet the great demand for reading matter from the boys in khaki who are 
overseas. That this is one of the big needs of the lads, who are in training in England 
and who are fighting at the front, is evident from the statement of one of the Y.M.C.A. 
secretaries that at least 100,000 unused magazines should go forward periodically. He 
says these do much to relieve the strain and monotony of the camp and trench life. 



219 



PATRIOTIC AND RELIEF WORK 

"In providing comforts for the soldiers, in all the activities that we associate with 
the Red Cross, in ministering to the wounded, Canadian women have revealed the 
divinity that lies in the heart of woman everywhere and always appears at the call of 
sorrow and suffering. Their work has been incalculable, their courage sublime, their self 
sacrifice touching and inspiring." — Sir John Willison." 

4- 

No man ever begins to give until he has deprived himself of something that he feels 
the need of having. That is to say,most of our giving, what is taken from our abundance 
and our superfluities, is not giving at all in any real sense. 

What you do not feel the need of is not a gift. This is what lies behind the fact that 
it is not the large sums that are the greatest sacrifice, although they are useful, of course, 
according to their value. But the good that the giver gets out of his gift is to be 
measured only by the degree of sacrifice he has made in determining the size of his gift. 
This is the philosophy of the widow's mite. She out of her poverty gave all that she had. 
Most of us give only out of our abundance, and do not make very deep inroads upon that. 

There is much in this to encourage the man or woman who is able to do only a little. 
The little so given may be greater in spirit and influence than the splendid gifts of the 
wealthy. But it has a word for the wealthy also, and each man has to consider his gift 
not according to its actual value, but according to its value relatively to his fortune. A 
man with a million does not feel his gifts in any sense at all until they begin to pinch his 
own life and habits. — The Toronto World. 



CANADIAN PATRIOTIC FUND 

Object — The Canadian Patriotic Fund is organized for the purpose of rendering 
financial aid, in case of need, to the dependent relatives living in Canada or Newfound- 
land, of men fighting in the ranks of the Allies, no matter of what nationality they 
may be or in which army or navythey are serving. It may also assist, should necessity 
arise, soldiers or sailors discharged from the forces by reason of wounds or sickness. 

The head office of the Fund is at Ottawa, the Honourary Secretary being Sir Herbert 
Ames, Kt., LL.D., M.P., the Honourary Treasurer, Sir Thomas White, M.P., and the 
Assistant Secretary, Mr. Philip H. Morris. 

Donations by Provinces to March 1st, 1916 

Amount Additional 

received contributions 

to date for 1916 

$ $ 

Ontario 3,500,000 5,000,000 

Quebec 2,000,000 2,500,000 

Manitoba 500,000 500,000 

Saskatchewan 500,000 500,000 

Alberta 428,000 500,000 

British Columbia 490,000 600,000 

Yukon 20,000 20,000 

Nova Scotia 300,000 500,000 

New Brunswick 300,000 350,000 

Prince Edward Island 38,600 40,000 



$S,076,600 $10,510,000 
Sir Herbert Ames states that at the present time (March 1) about 30,000 families 
are receiving assistance from the fund. 

220 



County Council Grants 

The following statement of what the County Councils of Ontario have voted for 

1916 to the Canadian Patriotic Fund is a splendid evidence of the generosity of the rural 
districts as exhibited toward this Fund. These contributions do not include what the 
townships are giving, nor the voluntary contributions coming from rural parts of the 
Province, but only what has been voted through the county councils. The record is 
described by Sir Herbert Ames, Hon. Secretary of the Canadian Patriotic Fund, as being 
'a triumph quite equal to that scored by Montreal or Toronto." 

Rural Approxi- 

Population Con'n per mate 

Grant Total (Excluding Capita Additional 

per for Towns of Rural Taxation 
County Month 1916 and Cities) Population Mills. 

Brant $20,000 $15,981 $1.25 \y 2 

Bruce 7,000 84,000 35.325 2.37 3 

Carleton 12,000 29,172 .43 

Dufferin 500 6,000 13,222 .45 % 

Elgin 2,500 30,000 25,727 1.16 1^ 

Essex 2,500 30,000 31,158 .96 1 

Frontenac 2,500 30,000 18,727 1 . 60 5 

Grey 15,000 40,536 .37 l / 2 

Haldimand 1,000 12,000 17,191 .. 1 

Halton (1) 

Hastings * 2,000 24,000 34,586 .69 ty 2 

Huron 5,000 30,000 38,859 .77 1 

Kent 2,000 12,000 33,196 .. V 2 

Lambton 4,000 48,000 32,195 .36 ty 2 

Lanark 2,000 24,000 16,271 1.46 2 

Leeds and Grenville 40,000 33,157 1 . 20 2 

Lennox and Addington 1,800 18,000 

Lincoln (3) 

Middlesex 6,000 72,000 39,433 1.82 2 

Norfolk 6,000 24,000 21,958 . 1.09 2 

Northumberland and Durham 5,000 55,000 39,622 1.38 2 

Ontario 5,000 60,000 28,431 2.11 2Y 2 

Oxford 60,000 28,611 2.10 

Peel 4,000 48,000 16,484 2.91 3 ' 

Perth t-.. 21,600 26,222 .82 

Peterboro 1,650 19,800 19,583 1.01 2 

Prescott and Russell .... 

Prince Edward 1,500 18,000 12,542 1 . 42 2 

Renfrew 2,000 24,000 42,645 .56 \\i 

Simcoe (4) .... .... 

Stormont, Dundas and Glen- 
garry 2,000 12,000 50,527 .23 Y 2 

Victoria and Haliburton 2,500 30,000 26,391 1.51 4 

Waterloo 25,276 25,770 .90 1 

Welland(o) 

Wellington 5,000 60,000 31,969 1.87 2 

Wentworth 4,000 48,000 26,610 1.80 

York 250,000 70,921 3.52 4^ 

$1,242,676. 919,022 $1.35 

f$l,400 till April, $2,000 afterward. 

(1) The Council of Halton raised $16,403 by assessment in 1915. 

(3) Lincoln County Council expended $45,095 in 1915. 

(4) Simcoe County granted $25,000 in 1915. Action for 1916 not yet taken. 

(5) Welland County granted food stuffs valued at $7,003 in 1915. 

221 



Patriotic Acre Fund, Saskatchewan 

Number of acres promised 6,000 

Contributions paid (Jan. 24), in grain or cash, equivalent in flour to 3,000,000 lbs. 

A nominal charge is made by the Milling Companies and the flour put up in bags 
bearing the Association's emblem. 



CANADIAN RED CROSS SOCIETY 

Chairman of Executive Committee, Lt.-Col. Noel G. L. Marshall. Hon Treasurer, 
Brig.-Gen. The Hon. James Mason. Commissioner in England — Colonel Hodgetts, 
C.A.M.C. Head Office: 77 King St. E., Toronto. 

The Canadian Red Cross Society is the representative in Canada of the Inter- 
national Red Cross Society with its Executive Committee in Geneva, Switzerland. 

The work of the Red Cross Society is to co-operate with the Medical Services of the 
Navy and Army in the relief of sick and wounded sailors and soldiers. 

To this duty is added that of ministering to the needs of prisoners of war. 

In a report to the Press, made by the Chairman of the Society in February last, it 
was stated that the people of the Dominion had contributed in cash and goods since 
the beginning of the war until the end of 1915, over $4,100,000, as follows: 

Value of Supplies, estimated $3,000,000 

Cash 1,108,473 



$4,108,473 
The cash contributed was as follows, by provinces: 

Ontario $707,204 Nova Scotia $23,744 

Manitoba 89,034 Prince Edward Island 18,734 

Quebec 78,886 New Brunswick 17,307 

Saskatchewan 72,606 Yukon 3,429 

British Columbia 54,596 United States 2,200 

Alberta 40,792 

Waste Paper for the Red Cross 

Do not waste old papers; you can make money out of them for the Patriotic Fund 
or the Red Cross. 

Several Women's Institutes have raised money in this way. Elizabeth Dolman 
Watson, President of the Women's Institute at Ayr, Ont., states that the Institute shipped 
a 12 ton carload which realized $74.07, or $58.47 net, after deducting $15.60 freight. 
Newspapers brought $5 per ton and magazines of a higher grade of paper $10. "We 
rented a store, where we received paper one day a week for six weeks. The bulk of the 
paper was brought in by the people themselves. To facilitate handling, the papers were 
sorted and tied up in bundles of a size. We announced the collection through the 
Institute and the issue of the local paper." 

What Ottawa is doing: The Daughters of the Empire inaugurated a system in 
Ottawa for the collection of waste paper, which is meeting with excellent success. As 
much as $300 a month has been realized. Mr. E. C. Grant, of 24 Blackburn Ave., who 
is managing the undertaking, states that twenty boxes placed at different points in the 
city are bringing in over a ton a day. He writes, "We shall be pleased to give all infor- 
mation to any town or city undertaking the work, and also have them ship to us as we 
have an excellent contract for all the paper we can produce until the war is over." 

222 



THE BRITISH RED CROSS 

Collections in Canada for the British Red Cross Fund, so far as can be ascertained, 
are as follows: — 

Ontario $1,493,992.00 

Nova Scotia 65,636. 24 

New Brunswick 15,000. 00 

Prince Edward Island 12,475.00 

Quebec 218,805. 17 

Manitoba 15,615.00 

Saskatchewan 14,819.07 

Alberta 7,094.63 

British Columbia 14,106.45 

Yukon 465.00 

Of the amount contributed by Ontario, the City of Toronto's share was 
$542,607.00. 



BELGIAN RELIEF FUND 

Secretary-Treasurer of Fund for Canada: Mons. Hector Prud'homme, 59 St. Peter 
Street, Montreal, P.Q. 

Object — To relieve destitute Belgians behind the German lines in Belgium. 
Total subscriptions in Canada for Belgian Relief 
received by the Central Executive Committee to 
January 18, 1916, cash and goods $2,192,948.93 

BELGIAN RELIEF WORK 

When the war began, Belgium was the most densely populated and highly indus- 
tralized state in Europe. Three-quarters of her 7,000,000 people supported themselves 
by commerce. Her exports and imports were nearly three times as great per capita 
as those of France and Germany. Her principal industries were dependent almost 
entirely on imported raw material and her principal markets lay outside her borders. 

The immediate result of German aggression was that millions of Belgians were 
reduced to the verge of starvation. That they were saved from such a fate was due 
primarily to a group of Americans in Brussels, headed by Brand Whitlock, the American 
Minister. 

The outcome of their efforts was the organization of a commission for the relief of 
Belgium. The Commission was a voluntary organization with a membership of something 
less than one hundred, chiefly Americans. With Herbert C. Hoover at its head, the 
work has been a marvel of efficiency and economy. 

The undertaking involved the handling of huge sums of money and colossal ship- 
ments of clothes and provisions. Not only had enormous quantities of wheat, flour, 
bacon, rice, maize, etc., to be purchased and transported to Europe, but after it had 
been landed in Holland (through which country it had to go) it was necessary to prepare 
it for distribution, and finally to distribute it systematically among the people. 

In the thirteen months prior to December, 1915, one million tons of food and clothing 
were delivered in Belgium and northern France. Some idea of what this means may be 
realized from the statement that it would take about 20,000 miles of ten-ton capacity 
freight cars to transport this amount of merchandise. 

To date, $60,000,000 has been expended by the Commission, at a cost of less than 
half of one per cent., which constitutes a record for work of this kind. As by far the 
greater portion of the labour involved in distribution has been given gratuitously, 
the half of one per cent, may be said to represent the cost of conveyance, milling, and 
incidental business expenses. 

223 



To-day the Commission is feeding close to ten million people in Belgium and 
northern France. This is more than the Commissariat of any one of the belligerents 
is supplying, and half as many as all of them together. The ration allowed to each 
individual is ten ounces of food per day, which is about one quarter of the average con- 
sumption in this country. No matter how much money a man may have, he cannot 
purchase more. All receive alike whether they have means or are entirely destitute. 
At the present time in Belgium alone there are 2,000,000 people who are unable to pay 
anything at all for the food they receive. 

It has been very generally assumed that the 9,500,000 Belgians and French within 
the German lines of occupation are being fed largely at the expense of the people of the 
United States. Such is not by any means the case. Mr. Hoover is responsible for the 
statement that of the sixty million dollars expended to date, only ten millions have 
been derived from charitable sources. The other fifty millions have come from the 
Belgians themselves. 

An article in a recent number of the Outlook (New York) states that as a result of 
the appeal made throughout the United States, 71,000 tons of food and clothing valued 
at $5,600,000 and $312,000 in money (total $5,912,000) were contributed, while, the 
British Empire had given $8,000,000 in cash. According to the Commission's figures, 
the United States has given 7c. per capita, while Australia has given 70 cents, and New 
Zealand $1.25 per capita. It is also pointed out that Great Britain is supporting 200,000 
Belgian refugees on her own soil, and has done a large part towards clothing the people 
within the lines of German occupation. Holland has, for upwards of one year, been 
caring for hundreds of thousands of refugees who fled across the frontier to escape the 
terrorism which the Prussian hosts were scattering broadcast through the land. Tons 
and tons of foodstuffs have been sent into the prostrate kingdom in an effort to appease 
the hunger of its people. It is further noted that the French have paid for all the 
provisions distributed among their countrymen. At the suggestion of the Commission 
the Germans agreed to allow sufficient from the Belgian harvest to meet demands for 
one month. 

From all these sources, and allowing for the number who are able to pay for their 
food, the Commission has been enabled to provide the bare minimum of sustenance 
necessary to keep 9,500,000 Belgians and French who are captives within their own 
countries. It was estimated that with the stores and funds in sight, the people could 
be fed until the beginning of 1916, when further assistance would be necessary. 

The proportion of the load which the Belgians are themselves carrying has increased, 
but the time when they will be able to carry the whole of it is not yet in sight, as hitherto 
the Germans have not allowed them to manufacture goods to be sold in neutral coun- 
tries. Indeed another crisis is now impending. Three million men, women and 
children are in direct need of warm clothing. This calls for an outlay of $4,000,000 in 
money or new clothing, for the rigid regulations in force prevent the bringing in of 
second-hand wearing apparel. 

The Central Committee for Belgian Relief, 59 St. Peter Street, Montreal, will 
accept contributions and supply any information required. 



FRENCH RELIEF (SECOURS NATIONAL) 

Object — To relieve the impoverished civilians of Northern France and collect 
materials for French Hospitals (in co-operation with the Canadian Red Cross Society). 

Needs — (a) Money; (b) Clothing of all kinds in good condition; (c) Hospital 
Supplies. 

Address — Local Branches in Ottawa, Montreal, Toronto, Hamilton, Winnipeg. 

When the Germans invaded Northern France they captured more than 200,000 
men, women and children, who were found in the village streets or working in the 
fields. The unfortunate people were seized and driven on foot into Germany in the 

224 



clothes in which they stood. Children were separated from their parents and 
husbands from their wives. These people were kept at various concentration camps 
in Germany in the most miserable condition, without additional clothing being 
furnished to them and with scarcely food enough to keep them alive. 

After a time large numbers of them were sent back to France via Switzerland in an 
absolutely destitute condition. The Swiss people were most generous in contributing 
clothing and money. Two and a quarter million French inhabitants still remain in 
the territory of the North and East occupied by the Germans. 

Money and clothing are given to those who have fled from the devastated districts. 
Agents visit the war zone to prevent black misery for those who have been unable to 
escape from the scene of conflict and are forced to remain near their ruined homes. 

No request has come for aid from the French people. This organization is entirely 
voluntary and aims to be a tangible expression of Canadian appreciation for the heroic 
conduct of our great ally. 

While much has been done by the French Government and by the French people 
for their fellow countrymen the need for relief in money and in supplies of clothing is 
great and will continue during the war, and while the contributions which have been 
made by the people in the United States and Canada have undoubtedly been large, such 
contributions are small in proportion to the amounts contributed by the French people 
themselves. 

The "Secours National" has received in donation of money the sum of 10,500,000f. 
Of this amount the French people have given about nine-tenths, or 9,000,000f.; there 
has been received from the United States about 400,000f. and from Canada about 
350,000. England, Spain and other countries have also contributed. Most of the 
donations of clothing have come from the United States and Canada. 

- The Ontario Branch at its annual meeting held in Toronto on February 29th, 
reported the following contributions: 

Cash to February 11th $22,405.00 

Estimated value of goods actually despatched, including clothing, hospital 

supplies, and twelve motor cars 74,011.00 

Total $96,416.00 

t 



POLAND 



Devastated Poland has no less than 1,500,000 refugees, mostly Jews, who have 
endured all the innumerable miseries of war. Over 120 Jewish Relief Boards are opera- 
ting to-day in Russia with the authority and sympathy of the Russian Government, 
and their needs, merely for feeding the impoverished Polish Jews, are fully $3,000,000 
a month. Without immediate help many thousands of men, women and children will 
go to certain death by exposure, pestilence and starvation. It is the tragedy of the 
centuries. Any of the members of the Committee will thankfully receive contributions. 
An appeal to the Jews of the British Empire for the help of their brothers has been 
made by Lord Swaythling and Leopold de Rothschild, C.V.O., and the Jewish colony 
of Toronto has opened a fund. The committee consists of Rabbi S. Jacobs, Jacob 
Cohen, J.P., Leo Frankel, Harry Samuel (of M. & L. Samuel, Benjamin & Co.), and 
Edmund Scheuer. 

"An area three times larger than Belgium is entirely laid waste. Cities and towns 
have been destroyed, and thousands of villages burned down. All horses and cattle 
have been taken. There is no corn; no potatoes are left. There are millions of sufferers, 
mostly homeless, all lacking food." — Paderewski. 

225 



"All the world was in haste to help Belgium. My country now appeals for help. 
The War, with its iron tramp, has crushed Poland, a country seven times as large as the 
Kingdom of the heroic Albert. The sword has filled the rivers of this unfortunate coun- 
try with blood; her sons are compelled to fight in three hostile armies. 

"The War has ruined towns and villages. The spectre of hunger has stretched its 
arms over the vast land between the Niemen and the Carpathians. Workmen have lost 
their work, for all the workshops and factories are shut. The plough is rusting from 
the want of use, for the labourer has been robbed of tools and seed. Tradesmen in 
towns have no trade, for no one has money to buy their goods. Old men and women in 
the midst of the hard winter have lost the roofs over their heads. Epidemics spread 
through the country. The domestic hearth is extinguished, and when children stretch 
out their thin arms begging for a piece of bread, their mothers can only answer with 
tears. . . . In such hunger and need are millions." — Henry Senkiewicz. 



SERBIAN RELIEF 

The Serbian minister in London announces that several relief funds in Serbia are 
sending through him their appeal to all benevolent men and women, fathers and 
mothers and all philanthropic institutions, painting the suffering of the Serbian refugees, 
the starvation of the population staying at home in Serbia, the painful scenes of the 
desperate mothers and frozen children. Many thousands of refugees are dispersed in 
the villages of Greece, in the Albanian desert or in the rocky hollows of Montenegro, 
without home, without food. The life of these refugees is now nothing else than a 
slow dying out. This help will be a real help only if it comes as quickly as possible. 

Contributions for this Fund will be received by the Treasurer of the National Service 
Committee (Mrs. John Bruce, of Toronto), and forwarded to the London Branch of 
the Serbian Relief Committee. 

No supplies of food or clothing will be received. 



NATIONAL COMMITTEE OF WOMEN FOR PATRIOTIC 

SERVICE 

(Commonly known as the National Service Committee) 

The officers for 1916 are President, Mrs. A. E. Gooderham, "Deancroft," Toronto; 
Vice-President Mrs. Torrington; Treasurer Mrs. Bruce, 37 Bleecker Street, Toronto; 
Secretary, Mrs. Plumptre, 77 King Street East, Toronto. 

The National Service Committee is the channel recognized by the National Relief 
Committee for the collection and transmission of funds and supplies for "Comforts" 
for the Canadian Expeditionary Force. 

By courtesy of the Canadian Red Cross Society, and in consideration of a contribu- 
tion to office and warehouse expenses, these gifts, generally known as "Field Comforts," 
are collected in the Society's warehouses and forwarded by its packing staff, but these 
goods are not reckoned as Red Cross goods nor included in its returns; as the Red Cross 
Society deals only with sick, wounded and prisoners, while "Field Comforts" go to 
fighting men. 



CANADIAN INDIANS; "PATRIOTISM AND PRODUCTION" 

The Indian population of Canada continue to give evidence of their loyalty by 
enlisting and contributing liberally to the patriotic or other funds. To the end of 1915 
their contributions for patriotic purposes amounted to $16,969.00, and an equally good 
response is being made to this year's call. 

The total Indian population, exclusive of Eskimos, was 103,531 in 1915, and the 
total income derived from all pursuits was $5,927,595 or $60.48 per capita. The chief 

226 



sources of income are agriculture, wages earned, fishing, hunting, other occupations and 
industries, trust funds and land rentals. 

In 1915 the land under crop was estimated at 65,257 acres, grain roots and hay being 
the leading crops, estimated to be worth $1,813,619. In addition the beef sold and 
consumed during the year was valued at $309,506. 

In many localities where industries such as lumbering, hunting and fishing, on 
which the Indians relied for a livelihood, are no longer active, attention is now being 
turned to the soil. Many are beginning to realize how valuable an asset they possess in 
their farm lands. The Department of Indian Affairs is giving special attention to this 
phase of the work, and it is hoped that, with capable oversight and guidance, better 
methods of farming will be adopted and good use made of much land that has 
hitherto remained uncultivated. 



THE BLUE CROSS 

This organization has sent veterinary requisites, medicaments, and other comforts 
for horses engaged in war to nearly 300 regiments. These supplies have included such 
things as humane pocket killers, portable forges, clippers, waterproof rugs of a special 
design, many thousands of calico bandages, also flannel bandages and wither pads, 
wound syringes, pocket cases of surgical instruments and a very large number of fly nets. 

In many cases regiments are receiving weekly, fortnightly and monthly supplies 
of necessaries for their horses. 

In the early days of the war the Blue Cross offered its services to the French govern- 
ment, which has no official veterinary hospital equipment as have the British, which 
gratefully accepted and officially recognized them. 

It has now four splendid depots in France divided into twelve hospitals, and a very 
excellent and valuable work is being done, 2,118 horses having been cured since the 
hospitals were opened. 

AN APPEAL 
I'm only a cavalry charger, 

And I'm dying as fast as I can 
(For my body is riddled with bullets — 

They've potted both me and my man) ; 
And though I've no words to express it, 

I'm trying this message to tell 
To kind folks who work for the Red Cross — 

Oh, please help the Blue one as well ! 

My master was one in a thousand, 

And I loved him with all this poor heart 
(For horses are built just like humans, 

Be kind to them — they'll do their part) : 
So please send out help for our wounded, 

And give us a word in your prayers — 
This isn't so strange as you'd fancy, 

The Russians do it in theirs. 

I'm only a cavalry charger, 

And my eyes are becoming quite dim 
(I really don't mind, though I'm "done for," 
So long as I'm going to him) : 
But first I would plead for my comrades, 

Who're dying and suffering, too — 
Oh, please help the poor wounded horses: 

I'm sure that you would — if you knew. — SCOTS GREYS. 

227 



EDUCATION AND THE WAR 



"Agricultural and vocational training is the big topic in educational 
circles to-day. 1 ' 



A REVOLUTION NECESSARY IN EDUCATION 

"If we are to face the future with any confidence after this exhausting war, we must 
face it as an educated people. We shall not be able to afford to waste the efficiency of a 
single English child. On all sides we hear the cry, though we see little enough of the 
practice, for economy. Now economy means one or both of *v;o things — less expense, 
greater production. It is said by materialistic economists that lack of capital will 
render greater productiveness impossible. They iorget the only capital that has 
permanent significance — the men and women of the nation. Our national business is 
to eliminate waste in human beings and to make each human being capable of realizing 
to the full his or her potential capacity for creative work, whether such work be material 
or moral or spiritual. Those ends can only be reached by the best training of childhood 
in the homes and in the schools. Something, of course, can be done among adults; 
but in the aggregate it is, comparatively speaking, very little. The bulk of humanity 
is made or marred in youth. Now there is no more appalling fact in our national 
economy than the waste of that supreme national product — the child. We do not refer 
particularly to the waste of infant life, for that is merely one of many by-products of 
ignorance. We refer to the waste of efficiency among the children who survive. Con- 
sider the children of the people, how they live, after the experience of half a century of 
compulsory primary education. There are nearly half a million children between the 
ages of twelve and fourteen years who are receiving no education, or no education worth 
having. Some of these are at school, but all are at work, work leading no- whither, at the 
very age when moral and physical development are at stake. In addition to these there 
are at least a million and a half of children between the ages of fourteen and seventeen 
years who are receiving in the week no school education of any kind. The Consultative 
Committee in its report of 1909 asserted that 'at the most critical period in their lives 
a very large majority of the boys and girls in England and Wales are left without any 
sufficient guidance and care. . This neglect results in great waste of early promise, an 
injury to character, in the lessening of industrial efficiency, and in the lowering of ideals 
of personal and civic duty'." — "The Weekly Times, London, Eng." 



A CREED FOR COUNTRY BOYS AND GIRLS 

G. C. CREELMAN/B.S.A., LL.D., President Ontario Agricultural College 

The Boy's Creed 

1. I believe that life in the Country can be made just as pleasant and profitable as 
life in the City. 

2. I believe that father and I can form a partnership that will suit both of us. 

228 



3. I believe that if I kill every weed on my father's farm we shall be well paid 
by the increased crop alone, to say noching of the benefit to our neighbours. 

4. I believe that by careful selection of our chickens I can double the output of 
the flock. 

5. I believe that by introducing Alfalfa on our farm we can keep twice as many 
domestic animals as at present. 

6. I believe that by keeping twice as many animals, we shall be able to grow much 
larger crops of Alfalfa and other things. 

7. I believe that by planting shade trees, growing flowers, and shrubs and by 
keeping a tidy homestead, we shall be better contented and happier in every way, and 
our farm will increase in value. 

8. I believe not in luck, but in pluck. 

9. I believe that farming is a most honourable calling, and having decided to stay 
on the farm, it is my duty to make the best use of my time, now, in school, that I may 
be the better farmer in the days that are to come. 

10. I believe in working when I work and playing when I play, and in giving and 
receiving a square deal in every act of life. 

The Girl's Creed 

1. I believe that I have a right to be happy every day. 

2. I believe that God's blue sky and God's green earth are a part of my inheritance. 

3. I believe that I have a right to love little chickens and ducks and lambs and 
puppies as well as dolls and ribbons. 

4. I believe that I could take care of these things as well as my brother, who does 
not love them as much as I do. 

5. I believe that I should love to keep house better than anything else and I only 
wish they taught housework at school. 

6. I believe that keeping a garden "all my own" would be great fun, and I believe 
that I could be very happy in giving away the flowers and in cooking the vegetables that 
I raised myself. 

7. I believe that I could study real hard at my Grammar and Geography and 
Arithmetic and Spelling if I could do cooking or sewing with the other girls in the 
afternoon. 

8. I don't want to go to town and leave my father and mother and my brothers 
and sisters to live in the country, for I know I should miss them all, and the trees and 
the creek and the green grass and the old woods and everything, but oh! I don't want to 
stay at home and do nothing but wash dishes and carry water and do the chores and 
grow old like Auntie. I want to laugh and love and live. 

9. I believe I can learn to sew and cook and do laundry work and do them well. 
And I want to learn them and I want to do them well. 

10. I believe in the square deal for girls as well as for boys, and I want everybody 
to be happy all the time — the old as well as the young. 



GOOD ROADS ONE OF CANADA'S GREATEST NEEDS 

W. A. McLEAN, Deputy Minister of Highways, Ontario. 

Rural roads are the primary channel of traffic. Along them, production, industry 
and commerce have their origin. Let the common roads be closed, and railways 
will decay in idleness; ocean liners will rust at their moorings. Nations have prospered 
without railways; but common roads, "Goods Road," have always been vital to national 
progress and development. 

229 



The lessening of the cost of transportation is a measure of economy, of national 
thrift, which will produce a large return on the expenditure. On this continent, the 
cost of team haulage is rarely less than 25 cents per ton-mile and is sometimes twice 
that amount. Under the favourable conditions of good roads in Europe, the cost is 
reduced to between 8 and 12 cents a ton-mile. 

The tonnage carried over the country roads of Canada is not readily estimated; 
but railway statistics show that the total amount of freight carried by the railways and 
originating in Canada, is about 60,000,000 tons. This, for the most part, at one or both 
ends of the railway journey, must pass over the waggon road. And a considerable 
additional amount, consumed locally, passes over the waggon road without railway 
transportation. The average waggon haul for farm and natural produce is estimated at 
between seven and eight miles. It is probably a moderate assumption for Canada that 
a total of not less than 100,000,000 tons passes over the roads of the country with an 
average haul of five miles. 

Compared with European costs, good roads would effect a saving of not less than 
ten cents per ton-mile. Putting the amount saved at only five cents a ton-mile, or 
25 cents per ton for the average haul of five miles, an adequate system of improved 
roads would create a profit of $25,000,000 annually on the produce and merchandise 
now passing over the roads of Canada. 

The time lost in travelling over bad roads is very great. It has been estimated 
that bad roads occasion a loss of a man and team for two weeks (12 working days) 
annually to the average farm. 

Bad roads limit the output of farms to the kind and quality of produce that can be 
drawn to market. Good roads permit the farmer to take advantage to the utmost of 
the location and fertility of his land. In other words, it may be broadly said that with 
bad roads the production is restricted to the produce that can be hauled over the roads; 
whereas with good roads it is restricted only to the amount and quality that can be 
grown and sold on the market. 

If the nation and the city are to reap the advantage of increased farm population 
and production, rural conditions must be made to compete with city, by making them 
profitable and agreeable. 

Road-building is clearly one of the most important public works remaining for 
Canada to undertake. When the War is ended and our armies return, with a large 
additional influx of immigration, it will be well if we are so organized that roads can be 
built on an adequate scale, not only to aid in the development of Canada, but, temporarily, 
to assist in giving employment during what will probably be a trying period of industrial 
readjustment. 

Only a very wealthy country, improvident of its resources, can progress under the 
handicap of bad roads. Those who have bad roads consider good roads an expensive 
luxury. But those who have the advantages of good roads, know that Good Roads 
are a necessity. 

Road-building is a slow process in part, because it is expensive. And because the 
work is expensive, it must be distributed over a term of years and among various admini- 
strative organizations. But so distributed, and looked at from the standpoint of annual 
ability, the undertaking becomes less difficult. The total twenty-year cost of maintain- 
ing a household does not worry the average man — if his annual income is sufficient for 
the annual outlay. Road-building is a continuous work; if properly carried on, is cumu- 
lative in its growth, and is a question of annual expenditure available to meet direct 
outlay, plus sinking fund, interest and cost of maintenance. 

In the Dominion of Canada there are about 250,000 miles of graded roads. The 
immediate objective in Canada should be to substantially improve about 16% of the 
total, or 40,000 miles, which would carry the more concentrated market or farm traffic; 
while about 2% additional, or 5,000 miles, should be treated on a trunk road basis. The 
total cost might be approximately estimated at $250,000,000, of which about $50,000,000 
has been spent. 

230 



SHIPPING AND THE WAR 

Now that the New Year has fairly started, it is possible to look round the world of 
shipping and consider not only the trend of business in the yey that has passed, but also 
prospects for the future. The history of shipping has never seen anything to approach 
the increases in freights of the past six months. The primary cause has been the needs 
of the Admiralty, in fulfilment of which they have freely requisitioned British tonnage. 
The result has been a chronic shortage of the means of transport in every market in the 
world. The keen competition among foreign shippers has forced upon the shipowner 
the embarrassing choice of freights which soared ever upwards against his own volition. 
A careful study of all the prospects cannot but reveal the absolute assurance that there is 
nothing, which can be humanly foreseen, to depress freight markets for a very consider- 
able time to come; on the contrary, everything points to continued rises in every direction 
unless maximum rates of freight are fixed to Allied countries by Governmental interven- 
tion. — London Morning Post. 



THE OCEAN FREIGHT QUESTION 
As Viewed by the English Miller 

The most serious feature of the corn (wheat) trade at the present moment is the 
enormous freight rates that have to be paid for the carriage of grain to this country. 
In normal times the cost of carrying a bushel of wheat from New York to a British 
port was about 2d. (4 cents); often it was a little less. Now it is Is. 8d. (40 cents), an 
increase of 12s. ($2.88) a quarter (8 bushels). 

North America has harvested the largest crop in the history of that continent. Not 
only is it the largest, but very much the largest ever grown there. The United States 
has reaped a crop of over a billion bushels, 112 million bushels more than her previous 
best. Canada has a still greater relative increase, her harvest having yielded 336 million 
bushels, 100 million bushels, or nearly 50 per cent., more than the previous record of the 
Dominion, and yet, thanks to the shipowners, we in England, are paying much more for 
wheat to-day than we were a year ago, although the commodity is much cheaper now 
both in Chicago and Winnipeg. A year ago October wheat was selling in Winnipeg at 
115 cents a bushel. At the moment of writing it is just under a dollar, or 15 cents a 
bushel, i.e., 5s. a quarter cheaper than at the same date in 1914. On the other hand, a 
year ago, 12 weeks after the outbreak of war, No. 1 Northern Manitoba October shipment 
was sold in London at 44s. 6d. per 480 lbs., c.i.f. (cost, insurance, freight), the ocean rate 
being 3%d. To-day the same grade of wheat in the same position is selling at 54s. per 
qr., c.i.f. True the rate of exchange is against this country to about the extent of the 
equivalent of Is. 6d. per qr. of wheat at the present price of the cereal. We will deduct 
that sum from the present c.i.f. value of the grain, and call it 52s. 6d. The c.i.f. cost of 
No. 1 Northern Manitoba is then 8s. a qr. dearer here than a year ago. Adding to the 
8s. the 5s. lower cost of the grain in Winnipeg, we have 13s., which is about the actual 
amount transport charges are costing us more than this time last year. 

That this is a serious extra charge we think no one will deny. The British Govern- 
ment are carrying the war risk insurance at almost a nominal rate, call it 6d. a qr., and 
then reckoning 70 per cent, of flour from the wheat and 92 4-lb. loaves to the sack of 
flour, we find that the extra profits — war profits — that the shipowners are making is 
imposing a bread tax on the British public of lj^d. per 4-lb. loaf. These are figures 
that can be verified by the "man in the street." We do not ask any layman to take our 
figures. If he chooses to obtain a year-old London daily and compare American and 
Canadian market prices of wheat and Baltic sales then with those now current, he can 
soon verify them for himself, as can also his Britannic Majesty's Government. What 
the shipping companies' increased working costs are we cannot tell exactly, but suppose 
we allow them the odd one-third of a penny a loaf for increased working expenses, that 
would mean a full 4d. a bushel more, and we doubt if working expenses have increased 

231 



to anything like that amount. However, that is a question we can leave to the ship- 
owners to settle. What concerns the nation at large is that we are paying ten times as 
much for trans-Atlantic carriage on American wheat as we were doing before the war. 

Two years ago the <ftfference between the price of wheat at Winnipeg and c.i.f. 
London and Liverpool was little more than 5s., now it is round about 20s. The Cana- 
dian and United States transport companies may be making a little extra out of carry- 
ing it to the seaboard, but if so the amount is very small. It might be interesting to 
know what our Government is paying for the ships they have requisitioned for carrying 
military supplies. This requisition has resulted in a considerable shortage of tonnage 
for ordinary commerce, and it is a question of supply and demand which is being 
answered in favour of the suppliers at the expense of the public. 

The excessive freights amount in any case to a tax on breadstuffs, but if the Chan- 
cellor of the Exchequer could annex the whole of it we should not so very much object, 
though the knowledge that he will obtain a share of it is something. If all the shipping 
concerns were British the remedy would be simpler, but a considerable portion of the 
tonnage employed in the grain trade does not fly the Union Jack, and so is not within the 
control of our Board of Trade. The matter is further complicated by the fact that more 
than half of the grain is being carried to continental states. 

We quite agree with Mr. Runciman that it is difficult to find a solution that will 
not do more harm than good, but whatever the difficulty, it should not be insurmountable. 

CANADA'S OCEAN FREIGHT 

Sir Robert Borden said in the House recently that he had taken up with the British 
authorities the question of transportation. More than a year ago the Government 
had arranged for the services of A. H. Harriss, of the C.P.R., to organize the transpor- 
tation of supplies. Mr. Harriss in a recent report said that there had been an uninter- 
rupted outlet for orders. The regular service established had proved to be of great 
advantage to the export trade. Between August, 1914, and April, 1915, 144,913 gross 
tons had been shipped. In the next seven months this had been increased to more than 
400,000 tons. In February last arrangements had been made to secure the service 
of eighteen transports from the Admiralty. During the last seven months this had been 
increased to forty transports, twenty plying from Halifax and twenty from St. John. 
Representations had been made to the Admiralty for more, it being pointed out that a 
larger portion of ships had been taken from the North Atlantic services than from any 
other. It had to be borne in mind, however, that the paramount necessity of the 
Admiralty is for vessels for the transport of troops and munitions. 

WORLD'S MERCANTILE MARINE 

Upon the outbreak of war the merchant shipping of the world, according to the 
figures of "Lloyd's Register of Shipping," which includes only vessels of 100 tons and 
upwards, consisted of 30,836 vessels, of 49,089,552 tons, of which 24,444 of 45,403,877 
tons gross were steamers and 6,392 of 3,685,675 tons net were sailing vessels. 
The shipping owned by belligerent countries on that date was: — 

Steamers Gross Tons. 

Great Britain and Colonies 10,123 20,523,706 

Germany 2,090 5,134,720 

France 1,025 1,922,286 

Austria-Hungary, 433 1,052,346 

Russia 747 851,949 

Belgium 173 341,025 

Japan 1,103 1,078,386 

Italy 637 1,480,475 



16,331 32,334,893 
232 



As the total number of steamers in the world was but 24,444 of 45,403,877 tons gross 
upon the outbreak of war, it will be seen that the steam tonnage owned in the countries 
at war represents 71 per cent, of the total steam fleet of the world. 

The declaration of war was immediately followed by the complete immobilization 
of German and Austrian steam shipping, aggregating some 6,187,066 tons. It has been 
estimated that since the war began 1,200,000 tons gross of German shipping seized 
at sea or detained in port by the Allies have been restored to traffic. About 1,000,000 
tons of Allied and neutral shipping have been sunk by the German navy, so that, after 
making the proper allowances, the total loss of tonnage to navigation since the war 
began may be put at 5,000,000 tons, or about 11 per cent, of the gross tonnage afloat 
at the beginning of the war. — Bulletin of Dept. of Trade and Commerce. 



RUSSIA'S AGRICULTURE 

The following statistics of Russia's agricultural production, and facts as to future 
development were published in an article in "Logging," by the Hon. William P.Anderson, 
Agricultural Commissioner for the Russian Government in the United States. 

Acreage and Yield of Farm Products in 1912 

Acres Yield 

1912 Poods = 36 lbs. 

Winter wheat, rye and barley 93,672,644 2,085,114,000 

Spring wheat, rye, barley, buckwheat, 

millet and beans 159,520,128 2,986,989,000 

Potatoes 11,544,852 2,318,767,000 

o oo« «„ f 45,807,200 fibre 

FIax 3 » 832 ' 056 \37,972,000seed 

Sugar Beets 1,631,272 7,995,672,000, 

Cotton 1,277,874 26,515,000 

Hay 96,278,480 3,678,470,600 

Enormous quantities of hemp are grown for fibre and seed, and of sunflowers for 
seed. 

Live Stock in 1912 

Horses 33,280,400 

Cattle 49,398,300 

Sheep and goats 74,066,200 

Hogs 13,512,800 

With 8,950,000 spinning spindles operating in the country in 1913, only 46% of the 
raw cotton requirements was imported, the balance being raised at home. 

Enormous though her present crops may seem, they give but a faint idea of Russia's 
potential productiveness, which will be realized only as her millions of virgin acres are 
brought under cultivation. These enormous resources are being carefully developed 
through the Departments of Lands and Agriculture. 

Schools of Agriculture have been founded in many parts of the country. Their 
graduates act as farm advisers or as workers at the Experiment Stations and Fields, 
214 in number in 1912. 

The Russian Government has placed an agricultural commissioner in the United 
States with a staff of trained workers, who study American methods of agriculture, and 
keep. in touch with the work being carried on at Experiment Stations. 

233 



INDIA 

"It may not be generally known in America that out of the population of 315 
millions which make up the Indian Empire, there are in my native land, India, exclusive 
of male adults of unwarlike races, about sixty million male adults of the fighting races — 
a number not far short of the total population of Japan and her dependencies — out of 
which a choice of recruits for this war might be made. If this is going to be a war of 
attrition, it may be worth remembering thac the above figure of sixty millions represents 
more than double the total number of male adults in the German Empire, and about 
twice the total number of white male adults in the British Empire. It is not difficult, 
therefore, to see whether Germany or England is capable of the longer endurance so 
far as fighting men are concerned, and which part of the British Empire can supply the 
largest number of soldiers for the longest period, to preserve the prestige of the Union 
Jack. The native soldier of Hindustan has already stood the rigors of a European winter, 
has fought with valour side by side with the British soldier in the trenches in Flanders, in 
France, at the Dardanelles, and elsewhere, has won several Victoria Crosses and Military 
Crosses, and has often been mentioned in dispatches." 

— S. M. Mitra, in The Nation, London. 



AGRICULTURE IN FRANCE 
Compulsory Cultivation of all Fallow Land 

In order to obtain a maximum amount of agricultural production, Mr. Meline, 
the French Minister of Agriculture, has prepared a law under which proprietors of 
fallow lands will be invited within two weeks after notice is served upon them by a 
registered letter, to have these parcels of land ploughed and under cultivation. If the 
invitation is not complied with, the law will provide that the mayors of the "communes" 
or towns will have a right to commandeer the land in question and order its cultivation, 
which will be done under the direction of the municipalities which shall provide the 
funds necessary to the proper carrying out of the work. The same law provides for the 
creation of a municipal or farming committee in charge of the superintendents of these 
parcels of land to be cultivated until harvesting time, when the crops will be sold by 
auction by the same committee. 

Mr. Meline in the reasons set forth in the preamble to the law, says that the 1915 
crops were 10% short of what they were in 1914. 

The Minister insists upon the importance of not losing a minute if France is to 
avoid being taken unawares by events and left subject to the possibility of being too 
late in the field of economic exigencies. Farm hands will be provided, under special 
arrangements, by the military authorities from the minor services and from the incapa- 
citated soldiers. 



SCHEMES TO DEFRAUD FARMERS 

Speaking before the Commission of Conservation lately, Mgr. Choquette, of 
St. Hyacinthe, Que., drew attention to the uncurbed activities of those who victimize 
farmers by selling them stock in worthless or fraudulent enterprises. 

"Hardly a day passes," he said, "when farmers, young and old, are not invited to 
share in some financial operation, in some great speculation, dazzling their sight with the 
hope of immense gains. The agents are persuasive and insistent. They know a 

234 



thousand tricks. City lots, mining lots, gas, oil, patents, everything is made the 
object of tempting solicitations under the name of some master of finance or with the 
help of an advertisement, skilfully inserted in a prominent place in a paper with a wide 
circulation. It is a real plague, a pest. One must live in the country and hear the 
complaints of the victims to realize the magnitude of these operations. In the single 
county of St. Hyacinthe, over one hundred thousand dollars have been extracted from 
the farmers' pocket, and the whole amount is lost. Some of these farmers, seized with a 
real frenzy, did not hesitate to sell the splendid farms that had come down to them from 
their ancestors and exchange them for worthless paper, which did not confer the title 
to an inch of ground or a milligram of metal." 

"Cannot this evil be suppressed? Should the farmer be left to gain experience at 
his own expense by becoming a prey to these rapacious thieves? I think we should follow 
the example of the Old Country and decree that no person or syndicate shall be authorized 
to solicit funds unless they have an official certificate, attesting that the undertaking for 
which they are collecting money is of public utility. Such a law would remove a great 
many snares." 



One good thing about investing your money at home is the fact that before you 
invest you can investigate. 



LOSSES TO CATTLE THROUGH BRUISES IN SHIPMENT 
I 

A conservative estimate places the loss sustained through bruises on cattle handled 
by the Stock Yards at Toronto, in 1915, at $750,000. 

The loss is greatest among cattle, and for the most part is attributable to hooks 
by horns, which might be entirely prevented if farmers would go to the trouble of 
applying a little caustic potash when calves' horns start to grow. This will stop their 
growth entirely and painlessly. 

Part of the loss is, however, attributable to rough handling and the consequent 
bruising of lambs, sheep and hogs, and occurs between the time they leave the farm and 
their arrival at the yards. 

Employees are warned by notices posted at the markets, railway sidings and pack- 
ing houses, not to use sticks in such a manner as to cause bruising, and so far as the 
packing houses are concerned, the abuse of live stock is not tolerated. 

At the loading stations, however, accommodation is often insufficient, there not 
being enough pens to keep strange cattle separated before loading. When the cattle 
present in one or two pens are made up from a number of different herds, and are 
strange to each other, they naturally become restless, jumping and hooking and causing 
great damage. This state of affairs the railways are seeking so far as possible to remedy. 

The Union Stock Yards, when unloading stock, use a buffer on each side of the car 
door, thus preventing crowding against the sides of the doorway. They also inspect 
for old nails and spikes. Men loading stock at country points are urged to have the sides 
of the car doors protected by buffers. 

Buyers figure against losses incurred in this way, so that the loss is borne by the 
farmer. Buyers at the Toronto markets for sometime deducted two dollars per head 
for horned cattle. This arrangement, while it lasted, showed good results, both as to 
dehorning and as regards handling. The practice now is to buy gored cattle at a price 
that will cover the depreciation. — John Taylor, Gunns Limited. 

235 



CANADIAN EQUIVALENTS 
For Measures and Weights expressed according to the Metric System 

1 Metre 40 inches (very nearly) 

1 Kilometre 1,000 metres — | mile. 

i 

1 Are 120 sq. yards. 

1 Hectare 2.47 acres (nearly 2^ acres). 

1 Kilogramme 2.2 lbs. 

1 Quintal 100 Kilogrammes— 220 lbs. 

1 Quarter 8 bushels. 

1 Pood (Russian) 36 lbs. 

1 Litre 1 % pints (gallon — about 43^ litres). 

1 Hectolitre 100 litres, or very nearly 22 gallons. 

1 Gram 15^£ grains. 

1 Kilogram 1,000 grams— 2\ lbs. 

Ton - 2,000 lbs; Long Ton = 2,240 lbs; Metric Ton - 2,200 lbs. 



ADMISSION TO CANADA OF FARM LABOURERS AND DOMESTICS 

The Immigration Act provides for the admission without hindrance of agricul- 
turists and domestic servants. The money regulation is not enforced in the case of 
persons coming to assured farm employment, or to domestic service. It is required, 
however, that every person entering Canada shall be in good health and of good character 
and shall have transportation to destination, and either assurance of employment when 
they arrive at destination or sufficient funds to look after themselves for a short time in 
case of need. 

For the duration of the War, the authorities will not enforce the provision requiring 
continuous journey from country of birth, as regards bona fide farm labourers. 



"As to Britain's ability to pay the bills, there will be no diminution in that 
cruse of oil. So long as Britain's name on a scrap of paper is made good by her 
blood {and treasure before the world, you can put no commercial value or limit 
on the Empire of Great Britain."— C. W. Barron, The Wall St. Journal. 



236 



CURRENCIES OF LEADING COUNTRIES 

Approximate value at standard rate of exchange. 
Great Britain and Ireland 

1 Penny = 2 cents. 

1 Shilling (twelve pence) = 24 cents. 

1 Pound (20 Shillings) =$4.86 

Note — On January 4, 1915, demand sterling was quoted in New York at 4.74%, a 
depreciation of little more than 2% from normal. 

Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, British West Indies, etc., employ the same 
system as Great Britain. 

France 

20 Centimes = 4 cents. 

50 Centimes =10 cents. 

1 Franc (100 Centimes) =19 cents. 

Russia 

5 Kopecks = 3 cents. 

20 Kopecks =10 cents. 

1 Rouble (100 Kopecks) . . =51 cents. 

1 Imperial (10 Roubles) = $5. 10 

Germany 

20 Pf ennige «■ 5 cents-. 

50 Pfennige =12 cents. 

1 Mark (100 Pfennige) =24 cents. 

Note — On January 4, 1915, the Mark was valued at 18% cents in New York. 
This was the lowest quotation to that date since the outbreak of the war. 

Austria-Hungary 

10 Heller = 2 cents: 

1 Krone (100 Heller) =20 cents. 

5 Kronen = $1 . 00 

Note — On Jan. 4, 1915, the rate of exchange was 35% below par. 

Turkey 

1 Piastre = 4 cents. 

10 Piastres =44 cents. 

1 Medjidie (100 Piastres) = $4.40 

Denmark 

10 Ore = 2% cents. 

1 Crown (100 Ore) =27 cents. 

Netherlands (Holland) 

5 Cents = 2 cents. 

25 Cents =10 cents. 

1 Guilder or Florin (100 Cents) =40 cents. 

Note — In Norway and Sweden the same system is in use as in Denmark. 

In countries of the Latin Union the following coins have the same value as the French 
Franc (19 cents) — ^ 

Belgium and Switzerland "Franc"; Italy "Lira"; Greece "Drachme"; Rumania 
"Lei"; Serbia "Dinar"; Spain "Peseta." 

237 



LIST OF BULLETINS AVAILABLE FOR DISTRIBUTION ISSUED BY THE 
DOMINION DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

As long as the supply lasts, copies of the following will be sent on application 
to The Publications Branch, Department of Agriculture, Ottawa. No postage 
is necessary. 



Field 

TITLE 

Agrostology, Summary of Results, Divi- 
sion of 

Alfalfa or Lucerne. 

Alfalfa Growing in Alberta. 

Cereals, Summary of Results, 1914. 

Clover, Sweet — The Truth. 

Corn for Ensilage, Growing and Using. 

Corn for Ensilage and the Silo. 

Corn Growing in Manitoba. 

Crop Rotation and Soil Cultivation. 

Crop Rotations for Central and Eastern 
Ontario. 

Crop Rotations for the Dry Farming 
Districts of Canada. 

Drainage on the Farm, Tile 

Emmer and Spelt. 

Field Husbandry, Summary of Results, 
1914. 

Field Root, Profitable Varieties for 
Ontario and adjacent Parts of Quebec. 

Field Root, Profitable Varieties for 
Maritime Provinces and Eastern Quebec. 

Fiax Plant, The 

Flax Fibre. 

Fodder and Pasture Plants (coloured 
plates). For sale by single copies only, 
at the office of the King's Printer, 
Government Printing Bureau. (Price 
50 cents.) 

Forage Crops and Pasture Grasses. 

Forage Crops, Summary of Results, 1914. 

Grain Crops on the Prairies, Preparing 
Land for 

Grain recommended by the Dominion 
Cerealist for British Columbia, Varie- 
ties of 



the Dominion 
and Ontario, 



Dominion 
Provinces, 



Crops 

TITLE 

Grain Recommended by 

Cerealist for Quebec 

Varieties of 
Grain recommended by the 

Cerealist for the Maritime 

Varieties of 
Grain Crops, How the Ripening of may 

be hastened. 
Grass, Awnless Brome versus Western 

Rye. 
1 Legumes, Inoculation for the Growth of 
Plant Breeding in Scandinavia. For sale 

at the office, Secretary, Canadian Seed 

Growers' Association, Ottawa. — Price 

$1.00 
Rape Plant, The 
"* Seed Growers' Assocation and Its Work, 

The Canadian 
si Seed Control Act, with Regulations, The 
Seeds, Growing Field Root, Vegetable, 

and Flower in Canada. 
Seed Oats. 
Seed, Inquiry regarding the Wheat, Oats, 

Barley, Flax, and Ensilage Corn used 

for in Canada. 
Smut, Seed Treatment for Grain 
Tobacco Experiment Stations in Quebec. 
Tobacco Culture in Canada. 
Tobacco Seed Bed. 
Weeds, Do you know your 
Weeds. 

Weed, Orange Hawk 
Weeds and Weed Seeds. 
Wheat, Quality in 



Live Stock 



Abortion, Bulletin on Contagious 
Anthrax and Blackleg. 
Bacon Pigs in Canada. 
Beef Raising in Canada. 
Ewe and the Lamb, Care of the 
Farm Buildings, Ventilation of 
Fly, Cattle Horn 

Health of Domestic Animals, Conserva- 
tion of 



Hog Cholera. 

Horse, The French-Canadian 
Horse Breeding and Rearing of Colts. 
Horses and Cattle, Mange in 
Maladie du Coit. 

Meat Inspection Service, The Canadian 
Rabies. 

Ram and Ewes, Care of during the Breed- 
ing Season. 



238 



Live Stock — Continued 



TITLE 

Sheep — Breeding Stock, Advice to the 

Beginner in the Selection of 
Sheep — Castration and Docking. 
Sheep — Dipping, Advantages of 
Sheep Husbandry in Canada. 
Silo, The Stave 
Steer Feeding in Manitoba, Experiments 

in i 

Stock in Winter, The Feeding of 
Swine Husbandry in Canada. 



TITLE 

Tuberculosis: a plain statement of facts 
regarding the disease, prepared especially 
for farmers and others interested in 
Live Stock. 

Warble Flies — the economic aspect and a 
contribution on the biology. 

Wool and Its Manufacture. 

Wool for Market, Preparing 

Wool Growers, Practical Assistance to in 
the Marketing of their Wool Clips. 



Poultry 



Chicks, Brooding and Rearing 

Duck Raising. 

Eggs, The Care of Market 

Eggs, The Candling of 

Eggs, The Payment of According to 
Quality. 

Eggs, Rules for the Production and 
Marketing of New Laid 

Eggs, Lime Water for the Preservation of 

Egg and Poultry Situation in Canada, The 

Eggs in the House, The preserving of 

Eggs, Standards for Canadian 

Egg Production, Winter 

Egg Circle Members, Suggestions for 

Egg Circles, The Organization of Co- 
operative 



Flock, The Farm 

Geese, The Management of 

Hens and Pigeons, How to tell the Age of 

Incubation, Artificial 

Incubation, Natural 

Nests, Trap 

Poultry, The Crate Fattening of 

Poultry House, The Farmer's 

Poultry, Plan of Permanent Laying House 

for 
Removal of Male Birds after the Breeding 

Season, Importance of the 
Turkeys, The Management of 



Dairy 



Butter, Some of the Factors that Control 

the Water Content of 
Butter, Sweet Cream 
Buttermaking on the Farm, 2nd edition. 
Cheese, Coulommier — some notes on its 

manufacture. 
Cheese Making, Cooling of Milk for 
Cheese, Cream 

Cheesemakers, Notes for Factory 
Cheese, Island of Orleans 
Cheese, Coulommier 
Cheese and Butter, Cream 
Cheese Factory and Creamery Plans, with 

Specifications. 
Cold Storage Act, 1907, as amended in 

1909, and Regulations. 



Cow Testing, Good Reasons for 

Cows, Profits from Dairy 

Cow Testing, with some Notes on the 

Sampling and Testing of Milk. 
Cow Testing, Notes on 
Creamery Cold Storage Bonuses. 
Cream, Care of for Buttermaking. 
Creameries, Cold Storage for 
Dairy Legislation. 

Dairy' Industry Act and Regulations, The 
Dairying and Cold Storage. 
Dairying in Canada, Progress of 
Ice, The Use of on the Farm. 
Milk Test Act, The 
Milk Production in Canada. 
Milk, Cream. 



Orchard and Garden 

Apples for the Canadian Northwest, 

Progress in the Breeding of Hardy 
Apple Dealers in Manitoba, Saskatchewan 

and Alberta, and also in Kenora and 

Keewatin: A List of Wholesale and 

Retail 



Cabbage and Cauliflower Culture. 
Co-operation and Fruit Growing. 
Fruits, Small 
Fruit Industry, The 

Fruits, The Preservation of for Exhibition 
Purposes. 



239 



Orchard and Garden — Continued 



TITLE 

Fruit Trees, Protection of from Mice and 

Rabbits, and Care of Injured Trees. 
Fruits, Vegetables, and Ornamental Plants. 

How to protect from Insects and v j 

Fungous Diseases. 
Garden, The Vegetable 
Grapes, Growing for Home Use. 
Garden, Home Vegetable, and a Patriotic 

Garden Competition. 
Hot Beds and Cold Frames, How to make 

and use 
Home Lot, Planning the 
Homes, Beautiful, and How the Farmer 

may make them. 
Horticulture, Division of, Summary of 

Results, 1913. 
Horticulture, 1914, Summary of Results. 



TITLE 

Inspection and Sale Act, Amendment to, 

1913, as affecting Fruit, and regulations 

thereunder. 
Medicinal Plants and their Cultivation 

in Canada. 
Orchards, Renovation of Neglected , 
Perennials tested in the Arboretum and 

Botanic Garden at the Exp. Farm, 

Ottawa: List of Herbaceous 
Plum Culture. 

Potato Growing in the Maritime Provinces. 
Potato, The 

Roses, Hardy — Their Culture in Canada. 
Strawberry Culture. 
Tomatoes, The Outlook for Canadian in 

Great Britain. 
Tomato Culture. 
Top-Grafting. 



Insects and Plant Diseases 



Apple Scab . 

Army- Worm, The 

Chinch Bug in Ontario, The 

Cutworms and their Control. 

Flea Beetles and their Control. 

Fly, The Large Larch Saw 

Fly, The Hessian, and the Western Wheat- 
stem Saw-fly. 

Insects, Pests, and Diseases Destructive 
to Vegetation — Legislation in Canada 
to prevent the Introduction and Spread 
of, with Regulations regarding the 
Importation of Vegetation into Canada. 

Insect and Pest Act, Regulations under the 
Destructive, governing the Importation, 
Sale, Shipment, and Exportation of the 
Common or Irish Potato. 



Insect Conditions in British Columbia, 

Preliminary Survey of 
Locusts, Control of in Eastern Canada. 
Plant Diseases of Southern Ontario. 
Potato Diseases Transmitted by the Use 

of Unsound Seed Potatoes. 
Potato Canker. 
Potato Scab. 

Potatoes, Powdery Scab of 
Potato Diseases, Control of 
Smut Diseases of Cultivated Plants. 
Strawberry Root Weevil in B.C., The 
Tent Caterpillars. 
Trees, Plants, and other Nursery Stock, 

Instructions to Importers of into 

Canada. 



Miscellaneous 



Agricultural Instruction Act and' Explana- 
tory Speech by the Minister of Agri- 
culture. 

Bee-Keeping in Canada. 

Bees, Facts about 

Bulletin of Foreign Agricultural Intelli- 
gence (Monthly). 

Experimental Farms, The Work of the 

Experimental Farms and Stations, A 
Guide to 

Farms, Dominion Experimental, A Review 
1886-1912. 



Farm Products: Food and Clothing 
Materials, their formation and com- 
position. 

Farmers! Watch your Balance in Nature's 
Bank. 

Gazette, The Agricultural, of Canada. 
(Monthly, $1.00 per year.) 

Hints, No. 1, Seasonable, March. 

Hints, No. 2, Seasonable, July, 

Lime in Agriculture. 

Manures and Fertilizers. 

Maple Sugar Industry in Canada, The 



240 



Miscellaneous — Continued 



TITLE 
Plants, Poisonous 
Potash in Agriculture. 
Publications available for Distribution, 

List of 
Soils, Western Prairie: Their Nature and 

Composition. 



TITLE 

Soils : Their Origin and Nature. Fertility : 
its Maintenance and Increase. 

Trees, the Planting and Care of Shade 

Well, The Farm 

World's Sole Manufactures of Protein, 
Fats, Carbohydrates, and Cloth Fibres, 
The 



ONTARIO DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, TORONTO 
Field Crops 

No. 228 Farm Crops; Experiments at No. 232 Field Beans. 
O.A.C. 

Live Stock 

No. 214 Sheep Raising in Ontario: Does No. 225 Swine. 
it Pay? 

Poultry 

No. 208 Farm Poultry and Egg Market- No. 217 Farm Poultry. 



ing Conditions in Ontario 
County. 



193 Tuberculosis of Fowls. 



No. 205 Dairy School Bulletin. 
11 206 Dairy School Bulletin. 
" 207 Ice-Cold Storage on the Farm 



Dairy 

No. 221 



Food Value of Milk and its 
Products. 



No. 194 Apple Orcharding. 
" 216 Box Packing of Apples. 
" 222 Currants and Gooseberries. 
" 211 Fruits Recommended for Ontario 

Planters. 
" 226 Plum Culture in Ontario. 



Orchard and Garden 

No. 210 Strawberry Culture and the 



Red Raspberry. 

230 The Cherry in Ontario. 

231 Vegetable Growing. 

184 Uses of Vegetables, Fruits and 
Honey. 



No. 227 Cherry Fruit-Flies. 
" 229 Smuts and Rusts of Grain Crops 
" 187 The Codling Moth. 



Insects and Plant Diseases 

No. 219 The San Jose and Oyster-Shell 
Scales. 
" 158 Insects and Fungus Diseases 
Affecting Fruit Trees. 



Miscellaneous 

No. 174 Farm Underdrainage, does it No. 234 Co-operative Marketing Associ- 



Pay? 
175 Farm Drainage operations. 
178 Character and Treatment 

Swamp or Muck soils. 
188 Weeds of Ontario. 
213 Bee Diseases in Ontario. 
218 Birds of Ontario. 



of 



ations. 
208 Farm Forestry. 

223 Fertilizers. 

224 Greenhouse Construction. 
220 Lightning Rods. 

233 Natural Swarming of Bees. 



241 



MANITOBA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, WINNIPEG 
Field Crops 



TITLE 

Alfalfa in Manitoba. 
Alfalfa Inoculation. 
Barley Growing. 
Cultivation After Harvest 
Weed Control. 



TITLE 

Fodder Corn in Manitoba. 
No. 16 Hay and Pasture Crops 
Manitoba. 



for 



Live Stock 



Beef Cattle Situation. 
No. 7 Hog Raising in Manitoba. 
" 1 Horses. 

Manitoba's Hog Market. 



No. 6 Farm Poultry in Manitoba. 
Improving the Farm Egg. 



A Few Dairy Facts. 
No. 14 Care of Cream for Creameries 
" 3 Care of Milk and Cream. 



Poultry 



Dairy 

No. 



Pork Making on the Farm. 
Some Facts about Sheep. 
The Farmers' Beef Ring. 



No. 12 The Farm Flock. 



Cow Testing. 

Cream for Creameries. 



Growing Cherries in Manitoba 
Growing Plums in Manitoba. 



Orchard and Garden 

No. 5 The Farm Garden. 



Insects and Plant Diseases 



Control of Insect Pests. 
Spray Mixtures. 



A Plea for Bird Houses. 
No. 18 Bee-Keeping in Manitoba. 
11 Canning and Preserving. 

Our Friends, the Birds. 
10 Plans for Farm Buildings. 
9 Repairing Farm Equipment and 
Roads. 



Tree Pests and Cutworms. 



Miscellaneous 






Rye as a Weed Eradicator. 


No. 2 


Twelve Noxious Weeds. 


u 17 


Silo Construction and Ensilage 




Production. 


" 19 


Soil Drainage. 


nt and 


Treatment of Alkali Soils. 



SASKATCHEWAN DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, REGINA 



Growing Profitable Crops on the Drier 

Lands of Saskatchewan. 
Summerfallow. 
Tillage of Prairie Land. 
Tillage of Stubble Land. 
Corn Growing in Saskatchewan. 



Seed Grain, Seed Treatment and Seeding. 

Hints to Flax Growers. 

Varieties of Small Grains. 

Alfalfa in Saskatchewan. 

Alfalfa Seed Production. 

Winter Rye. 



242 



ALBERTA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, EDMONTON 



TITLE 

Vegetable Bulletin. 
Potato Bulletin. 
Successful Poultry Raising. 
Bulletins No. 1 to 5 on Swine. 
Meat Curing on the Farm. 
Weeds of Alberta. 
Sheep Bulletin. 



TITLE 

Successful Farmers in Alberta. 
Live Stock and Mixed Farming. 
Co-operative Marketing of Eggs. 
Land and Colonization in Alberta. 
Opportunities in Alberta. 
Guide to Peace River Country. 



BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, VICTORIA 



No. 40 



No. 



64 
32 
67 



No. 55 



Alfalfa. 

Clover Fodder. 
Corn. 



Angora and Milch Goats. 
Control of Tuberculosis. 
Feeding and Management of 
Dairy Cattle (ready shortly). 



Field Crops 

No. 61 
11 62 

Live Stock 

No. 60 



Field-crop Competitions, 1914-15' 
Field-crop Competitions,1914-15: 
Boys' and Girls' 

Hog Raising. 

Stock Breeders' Directory. 



Poultry 



British Columbia Poultry 

Breeders' Directory. 
Care and Marketing of Eggs. 
Construction of F r e s h-a i r 

Brooders. 
Keeping Poultry Free from Lice. 
Management of Geese. 
Management of Turkeys. 

Dairy 
The Care of Milk and Cream. 



No. 49 
" 39 

" 63 

11 26 



Market Poultry. 

Natural and Artificial Brooding 

and Incubating. 
Poultry-house Construction. 
Poultry-keeping on a City Lot. 
Practical Poultry-raising. 
Tuberculosis in Poultry. 



Orchard and Garden 



No. 33 



Cabbage, Celery and Tomato 

Production. 
Commercial Onion Culture. 
Commercial Potato Culture. 
Culture of Small Fruits in the 

Coast Sections. 
Farm Storages for Fruits and 

Vegetables. 
Fertilizers for Fruits and Vege- 
tables. 
Fruit Growing Possibilities, 

Skeena River. 
The Home Vegetable Garden for 
. Interior Sections. 
Methods of Fruit Picking and 

Handling. 
Orchard Cultivation and Cover 

Crops. 



Orchard Intercrops. 

Packing Orchard Fruits. 

Planting Plans and Distances. 

Practical Irrigation. 

Progress and Prospects in Fruit 

and Vegetable Growing. 
Propagation and Selection of 

Nursery Stock. 
Potato Recipe Book. 
Pruning Fruit Trees. 
Selection of Orchard Sites and 

Soils. 
Spray Calendar. 
Sprays and Spraying. 
Thinning Tree-fruits. 
Varieties of Fruit recommended 

for Commercial Planting. 



243 



Insects and Plant Diseases 



TITLE 

No. 68 Diseases and Pests of Cultivated 
Plants (ready shortly). 
Fire-blight (Bacillus amylovorus, 
Burrill). 



TITLE 

Fungous Diseases of Orchard and 

Garden. 
Insects Injurious to Orchard. 



Miscellaneous 



No 


. 42 




54 


H 


30 


" 


44 



Apiculture. 

British Columbia Women's Hand- 
book (1913-14). 
Gardening on a City Lot. 
Guide to Bee-keeping. 
Irrigation. 



Seed Improvement. 
Root-seed Growing. 
The Use of Agricultural Lime. 
Women's Institute Quarterly, 

1916. 
Wild Oats. 



" 35 Place and Purpose of Family Life. No. 66 Silos and Silage. 



36 Preparation of Food. 



Report of Markets Commissioner. 



QUEBEC DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, QUEBEC 

The following are published in English: — 
By the Department: 



Plans of Cheese and Butter Factories. 
List of Cheese and Butter Factories. 
The Production and Preparation of Pork 

for Market. 
Drainage Plans for Farmers. 
Culture of Fruit Trees. 



By Macdonald College: — 
The Farmer's Vegetable Garden. 
Farm Poultry. 
The Milk Supply of Montreal. 



NOVA SCOTIA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, TRURO 



1. Articles on Soils, Soil Cultivation and 

Crops of Nova Scotia. 

2. Articles on Sheep Raising in Nova 

Scotia. 

3. Articles on Dairying in Nova Scotia. 

4. Articles on Swine Breeding in Nova 

Scotia. 



5. Articles on Gardening in Nova Scotia. 

6. Articles on Horse Breeding in Nova 

Scotia. 

7. Articles on Poultry Raising in Nova 

Scotia. 



NEW BRUNSWICK DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, FREDERICTON 

Field Crops 

Field Crops and Soil Management. 



Live Stock 

Improvement of Live Stock. 
244 



Poultry 



Fattening and Marketing of Poultry. 
Opportunities in Poultry Culture in N.B. 



Poultry House Construction. 
The Baby Chick. 



Orchard and Garden 



Establishment of Apple Orchards and their 
Care up to the Tenth Year. 



The Renovation and Top-Grafting of Old 
Trees and Orchard Spraying Campaign. 
Spraying the Apple Orchard. 



Insects and Plant Diseases 



Apple Tree Borers. 
Brown-tail and Gypsy Moths. 
Chief Insecticides and Fungicides 
Orchard and Garden Crops. 



The Forest-Tent Caterpillar. 
Powdery Scab of the Potato. 



for 



Miscellaneous 



Home-mixed Fertilizers. 

Agricultural Education, Suggestions for 

Teachers. 
A Little Talk with the Baby's Mother. 
An Appeal to School Garden Teachers. 
Call of The Land. 

Circular No. 1 — Arbor Day Observance. 
Education for Agriculture. 
Food and Diet. 
Homes and How to Make Them 

Attractive. 



Home Economics as Applied to the Choice 

and Preparation of Foods. 
Nature Study and Agricultural Course for 

Public Schools. 
Notes on Bee-Keeping. 
Schools Gardens, Instructions to Teachers. 
The School Garden — Its Purposes — Its 

Care during Vacation. 
The Preservation and Care of Food. 
Uses of Fruits in the Household. 



245 



INDEX 



Page 

To the Farmers of Canada, Hon. Martin Burrell, Minister of Agriculture 3 

Thanksgiving in England for Canadian Crops 4 

THE WAR AND FINANCE: 

Extracts from the Budget Speech of Sir Thomas White, Minister of Finance 5 

The National Income and Expenditure of the United Kingdom 7 

The Capital and Income of the British Empire 8 

The Nation's Need, British Bankers' Manifesto 10 

Cost of the War 12 

Belligerents' Borrowings 12 

Produce More; Save More, Sir Thomas White 13 

Trade of Canada; Summary for 1914, 1915 and 1916 13 

Canada's Foreign Indebtedness 14 

PRODUCTION IN 1915: 

The Farmers' Response, C. C. James 15 

How the Provinces Responded 16 

Saskatchewan's Big Year 17 

Alberta's Big Wheat Crop 18 

A Great Change 18 

Canada's Dairy Industry in 1915 19 

Field Crops of Canada in 1915 19 

Wheat Crops of Canada, 1910-15 21 

Wheat Exportable Surplus, 1915 21 

Field Crops of the United States, 1915 22 

Field Crops of England and Wales, 1915 23 

PRODUCTION IS CANADA'S DUTY WHILE EMPIRE IS AT WAR: 

Extracts from Addresses by Sir Thomas White 24 

Our Country's Need, C. C. James w 25 

The Farmer in 1916, M. Cumming 25 

We Must Have a Big Crop for 1916 26 

Patriotic Production 27 

The Situation in Manitoba, George Batho 28 

The Call of 1916, W. E. Scott 29 

Prospects in West, George Lane 29 

Fall Wheat and Fall Ploughing, acreage of 30 

FOOD SUPPLIES OF THE UNITED KINGDOM ...... 31 

Meat Consumption in 32 

Farm Products imported by— 1914, 1915 32 

Increase in Values of Foods imported by, — 1914, 1915 34 

Britain's Food Imports in War Time 35 

Big Purchases in United States 35 

Other Sources of Supplies » 35 

Canada's Share 36 

Values of Canadian Agricultural Exports to United Kingdom and United 

States 37 

246 



CROP PRODUCTION: Page 

Soil Cultivation, J. H. Grisdale 38 

Crop Rotation, J. H. Grisdale 42 

Winter Preparation on the Prairies, J. H. Grisdale 45 

Seed Time Suggestions for the Prairies, J. H. Grisdale 46 

Field Crops in Manitoba, T. J. Harrison 48 

Some Timely Hints, S. A. Bedford 50 

Saskatchewan Crop-Growers' Plans in War Time, John Bracken 51 

Preparation of Seed Bed for Oats in Saskatchewan, M. J. Tinline 52 

Rate of Seeding in Alberta, G. H. Hutton 53 

Instances of What Good Cultivation will do 53 

Six Reasons Against the One-Crop System 54 

Just Once More, M. Cumming 54 

Growing Potatoes on Sandy Soils, A. L. Gibson 55 

War Against Insect Pests, C. Gordon Hewitt 57 

Methods of Insect Control, C. Gordon Hewitt 58 

What Good Rotation Will Do 59 

Acre Profit Competitions in Ontario, C. F. Bailey 59 

GOOD SEED: 

Reject the Unfit 61 

The Seed Situation, Geo. H. Clark 61 

The Production of High Class Seed in Canada, L. H. Newman 64 

Cereals; Recommended Varieties and Their Characteristics, Chas. E. 

Saunders 64 

What Varieties Shall I Sow, results of Co-operative Experiments in Ontario 66 

Rot-resistant Varieties of Potatoes 67 

How Saskatchewan Grain-Growers may do their "Bit" in 1916, G. H. 

Cutler 67 

Importance of the Fanning Mill 69 

Loss from Grain Smut 70 

Money in Alsike 70 

FERTILITY AND FERTILIZERS: 

The Importance of Humus, from Dr. F. T. Shutt before the Committee 

on Agriculture 71 

The Value of Manure, from Dr. F. T. Shutt before the Committee on 

Agriculture 71 

The Value of Clover, from Dr. F. T. Shutt, before the Committee on 

Agriculture . . 72 

The Profitable Use of Fertilizers, from Dr. F. T. Shutt, before the Committee 

on Agriculture 72 

Inoculation of Legumes 73 

How Much Fertilizer? M. Cumming 74 

Lime, R. Harcourt 74 

Experiments with Lime in Nova Scotia, J. M. Trueman 76 

The War and Fertilizers 77 

The Potash Famine 77 

Fluctuations in Cost of Fertilizer Materials 78 

Canadian Fertilizer Exports and Imports 79 

Farm Drainage, W. H. Day 79 

Traction Ditching Machines 81 

The Cost of Tile Drainage, W. W. Hubbard 81 

247 



THE LIVE STOCK INDUSTRY: Page 

The Live Stock Industry, H. S. Arkell 83 

The Empire's Share in the Meat Trade 91 

The Present Opportunity for Canadian Stockmen, John Bright 92 

The Horse Industry, John Bright 94 

Legislation Affecting Horse Breeding 97 

The Necessity for Increasing our Herds and Flocks, James Audley 98 

Special Assistance to the Live Stock Industry, John Bright 100 

The Swine Industry and the British Market, G. E. Day 102 

Live Stock in Manitoba, F. S. Jacobs 103 

Quality in Live Stock, Wm. A. Munro 104 

Reducing Cost of Production — Grain Crops; Pork, G. H. Hutton 105 

The Swine Industry in Quebec, H. Nagant 106 

The Production of Veal, H. Nagant '107 

Mutual Confidence as a Factor in Increased Production of Live Stock, 

A. P. Westervelt .... 107 

Beef Cattle, numbers of, by Provinces : . . . 108 

Live Stock, numbers of, Ontario 109 

Live Stock, numbers of, Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta 109 

Mixed Farming in the West 110 

Prices realized in United States for Beef Cattle from Saskatchewan and 

Alberta 110 

Breeding and Beef Profits 110 

THE DAIRYING INDUSTRY: 

The Dairying Industry, J- A. Ruddick 112 

Cheese and Butter Prices at Montreal 1914-1916 117 

A Message to Ontario Dairymen, H. H. Dean 118 

Notes on Dairying in Eastern Ontario, G. G. Publow 119 

Dairying in Ontario in 1915, Frank Herns 120 

Manitoba Dairy Products, F. S. Jacobs 120 

Canadian Dairy Records, Chas. F. Whitley 121 

Assistance in Cow Testing 123 

What One Farmer has Done 123 

A Great Cheese Year 124 

THE POULTRY INDUSTRY: 

The Egg and Poultry Situation in Canada, W. A. Brown 125 

The Profit-Making Hen 127 

Improving Ontario's Egg Production, W. R. Graham 127 

Quebec's Opportunity in Poultry Raising, M. A. Jull 128 

Selecting Poultry for Efficiency, M. A. Jull 129 

Prospects for Poultry in Manitoba, F. S. Jacobs 130 

Poultry in Western Canada; B.C. Laying Contest 131 

SPECIAL CROPS: 

Canadian Sugar Statistics 133 

From Sugar Beet to White Granulated Sugar, Dr. Michael Potvliet r . 133 

Sugar, a Canadian Product, C. H. Houson 134 

Statistics of World's Sugar Production and Consumption 136 

Honey Production, F. W. L. Sladen 137 

The Maple Sugar Industry, Jos. H. Lefebvre 138 

The Flax Shortage, James A. McCracken 140 

Production of Flax in Ontario 141 

248 



SPECIAL CROPS— Continued. Page 

Flaxseed or Linseed; Imports and Exports. 142 

Germany needs Fats 143 

Fruit Production during the War, F. H. Grindley 143 

Fruit Losses from Insects in Ontario 144 

Beans, J. O. Laird 145 

Beans, British Imports of 146 

Beans, A Cash Crop 147 

Peas, Shortage of 147 

Onions, S. C. Johnston 147 

Tobacco; the 1915 Crop 149 

Dried Vegetables 150 

O.P.V. Silage for the Maritime Provinces, John M. Trueman 151 

Root House Construction in Alberta, S. G. Carlyle 151 

WHEAT AND THE WAR: 

The Course of Events — Ocean Freights and Prices — Statistical Position — 

Future Prospects, T. K. Doherty 153 

How Australia is Marketing its Wheat 177 

The Wheat Crop in Russia, W. Kotchetkov 178 

Farm Storage of Grain, E. A. Howes 184 

BACKYARD AND VACANT-LOT GARDENING 185 

THRIFT— THE NECESSITY FOR PUBLIC AND PRIVATE ECONOMY .... 188 

Economy in the Home 193 

What Kind of Apples to Buy, D. Johnson 195 

Cheese, The Food Value of 196 

The Canning of Poultry, Dr. R. Barnes 196 

The Ben Davis Apple, Peter McArthur 197 

Household Efficiency, Miss M. U. Watson 197 

Avoid Waste, Miss M. B. Philp 198 

Household Accounts, Miss M. B. Philp 199 

Patriotic Purchasing 201 

Give Preference to Canadian-Grown Fruit, D. Johnson 203 

Use Canadian Fruit, R. M. Winslow 204 

Prices of Food Products — Canada, Great Britain, United States, Germany, 

Austria 205 

Germany's Food 206 

WOMEN AND THE WAR: 

Appeal of an English School-girl; British Women and the War; The Women of 
Australia; Gives all her Boys to the Cause; He saw a Woman Ploughing; 
Women of Montenegro; Italian Peasant Women; Edith Cavell — Two Opinions 

210-213 

THE CALL TO THE COLOURS: 

Provisions of the Militia Act 214 

Enlistment, Facts regarding 214 

The Path of Fire 215 

The "Listening Post" 216 

A Letter from France 216 

In the Trenches; Jam replaces Butter, Sugar for Soldiers; Newspapers and 

Magazines for the Front 218-219 

249 



PATRIOTIC AND RELIEF WORK: Page 

Canadian Patriotic Fund 220 

Canadian Red Cross Society » 222 

British Red Cross 223 

Belgian Relief Fund r . 223 

Belgian Relief Work 223 

French Relief (Secours National) 224 

Poland 225 

Serbian Relief 226 

National Committee of Women for Patriotic Service 226 

Canadian Indians: Patriotism and Production 226 

The Blue Cross 227 

MISCELLANEOUS: 

Education and the War 228 

A Creed for Country Boys and Girls, G. C. Creelman 228 

Good Roads, One of Canada's Greatest Needs, W. A. McLean 229 

Shipping and Ocean Freights 231 

Russia's Agriculture; Agriculture in France; India 2337 234 

Schemes to Defraucf Farmers 234 

Losses to Cattle through Bruises 235 

Equivalents for the Metric System 236 

Farm Labourers and Domestics, Admission to Canada of 236 

Currencies of Leading Countries 237 

List of Bulletins available for distribution — Dominion and Provincial Depart- 
ments of Agriculture 238-245 



250 



UNIVBBSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY 
BERKELEY 



THIS BOOK IS DUE ON THE LAST DATE 
STAMPED BELOW 

^n.^ ° ks ? 0t re t"ned on time are subject to a fine of 




TU 1441b 




C3A3 




UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY